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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0613
Donghong Ning, James Coyte, Hai Huang, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Heavy duty vehicles suffer from detrimental vibrations which have significant influence to the operator’s comfort, health and safety. Especially, long term exposures to vibration with a frequency range between 0.5 and 10Hz will severely damage the driver’s backbone. Tires, chassis suspension and seat suspension are three traditional methods to isolate vehicles vibration, but it is generally difficult to modify the parameters of tires and chassis suspension, even many approaches are proposed for the performance of chassis suspension. On the other hand, the seat suspension system is easy to modify and optimize. Therefore, seat suspension has been employed as a simple and effective method to isolate vehicle vibration transmitted to the driver’s body. Studying the vibration characteristics of seat suspension is one important step for seat suspension design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1279
Pengfei Lu, Chris Brace, Bo Hu
After years of study and improvement, turbochargers in passenger cars now generally have very high efficiency. This is advantageous, but on the other hand, due to their high efficiency, only a small proportion of the exhaust energy is needed for compressing the intake air, which means further utilization of waste heat is restricted. From this point of view, a turbo compounding arrangement has significant advantage over a turbocharger in converting exhaust energy as it is immune to the upper power demand limit of the compressor. However, with the power turbine in series with the main turbine, power losses are incurred due to the higher back pressure which increases the pumping losses. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of turbo compounding a 2.0 litres gasoline engine and seeks to draw a conclusion on whether the power produced is able to offset the increased pumping work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1457
Aditya Belwadi, Richard Hanna, Audrey Eagle, Daniel Martinez, Julie Kleinert, Eric Dahle
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the breadth of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. Previously this was addressed with the advent of advanced air bag systems, when emphasis was placed on the design and development of surrogate child restraints, which were used, in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of any child restraints. This ever-changing target puts pressure on the vehicle manufacturers to keep their vehicle seats and occupant space compatible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1608
Davide Di Battista, Marco Mauriello, Roberto Cipollone
Internal combustion engines are the most important source of propulsive energy in the transportation sector. The expectations of more efficient and performing engines have to match with environmental issues that lead to cleaner vehicles. In fact, the awareness of oil shortage and greenhouse effect has led international governments to impose energy consumption levels which reflects on CO2 emissions: this commitment adds to the emission targets (CO, HC, NOX, PM) which proceed continuously toward lower levels. All of these limits will provide a huge effort on engine and vehicle efficiency with non-negligible costs. CO2 reductions appears the most important issue and it is representing the technological future driver. A smart way match to fulfill the targets concerning CO2 emission is to recover energy usually wasted and re-use it for engine and vehicle needs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1609
Roberto Monforte, Francesco Lovuolo, Matteo Rostagno, Riccardo Seccardini, Teron Matton
New MAC Technologies: Fuel Efficiency Effect in Real Driving of the air intake flap management Authors: R. Monforte (CRF), M.M. Rostagno (CRF), R. Seccardini (CRF), F. Lovuolo (Altran) Following the development of new technologies in Vehicle Thermal Management aiming to both reducing the thermal load to be managed by the Mobile Air Conditioning and enhancing its efficiency, a prediction tool based on the AMESim platform was developed at CRF in the Interiors & Engine Systems Area dedicated to predict the effect of the implementation of sensors monitoring both the relative humidity and the CO2 concentration (taking into account passenger moisture and carbon dioxide production). This model is implemented with the usual comfort inputs (CO2 and r.H. acceptable ranges), it considers the system variables influencing the comfort and predicts the grow-up of both relative humidity and CO2 concentration in the cabin compartment in any driving cycle depending on the number of occupants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1610
Xiaomeng Shen, Gangfeng Tan, Quan Zhou, Zhongjie Yang, Min Hua
The Organic Rankine Cycle System is an effective approach for recovering the engine exhaust thermal energy. The physical characteristic of the Rankine fluid is the key factor for the capacity and the stability of the expander power output when the engine works in varies condition decided by the road and traffic conditions. In the research, the influences of the evaporator organic medium states and flow rate on the expander power output are fully analyzed for the sufficient utilization of the waste thermal energy. Firstly, the exhaust characteristics of the diesel engine were processed by the data of the bench test. Then, the integral mathematical model of the Organic Rankine Cycle was built. Based on the comparison for the 2-phrase and 3-phrase evaporator, the influence for expander output are analyzed especially emphasis on the factors of engine working condition, the flow rate, temperature and state of Rankine fluid.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1611
Wei Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Jiafan Li, Yuanqi Gao, Wei Li
When the hydraulic retarder is working in the heavy-duty vehicle, almost all the braking power is transformed into the thermal energy of the transmission oil. The spare heat removal capacity of engine’s cooling system could be taken full advantage for cooling the retarder. However, the relative long distance of the engine and the retarder increases the risky leakage of the cooling circuit. Furthermore, the development trend of heavy load and high speed vehicle directs the significant increase in the thermal load of the hydraulic retarder, which even higher than the engine power. Conventional engine cooling system could not meet the demand of the hydraulic retarder heat rejection within the same installation space. In this research, independent two-phase evaporator was adopted to strengthen the coolant heat absorption capacity from the transmission fluid at the oil outlet of the retarder by means of the vacuum flow boiling heat transfer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1604
Tianwei (Thomas) Wang, John R. Wagner
**ABSTRACT Smart thermal management systems can positively impact the performance, fuel economy, and reliability of internal combustion engines. Advanced cooling systems typically feature multiple computer controlled actuators - a three way smart valve, a variable speed pump, and a variable speed electric radiator fan(s). To investigate the contributions of these electro-mechanical devices, a scale multifunction test bench was constructed which integrated these actuators, accompanying system sensors, and a controllable engine thermal load with real time data acquisition and control hardware/software. This paper presents a series of experimental studies that focus on the engine’s thermal transient response to various actuator input control combinations. From these test results, several key conclusions can be drawn.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1606
Saroj Pradhan, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Pragalath Thiruvengadam, Marc C. Besch, Daniel Carder
Heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engines are the primary propulsion source for most heavy-duty vehicle freight movement and have been equipped with an array of aftertreatment devices to comply with more stringent emissions regulations. In light of concerns about the transportation sector's influence on climate change, legislators are introducing requirements calling for significant reductions in fuel consumption and thereby, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission over the coming decades. Advanced engine concepts and technologies will be needed to boost engine efficiencies. However, increasing the engine’s efficiency is inevitably linked to a reduction in thermal energy of the exhaust gas. Thus contributing to lower exhaust temperature of after-treatment activity, necessary for maintaining the aftertreatment system within a favorable temperature range.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1605
Hee Sang Park
Electric powered vehicles rely on electric heater to heat the cabin of the vehicle. These heaters consume electric energy from the battery and cause depletion of the vehicle's range by 20~40%. In order to extend the range of electric vehicles, we need to increase the efficiency of HVAC. EV has waste heat but the heat power is much lesser than internal combustion engine and heat source is separated physically. In order to utilize waste heat to achieve better efficiency, heat collection , heat insulation, pre-heating are necessary. Based on the new concept system, we examined the effects of fuel efficiency 1) Heat collection: Heat sources are physically separated. In order to send these waste heat to the cabin. these parts have to be on the same cooling circuit. When every heat source is in the same circuit, heat loss is problem is happed because every heat source does not emit waste heat simultaneously. Motor and inverter make waste heat EV drive.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1607
Chuen-Sen Lin, Vamshi Avadhanula, Vamsi Mokkapati, Daisy Huang, Brent Sheets
This paper presents test results of a 50 kilowatt (kW) Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system and proposed guidelines for how to effectively apply this system to the rural Alaska power industry. In rural Alaska, approximately 180 villages rely on off-grid diesel generators for power. Most of the generators have capacities of about 1 megawatt (MW) or less. In general, the average operation efficiencies are noticeably less than 40%, with the rest of the fuel energy becoming heat. If the heat is not applied for useful application, it is called waste heat. Most of the wasted heat is contained in engine exhaust and jacket fluid and eventually dissipates into the environment. For rural Alaska, waste heat for heating is most effective; in many cases, waste heat for power may be needed due to a variety of reasons.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0254
Chunjing Lin, Sichuan Xu, Zhao Li, Guofeng Chang
Design of a passive thermal management system (TMS) using composite phase change material (CPCM) in large-capacity, rectangular lithium-ion battery applications is detailed. The battery module consists of six 40Ah Li-ion cells connected in series. The passive TMS has three configurations according to the contact area between battery cell and CPCM: surrounding, direct-contacted and indirect-contacted. Physical and thermal properties (i.e. phase change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity) of CPMC were obtained by experimental methods. Specific heat capacity and heat generation rate of the battery module were measured by an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC). Thermal performances of the three kinds of passive TMSs were analyzed through 3D finite element analysis (FEA) modeling in ANSYS Fluent based on experimental measured properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0331
Sina Shojaei, Simon Robinson, Chris Chatham, Andrew McGordon, James Marco
Among the auxiliary systems in electric and hybrid electric vehicles the electric air conditioning (eAC) system causes the largest load on the high voltage battery and can significantly impact the energy efficiency and performance of the vehicle. Several design and energy management optimisation methods can be employed to reduce this impact. As part of the Energy Efficiency Workstream of UK’s High Value Manufacturing Catapult Project, new methods are being developed that allow effective management of air conditioning loads through their integration into vehicle level energy management strategies. To this end, a fully integrated vehicle model is required. As a first step, a model of a commercially available hybrid vehicle is developed which includes an eAC module based on finite control volume principles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0328
Wilko Jansen, Joe Amodeo, Sam Wakelam, Kamalesh Bhambare
The level of infotainment in today’s vehicles and the customer expectation of the functionality means a significant effort is required on thermal management of the systems. This to guarantee their full operation under all operating conditions. The worse case thermal conditions the system will get exposed to are caused by solar loading on the cabin or heat up as a result of cabin heating. The simulation of the two load cases, summer case – solar load driven and the winter case – cabin heating system driven will be discussed in current paper. The long soak conditions during these tests result in the modelling requirement for long natural convection periods. This is creating a challenge for the conventional CFD simulations in turn around time. New simulation methodology has resulted in significant speed up enabling these fully transient simulation in a reasonable turnaround time to enable programme support.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprising of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0353
Kaushal Kumar Jha, Ravi Badathala
The prime focus of automotive industries in recent times is to improve the energy efficiency of automotive subsystem and system as whole. This is being done by harvesting the waste energy, averaging the peak thermal loads using thermal energy storage (TES) materials and devices. The phase change materials (PCM) well suits the requirement of energy storage/release according to demand requirement. One such example of TES using PCM is extended automotive cabin comfort during vehicle idling and city traffics including start/stop of the engine at traffic stops. PCM as TES poses high density and capacity in thermal energy storage and release. It is due to latent heat absorption and release during phase change. Generally the latent heat of a material compare to it sensible heat is much higher, almost an order of 2. For example, latent heat of ice is almost 160 times higher than sensible heat for a kelvin temperature rise of ice. During the phase change temperature of PCM remain constant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0337
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0343
Carlo N. Grimaldi, Claudio Poggiani, Alessandro Cimarello, Matteo De Cesare, Giovanni Osbat
The CO2 emission limits for vehicles are becoming more stringent with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for improving fuel economy. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), adopted to measure all new internal combustion engine emissions in the European Union, is performed on cold vehicle, starting at a temperature of 22°C ± 2°C. So the cold-start efficiency of internal combustion engine is becoming of predominant interest. Since at the cold start the lubricant oil viscosity is higher than at target operating temperature, the consequently higher energy losses due to the friction losses can substantially affect the emission cycle result in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emission. A suitable thermal management system, such as an exhaust-to-oil heat exchanger, could help to raise the oil temperature more quickly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0351
Jason A. Lustbader, Cory Kreutzer, Steven Adelman, Skip Yeakel, John Zehme
Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. Idling of the truck during a rest period represents a zero freight efficiency condition and is partially done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) CoolCab project aims to reduce HVAC loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings from new technologies provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0352
Kuo-Huey Chen, Jeffrey Bozeman, Mingyu Wang, Debashis Ghosh, Edward Wolfe, Sourav Chowdhury
The HVAC system imposes the largest accessory load on an electric vehicle to meet comfort heating and cooling needs. Thus the HVAC energy consumption can have a major impact on the driving range of a pure electric vehicle (EV) or an extended range electric vehicle (EREV such as Chevy Volt). Traditionally, the vehicular HVAC system is designed to cool and heat the entire cabin to provide passenger comfort. Localized cooling and heating, on the other hand, focus on keeping the passenger comfortable by creating a micro climate around the passenger. Such a system can easily adapt to the number of passengers in the car and enables zonal control. The net impact of the localized cooling and heating system is that equivalent comfort can be achieved at a reduced HVAC energy consumption rate. The present paper reports on a study for an EREV implementation of a localized cooling/heating system using thermoelectric (TE) nozzle devices to target the occupant’s chest, face, lap and foot areas.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1695
Satoki Tada, Takahiro Nagai, Naoki Shioda, Hirofumi Fujiu, Shunji Kumagai, Hideaki Abe, Yukihiro Isoda, Yoshikazu Shinohara
As an appropriate material for automotive thermoelectric generators, which directly convert waste heat of exhaust gas into electricity, we have developed Mg2(Si1-xSnx) thermoelectric materials with high thermoelectric performance. The performance is evaluated with the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT), and the ZT has been improved through the development of the fabrication process and the investigation of the optimum composition and dopant element. A novel liquid-solid reaction synthesis method incorporating hot-pressing for the sample fabrication was effective in reducing the thermal conductivity. The n-type Mg2(Si0.50Sn0.50) doped with Sb attained a high ZT of 1.1 at 620 K. The p-type Mg2(Si0.25Sn0.75) doped with Li and Ag simultaneously achieved a ZT of 0.3 at 600 K. The effective maximum power of n-type thermoelectric element and that of p-type were calculated with the thermoelectromotive force and the mean resistivity.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0065
Kong Byungseok
Abstract In order to reduce the cost and weight of the soft-foamed instrument-panel (IP), we developed the new IP which is made by the 2 kinds of injection methods. One is the compression-injection with back-foamed foil inserted, and the other is two-shot injection with the passenger-side airbag (PAB) door. We named it ‘IMX-IP’ which means that all components (‘X’) of the IP with different resins are made In a Mold. The development procedure of this technology was introduced (1) Design of the new injection mold through TRIZ application, (2) Optimization of the injection conditions and back foamed-foil for minimizing the foam loss and thickness deviation, (3) Development of CAE method for two-shot injection compression, (4) Reliability performance test and application to the mass production. The reduction of the processes through the two-shot molding with back foamed-foil inserted made it possible to enhance soft feeling on IP and reduce the cost and weight simultaneously.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0018
Dongwon Yeon
Abstract There are some problems “windows fog up a lot” for ventilation system. We have Test Development Procedure to prevent the fog problems. But, Many fog problems occurred in the cars that we made. So in this paper, new ventilation system is needed and developed. The Smart Ventilation System automatically controls indoor air quality even though the blower motor is off. There are two sensors that is used for AutoDefogSensor system and CO2 CONTROL system.. The sensor is on when blower motor and heater control is off. We use these signals and make new ventilation logics. We evaluate this system in chamber & '13 winter test in USA.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0030
Aditya Mulemane, Lachlan Hurst, Alex Fraser, Jarrod Sinclair
Using conventional solvers, the simulation of a complex and large system such as the automotive paint ovens can be quite time consuming - of the order of a several weeks or even months. A reduced order computational model of the oven that can predict thermal distribution quicker is useful in performing optimization studies and in directing finer design changes to the oven and the car body. This research focuses on the development of such a lumped capacitance thermal model (defined here in as the reduced order model: ROM) for predicting the heat of curing of an object that is inside an industrial oven. Essentially, the heat transfer modes are computed through a set of linear ordinary differential equations, by conceptualising the the physical object is conceptualised as a series of inter-connecting nodes that are linked by thermal resistors.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0046
Zhengqing Liu, Mohammad Fard, Reza Jazar
Abstract Characterizing the acoustic properties of sound-absorbing materials is costly and time consuming. The acoustic material database helps the automotive designers design their interior trims in accordance with target level for interior noise. In this paper, a two-microphone impedance tube was used to measure the normal sound absorption coefficient. The main parameters that are used in the theoretical model for interior noise level assessment are investigated. These parameters include thickness, airflow resistivity, porosity, tortuosity, viscous and thermal characteristics length. The measured results have been validated by the theoretical models. The validation of normal sound absorption coefficient was found to be in agreement with its corresponding measurement data. Finally, the sensitivity of the sound absorption coefficient which is related to the physical properties mentioned above is further analyzed.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0011
Sok Ratnak, Kohei Katori, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho, Kei Yoshimura, Nakama Kenjiro
Abstract The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0034
Mingyu Choi
Abstract The need for a voice recognition system in the automotive industry is growing day by day. In our current voice recognition system, Hyundai's ‘Blue-Link’ and KIA's ‘UVO’ are developed with Microsoft which is a global software company. The system launched domestic market recently. Since usage of voice recognition system are increasing, research and development of Voice Recognition system also increase very fast. Research is mostly focus on increase recognition rate of speech. However there is no research of interior layout considering voice recognition usability. So in this research, we discover interior design factors for maximizing voice recognition usability.
2015-02-20
Standard
J2763_201502
This SAE Standard covers the Mini-Shed testing methodology to measure the rate of refrigerant loss from an automotive air conditioning (A/C) system. This SAE procedure encompasses both front and rear air conditioning systems utilizing refrigerants operating under sub-critical conditions.
2015-02-16
WIP Standard
J3091
This SAE standard applies to any and all Flushing Fluids intended for aftermarket use to clean and decontaminate sections of the refrigerant circuit within a vehicle A/C system. This standard provided testing and acceptance criteria for determining minimum performance and compatibility of Flushing Fluids with A/C system materials and components, which may be intended for use in servicing vehicle A/C systems. This standard will only indicate a Flushing Fluid's minimum performance criteria, and that it is chemically compatible with materials used in the A/C system. It is not the intent of this document to identify requirements for ultraviolet leaks detection dyes, as such dyes must meet the requirements of SAE J 2297. It is not the intention of this document to identify requirements for system additives, as such additives must meet the requirements of SAE J 2670.
2015-02-12
Standard
J2851_201502
This standard covers equipment used to remove contaminated R-134a and/or R-1234yf refrigerant from Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) systems.
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