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WIP Standard
2014-05-09
The information provided in SAE AIR825/6 applies to On Board Oxygen Generating Systems (OBOGS) - Molecular Sieve, that utilize the ability of molecular sieve materials by using Pressure Swing Adsorption Process (PSA) to separate and concentrate oxygen in the product gas from the surrounding air, respectively air provided by any compressor or by the aircraft engine (so called: Bleed Air), and to provide this oxygen enriched air or product gas as supplemental oxygen for breathing gas supply of crew and passengers onboard aircraft. The distribution system and the provided oxygen concentration have to fulfill the respective FAA/JAA regulations. Equipment using this technology to provide supplemental oxygen for breathing gas supply of crew and passengers onboard aircraft, the suitable breathing gas oxygen partial pressure or oxygen concentration requirements are specified in AIR825/2 and the oxygen purity requirements in AS8010. NOTE: OBOGS has never been certified for commercial aircraft. The FAR/JAR 25 as well as FAR 121/JAR-OPS need to be reviewed and if necessary amended prior to introduction of OBOGS.
WIP Standard
2014-05-08
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) will provide general guidelines and procedures for servicing and maintaining oxygen systems. Such methods and procedures may be applied to gaseous, liquid, chemical and portable oxygen systems. These guidelines and recommendations will be provided to engineering and maintenance personnel for airlines, modification centers and third party maintenance contractors, to be used while performing maintenance on oxygen systems and components.
Magazine
2014-05-08
Executive Viewpoints Off-highway industry executives write about some of the challenges and trends facing the industry over the next 20 years, and the innovation that will be required to stay competitive and sustainable. Annual product guide A product roundup showcasing the newest and most innovative supplier technologies in a variety of areas such as Powertrain & Energy, Electronics, Hydraulics, Materials, Testing & Simulation, Body and Chassis, and Interiors.
Standard
2014-05-01
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782. Optical measurement procedures for airborne head up displays (HUDs) can be found in ARP5287.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all liquid-to-gas, liquid-to-liquid, gas-to-gas, and gas-to-liquid heat exchangers used in vehicle and industrial cooling systems. This document outlines the test to determine durability characteristics of the heat exchanger from vibration-induced loading.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design and location of flight attendant stations, including emergency equipment installations at or near such stations, so as to enable the flight attendant to function effectively in emergency situations, including emergency evacuations. Recommendations regarding design of flight attendant stations apply to all such stations; recommendations regarding location apply to those stations located near or adjacent to floor level exits.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Kuldeepak Mahto, K.V. Balaji, A. Zainulabedin
Abstract The present paper discusses about a glossy polypropylene composition which can replace ABS and PC-ABS in the aesthetic interior and exterior bezels of a car with good stiffness and high flow. High Melt flow index of this composition minimizes the number of gate locations thereby drastically improving the aesthetics. Usage of Special Additives, and High Aspect ratio talc reduced the density of this composition as compared to a conventional PP compound. The combined benefits of lower weight, adequate stiffness, good gloss, scratch resistance and weathering resistance in the unpainted form makes this composition attractive for Interior and exterior aesthetic bezels. Again, this composition is cost-effective thereby reducing the part costs of interior and exterior bezels significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Tejas Kalekar, Carsten Stechert
Abstract This paper presents the modeling results of an innovative i-cool system for controlling the cabin temperature of a standalone car facing the solar energy from the sun. Project work indentifies the best possible phase change material (PCM) to be used for i-cool system is n-Heneicosane which shows maximum total heat flux is 44189 W/m2. From all the PCMs n-Heneicosane, n-Eicosane and n-Nonadecane that were shortlisted in selection criteria shows 600 sec to achieve inner surface temperature equal to the outer surface for a metropolitan car. While without use of PCM, the metropolitan car takes 320 sec & total maximum heat flux is 32900 W/m2. The final selection of n-Heneicosane shows 34.25% efficiency over conventional car.
Article
2014-04-24
Johnson Controls’ FreshPer4mance coating for fabrics repels dirt and liquid from automotive seats and protects passengers from microbes and static.
Article
2014-04-22
It incorporates innovative technologies for off-road use including capability for driver to operate vehicle from outside, enhanced terrain response system, and seemingly transparent hood to see road surface under vehicle.
Article
2014-04-16
The all-new sports car poses a crucial question: Is it too clever by half? Dr. Andre Ebner, who heads the company’s development of onboard systems, argues very strongly that it is not.
WIP Standard
2014-04-16
This SAE recommended Practice is intended for use in testing and evaluating the approximate performance of engine cooling fans. This performance would include flow, pressure, and power. This flow and pressure information would then be used to estimate the engine cooling performance. This power consumption would then be used to estimate net engine power per SAE J1349. The procedure also provides a general description of equipment necessary to measure the approximate fan performance. The test conditions in the procedure generally will not match those of the installation for which cooling and fuel consumption information is desired. The performance of a given fan depends on the geometric details of the installation, including the shroud and its clearance. These details should be duplicated in the test setup if accurate performance measurement is expected. The performance at a given air density and speed also depend on the volumetric flow rate, or the pressure rise across the fan, since these two parameters are mutually dependent.
Standard
2014-04-14
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes design guidance and photometric values for adequate cargo compartment and cargo access lighting systems for ground handling. The adoption of a standard set of illuminance values, found appropriate for the performance of the task in specified areas should expedite ground handling.
Standard
2014-04-09
This SAE Recommended Practice encompasses the significant factors which determine the effectiveness of a seat system in limiting spinal injury during vertical impacts between the rider and the snowmobile seat system. The document is intended to provide a tool for the development of safer snowmobile seats. It is recognized that the seat is only a portion of the entire vehicle protective suspension system. It is, however, usually required that the seat serve as added protection to the suspension system, since the latter may "bottom out" during a severe impact. The term "seat" refers to the occupant-supporting system not normally considered part of the vehicle suspension or frame system. In some cases, it may include more than the foam cushion. This document provides the minimum requirements for performance of a general seat system, and a description of specific means of evaluating the shock-absorbing characteristics of foam seat cushions using a specific testing procedure and a companion seat evaluation chart.
Article
2014-04-03
A new occupant-protection technology from TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. has the passenger-seat airbag deploying from the headliner instead of the dashboard. It is being launched on the Citroën C4 Cactus.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Standard covers reinforced hose, or hose assemblies, intended for conducting liquid and gaseous dichlorodifluoromethane (refrigerant 12) in automotive air-conditioning systems. The hose shall be designed to minimize permeation of refrigerant 12 and contamination of the system and to be serviceable over a temperature range of -30 to 120 °C (-22 to 248 °F). Specific construction details are to be agreed upon between user and supplier. NOTE— SAE J2064 is the Standard for refrigerant 134a hose. For refrigerant 134a use, refer to SAE J2064
Article
2014-04-01
The 2015 Chrysler 200 midsize sedan's floating center console design with pass-through storage area may have staying power beyond this Chrysler Group-first application.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Abhijit Nitin Khare, Henning Lohse-Busch, Douglas Nelson
Abstract Ambient temperature plays an important role in the operational behavior of a vehicle. Temperature variances from 20 F to 72 F to 95 F produce different operation from different HEVs, as prescribed by their respective energy management strategies. The extra variable of Climate Control causes these behaviors to change again. There have been studies conducted on the differences in operational behavior of conventional vehicles as against HEVs, with and without climate control. Lohse-Bush et al conclude that operational behavior of conventional vehicles is much more robust as compared to HEVs and that the effect of ambient temperature is felt more prominently in HEVs (1). However, HEVs cover a broad range of powertrain architectures, climate control systems, vehicle weights etc.The objective of this paper is to examine three different HEVs under three different temperature conditions, both with or without climate control, and come up with observations and trends on their energy usage and operational behavior.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matthew Klein, Shijie Tong, Jae Wan Park
Abstract Optimizing the hardware design and control strategies of thermal management systems (TMS) in battery packs using large format pouch cells is a difficult but important problem due to the limited understanding of how internal temperature distributions impact the performance and lifetime of the pack. Understanding these impacts is difficult due to the greatly varying length and time scales between the coupled phenomena, causing the need for complex and computationally expensive models. Here, an experimental investigation is performed in which a set of fixed one-dimensional temperature distributions are applied across the face of a Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) cathode lithium ion pouch cell in order to study the performance impacts. Effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV), Ohmic resistance, bulk discharge and charge resistance and instantaneous power are investigated. It is observed that temperature gradients have a negative impact on the bulk performance by lowering the OCV and also increasing the bulk discharge resistance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ehsan Samadani, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
Abstract Despite significant progress toward application of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles, there are still major concerns about the range of electric vehicles and battery life. Depending on the climate of the region where the vehicle is in use, auxiliary loads could also play a significant role on the battery performance and durability. In this paper, the effect of air conditioning (AC) load on the electric range and Li-ion battery life is evaluated. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model for the vehicle cabin is developed and integrated to a battery model. The thermodynamic model takes the ambient conditions, solar load, and the vehicle drive cycle as inputs and calculates the instantaneous cabin temperature and humidity. The battery model, which represents a Li-on battery pack installed on a fully electrified Ford Escape 2009, consists of a voltage source in series with a lump resistance, a thermal sub-model, and a degradation sub-model to predict the battery capacity fade. At an initial cabin temperature and a desired set point, the model is capable of predicting the required cooling load and its corresponding required battery power as well as reductions in the vehicle range and battery state of health (SOH).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xuan Wang, Ge-Qun Shu, Hua Tian, Youcai Liang, Xiangxiang Wang
Abstract Currently, the thermal efficiency of vessel diesels only reaches 48∼51%, and the rest energy is rejected to the environment in forms of exhaust, cooling water, engine oil and so on. Meanwhile, energy is required when generating electricity and fresh water that are necessary for vessels. A system that combines the ORC thermal electric generation system with the single-effect evaporating desalination system simultaneously driven by waste heat of charge air is proposed. The research object was 12S90ME-C9.2 diesel engine produced by MAN corp., and a calculation model of the system is built by MATLAB. The variation of the output power, the thermal efficiency and the freshwater production with some operational parameters of the combined system are calculated and analyzed. On the other hand, under the condition of an assumed freshwater production 110.3t/d, the variation of the charge air temperature at the outlet of the desalination evaporator with some operational parameters of the system is studied in the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Youcai Liang, Gequn Shu, Hua Tian, Haiqiao Wei, Xingyu Liang, Mingru Zhao
Abstract Cogeneration system has become a valuable alternative approach for cascade waste heat recovery (WHR). In this paper, a novel electricity-cooling cogeneration system (ECCS) based on organic Rankine cycle-absorption refrigeration cycle (ORC-ARC) combined system is proposed to recover the waste heat of marine engine. ORC was adopted in the higher temperature cycle, in which alternatives D4, MDM and MM were selected as the working fluids. An ARC was adopted in the lower temperature cycle to recover the heat of the working fluid at the regenerator outlet in ORC. It aims to satisfy refrigeration requirement aboard ship, in which a binary solution of ammonia-water is used as the working pairs. Electricity output, cooling capacity, total exergy output, primary energy ratio (PER) and exergy efficiency are chosen as the objective functions. The results show that the additional cooling capacity is up to 10.9 MW, and such an ECCS has improved the exergy efficiency by 51% compared to the basic ORC.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is investigating powertrain optimizations as a part of their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. EcoCAR2 is the current three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their Plug-In Hybrid conversions of GM donated vehicles. WSU's powertrain design provides for approximately 56-64 km (35-40 miles) of electric driving before the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. When the ICE is started, the ICE traditionally goes through a cold start with the engine, transmission, and final drive all at ambient temperature. The ICE powertrain components are most efficient when warmed up to their normal operating temperature, typically around 90-100 °C. There are now some conventional vehicles currently available that employ active warm-up to recover waste heat from hot engine coolant to more quickly heat up the transmission fluid for reduced parasitic losses to improve fuel economy by approximately 2%. [1] [2] The WSU student team is investigating the improvements to fuel consumption (FC) of the ICE powertrain operation in the team's plug-in hybrid through pre-heating the ICE powertrain components before the engine is started.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ehsan Samadani, Leo Gimenez, William Scott, Siamak Farhad, Michael Fowler, Roydon Fraser
Abstract In electrified vehicle applications, the heat generated of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells may significantly affect the vehicle range and state of health (SOH) of the pack. Therefore, a major design task is creation of a battery thermal management system with suitable control and cooling strategies. To this end, the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells at various temperatures and operating conditions should be quantified. In this paper, two different commercial pouch cells for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are studied through comprehensive thermal performance tests. This study employs a fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of tests required to characterize the behavior of fresh cells while minimizing the effects of ageing. At each test point, the effects of ambient temperature and charge/discharge rate on several types of cell efficiencies and surface heat generation is evaluated. A statistical thermal ramp rate model is suggested which enables fast and accurate determination of cell surface temperature and heat generation where the vehicle is started from cold or warm environments at a range of constant currents over the entire state of charge (SOC) range.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiao Hu, Scott Stanton
Abstract Due to growing interest in hybrid and electric vehicles, li-ion battery modeling is receiving a lot of attention from designers and researchers. This paper presents a complete model for a li-ion battery pack. It starts from the Newman electrochemistry model to create the battery performance curves. Such information is then used for cell level battery equivalent circuit model (ECM) parameter identification. 28 cell ECMs are connected to create the module ECM. Four module ECMs are connected through a busbar model to create the pack ECM. The busbar model is a reduced order model (ROM) extracted from electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) results, taking into account the parasitic effects. Battery thermal performance is simulated first by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Then, a thermal linear and time-invariant (LTI) ROM is created out of CFD solution. The thermal LTI ROM is then two-way coupled with the battery pack ECM to form a complete battery pack model. Thanks to the ROM technology, such a battery pack model can finish a complete charge discharge cycle within seconds of simulation time.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Changxin Wang, Deguang Fang, Fuxiang Guo
Abstract To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear. After that, by performing order tracking analysis and spectral analysis, the 1st order rotation frequency of the driveline and the 2nd order frequency of engine were identified to be the main cause of bus floor's vibration.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sung Young Shin, Sang Dong Lee, Bong Chul Go
Abstract In terms of the responsive quality of cars, reducing the vibration of car seats is very important, as this vibration is transmitted directly to the driver. Here, a sensitivity analysis method was used to reasonably reduce the vibration of car seats at minimal cost. A laboratory test was conducted under two excitation conditions: first, vibration in idle state; second, random vibration not exceeding 100 Hz. To determine the reliability of the laboratory test, the actual vibration in idle state was simulated in a multi-axial simulation table for the idle excitation environment of cars that are sensitive to even the smallest changes in the environment. The frequencies of interest were selected by adding the sums of frequency response functions measured at the 24 nodal points of interest under the two excitation conditions. Sensitivity factors were derived at the 24 nodal points of interest and a design modification plan with relatively large sensitivity factors was suggested to reinforce the overall rigidity of the part modules containing the points of interest.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael Tschirhart, Kathleen Ku
Abstract The vehicle environment is known to be a demanding context for efficiently displaying information to the driver. Research in typography reveals some factors that influence reading performance measures, but there is limited research on the influence of typographic design elements in a driver-vehicle interface on user performance with a simulated driver task. Participants in these studies completed a set of vehicle infotainment tasks that involved a text-based item search in a custom-designed interface that employed a family of Helvetica Neue fonts, in a static environment and a driving simulator environment. Analysis of the data from the two studies reveals a modest but statistically significant effect of font on certain driving-related task performance measures. In both studies, fonts with intermediate values of character width and line thickness were associated with the best performance on a simulated driving task. The results of this study suggest that using typefaces with intermediate values of certain intrinsic design factors may serve as a simple and effective means of improving vehicle user interfaces.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jeff D. Colwell
Abstract Results from a full-scale vehicle burn test involving a 1998 compact passenger car were used to evaluate vehicle fire dynamics and how burn patterns produced during the fire correlated with important characteristics of the fire, such as the area of origin. After the fire was initiated at the air filter in the engine compartment, the fire spread locally and, once the temperature near the origin reached about 750°C, the temperature at all but one location within the engine compartment began to increase. These temperatures continued to increase for the next 6 minutes and then a temperature gradient began to develop in the passenger compartment between the ceiling and the floor. About 5 minutes after the engine compartment became fully involved, the ceiling temperature reached about 590°C and flame spread within the passenger compartment increased. Over the next 4 minutes, the passenger compartment also became fully involved. The fire then spread to the trunk and the rear wheels before self-extinguishing.
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