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1975-01-01
Standard
ARP695B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides design and installation criteria intended to enhance overall safety by mitigating exposure of cabin crew and passengers to risks from: a. Routine use of galley systems. b. Galley components or equipment becoming dislodged under routine or abnormal operating conditions and under survivable crash or ditching conditions. c. Malfunctions of, or defects in, a galley system or associated galley equipment. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice to specify the specific designs or design methods to be followed in the accomplishment of stated objectives.
1974-12-01
Standard
AIR825A
This report provides information on the design and use of aircraft oxygen systems. It explains the physiological oxygen requirements of the human body in both a normal environment and in an hypoxic environment. It includes an overview of the continuous flow, demand and pressure demand, and liquid oxygen systems. A basic understanding of how each system operates is then specifically addressed in its own titled section. The charts, tables, and schematics provide a specific example of a theoretical oxygen system design and the calculations showing how that system would meet the regulations established by the FAR's. A comprehensive overview of the theoretical oxygen requirements of the human body at altitude is also provided. A detailed list of specifications and standards applicable to aircraft oxygen systems is included.
1974-09-01
Standard
J1048_197409
This standard specifies the symbols, that is, conventional signs, with which certain controls, indicators and tell-tales of a road vehicle are to be provided in order to insure their identification and facilitate their utilization. It also indicates the colors of possible optical tell-tales which warn the driver of the operation or malfunctioning of the devices and equipment connected to the corresponding controls. This standard is applicable to those controls which are fitted on the instrument panel, or in the immediate vicinity of the driver.
1974-08-01
Standard
AIR1176
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) specifies work area details, cleaning methods, test methods, and specifications for oxygen clean parts and packaging materials.
1974-07-01
Standard
AS8003
This Aerospace Standard covers all automatic pressure altitude code generating equipment manufactured under this standard and complying with the requirements specified herein up to the maximum range of pressure altitude as indicated on the equipment nameplate. In those cases where the code generating equipment forms part of an aircraft system, such as a pressure altimeter, an air data computer or an ATC Transponder, this standard applies only to the code generating equipment as defined in paragraph 1.2.
1974-05-01
Standard
J381_197405
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures and performance requirements for the defrosting system of enclosed cab trucks, buses, and multipurpose vehicles. It is limited to a test that can be conducted on uniform test equipment in commercially available laboratory facilities. Current engineering practice prescribes that for laboratory evaluation of defroster systems, an ice coating of known thickness be applied to the windshield and left- and right-hand side windows to provide more uniform and repeatable test results, even though under actual conditions such a coating would necessarily be scraped off before driving. The test condition, therefore, represents a more severe condition than the actual condition, where the defroster system must merely be capable of maintaining a cleared viewing area.
1974-03-01
Standard
AIR1075
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is concerned only with aspects directly relating to available accuracy. While well-designed photoelectric, inductive or capacitive readers and pressure regulators, and other accessories are highly desirable for convenience and production rate, they are considered to be outside the scope of this AIR. This AIR is intended to define three classes of barometers, working, reference and transfer and some aspects of their use so that altimeters and air data transducers calibrated aginst working barometers will be comparable. An accuracy of ±0.003 inch (or ±0.076 mm) Hg should be approachable with working barometers meeting the recommendations in this AIR.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740347
Randall L. Harris
A landing-site indicator (LASI) has been devised as a relatively simple heads-up display to show the pilot the magnitude and direction of the airplane's velocity vector superimposed over the pilot's view of the landing area. A total of 160 landings were performed in a fixed-base simulation program by four pilots with and without the LASI display. These tests showed the display to be of beneficial use in making the approaches more consistent. Some inferences were also made that the physical workload would also be less with its use. The pilots generally agreed that the LASI, as represented in the simulation was a useful landing aid. Additional pilot comments from preliminary flight tests of a breadboard LASI display unit tend to confirm the simulator results. The LASI unit might also be useful as a training device for student pilots, however, specific tests would have to be performed to verify this possibility.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740331
Richard N. Karnes, James D. Sebastian, James L. Tocher, David W. Twigg
This paper describes the conversion of a crash analysis program from its original batch program form with awkward input to an efficient, user-oriented interactive tool. The program simulates a vehicle occupant with a two dimensional, seven link mathematical model restrained by a seat belt and shoulder harness. A nonlinear finite element capability was added to enable modeling of a seat which would interact realistically with the occupant. A new differential equation solver was developed which achieved a sixty per cent reduction in the computer time required for the transient response analysis. The modified program incorporates user aids such as free-field data input and an on-line data edit capability. Output was reformatted to provide user-selected time history and occupant configuration plots as well as readable printout.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740015
Robert B. Hood
This paper is an introductory survey or sensors, displays, and signal processors of potential value to automotive control designers. The sensors section discusses position sensing, pressure sensing, and temperature sensing. The interface section discusses general use semiconductor signal processor-to-sensor interface components and single chip subsystem components. The displays and interface elements section covers standard digital displays and the interface elements required to dirve them. The paper makes a case for the ultimate success of “combinational components” which are defined as single chip components that combine the sensor and interface circuit.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740645
Mark H. Sickman, Garry O. Bowhall
A new, articulated, 4-wheel drive agricultural tractor has been developed which combines the advantages of 2-wheel drive tractors with the advantages of full-time, 4-wheel drive tractors with equal-size wheels. To accomplish this, the tractor incorporates a unique drivetrain and frame arrangement. An unusual cab-mounting arrangement is also used that reduces the chance of serious injury in the event of a rollover.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740562
Arthur O. Radke
This paper discusses the importance of seating in protecting tractor operators from shock and vibration. An overview of important seating criteria is presented and U.S. and European viewpoints are compared. The U.S. and Europe have pursued somewhat different paths in regard to seat evaluation and selection. In 1969, the Off-Highway Council established the Joint Seating Subcommittee reporting to the Tractor Technical Committee and the Construction & Industrial Machinery Technical Committee, to review information in these areas and to develop appropriate recommended practices. The activities of this Subcommittee are reported and suggestions for future work are outlined.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740996
P. D. McCormack
The purpose of the study was to determine which of three symbols would best represent each of 15 instrument-panel controls. The subjects were required to experience a “pretend” drive in an automobile simulator, the major element of which was a control panel containing the appropriate 15 symbols. For seven of the controls, one symbol was clearly the best of the three. For four of the controls, performance was optimal for all three symbols, while none of the symbols sufficed for the remaining four controls.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740994
Michael Perel
Difficulties of measuring safety problems related to human factors aspects of vehicle controls and displays are discussed and illustrated with examples. A review of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)-sponsored control/display research dealing with some of these problems is presented. The review describes the objectives, methodology, key findings, and application of the results of the research. Finally, future research needs are outlined.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741178
James A. Mateyka
Abstract This paper describes the results of a program to develop advanced cantilevered transit bus seats. The Department of Transportation's Urban Mass Transportation Administration funded the $26 million Transbus Program. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part describes the results of a detailed analysis of passenger accidents on-board current transit buses. The second part describes the results of sled tests that evaluated the safety of three new cantilevered seat/sidewall section designs proposed for Transbus relative to the safety of current transit buses. The testing facilities and procedures are described, along with a summary of the results of 16 sled test runs that employed four different sizes of anthropometric dummies. The results clearly indicate that the new seats have safety characteristics superior to current transit bus seats, especially in severe crash situations.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740690
W. Melnyk
Analysis of vehicle systems performance data of a radiator, air-cooled oil cooler, and air-conditioning condenser is presented. The effects of adding individual heat exchangers ahead of the radiator are reviewed with emphasis on uneven air velocities and entering air temperature changes over the heat exchangers. The improvements of combining two heat exchangers into one unit are presented, along with the effect on the total system. The paper also discusses improvements in manufacturing relating to reduction in cost of the combination unit, as well as the concept of combining an air-conditioning evaporator and cab heater.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740921
Raymond B. Trusch
Design and development phases of both the Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and the Freon Coolant Loop (FCL) equipment for the Space Shuttle Orbiter are preceded by a requirements definition phase. This phase provides assurance that a reliable, minimum weight and cost-effective system which will meet the needs of the orbiter vehicle and crew will be built. The paper describes key tasks and accomplishments of the Orbiter ARS and FCL requirements definition phase. Systems approaches used to accommodate the heat loads placed on these subsystems by the vehicle and its payloads, including the European Space Laboratory, are discussed. Total equivalent weight trade studies and preliminary designs conducted lead to the establishment of firm requirements for the detailed design phase.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740933
C. E. Verostko, R. K. Forsythe
The kinetics of the Sabatier methanation reaction, the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to methane and water, was investigated for 58 percent nickel on kieselguhr catalyst and 20 percent ruthenium on alumina catalyst. Differential rate data from an experimental program were correlated with a power function rate equation both for forward and reverse reactions. The kinetic parameters of activation energy, frequency rate constant and reaction order were determined for the rate equation. The values of these parameters were obtained from an Arrhenius plot of the experimental differential rate data. Also the carbon monoxide side reaction effect was measured and included in the correlation of parameters. The reaction was found to fit the rate equation experimentally within the temperature range 421°K, where the reaction effectively begins, to 800°K where the reaction rate drops and departs from the rate equation form.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740932
C. H. Lin, Jack Winnick
A system comprised mainly of 90 electrochemical cells has been designed for use as a CO2 concentrator in a manned spacecraft. Cabin air, with a CO2 partial pressure of about 3 mm Hg is passed across the cathode of an oxygen-hydrogen fuel cell. It is concentrated through the carbonate electrolyte and expelled into the hydrogen-filled anode cavity. The total system, as well as the individual cell design, is described. Experimental results are shown for the full (90 cell) system and also for smaller scale (1 and 3 cell) tests. Excellent consistency among the tests was found. A steady state analytical model has been developed and numerical simulations of the system have been carried out. The model consists of two parts. The first part is established based on the rate equations which govern each of the processes controlling the CO2 transfer in the system. It is a non-linear boundary value problem which is solved by a shooting method.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740930
Sam H. Davis
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740929
Barbara M. Greenough
Mechanical and electrical systems are well-known and widely used for environmental control. Thermostatically-controlled air conditioning is a common terrestrial example. In space and undersea situations, constraints such as remoteness (limited or zero resupply), lack of gravity, and a hostile exterior atmosphere provide a challenge to environmental control technology. In particular, the development of environmental systems for future long-duration manned space missions is leading to new and sophisticated applications of chemical and electrochemical processes to augment the basic mechanical/electrical systems. This paper highlights the role of electrochemical processes in spacecraft environmental systems development and, by example, describes the fundamentals of these processes.
1974-01-01
Technical Paper
746046
Sol Davis
As part of its ESV evaluation effort, Dynamic Science has recently conducted vehicle-to-vehicle aggressive testing of the large AMF ESV with two small Fiat ESVs (Fiat 2,000-pound and Fiat 2,500-pound classes) at a closure speed of 75 mph. Preliminary analyses of crash test results are presented in this report. The vehicle-to-vehicle tests were highly successful in that structural integrity of the Fiat passenger compartments was adequately maintained. The AMF vehicle's hydraulic subsystem absorbed a significant portion of the crash energy in its 20-inch stroke, thus offering reduced aggressiveness to the small Fiat vehicles. However, human survival in terms of meeting current occupant injury criteria was not evaluated since dummies were not included in this preliminary test series. Such an evaluation is planned as part of future phases of this ESV evaluation program.
1974-01-01
Standard
ARP750A
The purpose of this aerospace recommended practice (ARP) is to provide design criteria that will lead to seat designs which provide maximum safety for air transportation passengers. It is not the purpose of the ARP to specify design methods or specific designs to be followed in the accomplishment of the stated objectives.
1974-01-01
Standard
J826B_197401
The devices of this SAE Standard provide the means by which passenger compartment dimensions can be obtained using a deflected seat rather than a free seat contour as a reference for defining seating space. All definitions and dimensions used in conjunction with this document are described in SAE J1100. These devices are intended only to apply to the driver side or center occupant seating spaces and are not to be construed as instruments which measure or indicate occupant capabilities or comfort. This document covers only one H-point machine installed on a seat during each test. Certified H-point templates and machines can be purchased from: SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 Specific procedures are included in Appendix A for seat measurements in short- and long-coupled vehicles and in Appendix B for measurement of the driver seat cushion angle. Specifications and a calibration inspection procedure for the H-point machine are given in Appendix C.
1973-11-01
Standard
J1059_197311
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a test procedure for eddy current speedometers, including the odometer if an integral portion of the speedometer, for passenger car service.
1973-10-15
Standard
ARP217B
This document deals with ground and flight test of airplane installed Environmental Control Systems (ECS), Figure 1. The ECS provide an environment, controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals, and equipment. These limits include the following: pressure, temperature, humidity, ventilation air velocity, ventilation rate, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and environment composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.). The ECS are composed of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply, distribute, recycle and exhaust air to maintain the desired environment.
1973-10-01
Standard
ARP488B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design and performance recommendations for emergency exits in the passenger cabin.
1973-09-01
Standard
J1100_197309
This SAE Recommended Practice defines a uniform set of interior and exterior dimensions for passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks.
1973-07-01
Standard
J89_197307
This SAE Recommended Practice encompasses the significant factors which determine the effectiveness of a seat system in limiting spinal injury during vertical impacts between the rider and the snowmobile seat system. The document is intended to provide a tool for the development of safer snowmobile seats. It is recognized that the seat is only a portion of the entire vehicle protective suspension system. It is, however, usually required that the seat serve as added protection to the suspension system, since the latter may "bottom out" during a severe impact. The term "seat" refers to the occupant-supporting system not normally considered part of the vehicle suspension or frame system. In some cases, it may include more than the foam cushion.
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