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1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690005
E. Franchini
Occupant’s protection requires two design considerations: 1) reduction of decelerations on the occupant (restrained by a belt) by intentional deformability of the structure; 2) limitation of passenger’s compartment deformation to avoid passenger crushing. It is thought that the second trend should have basic importance. It is necessary to ensure a minimum space called “survival space.” This is also necessary in the event of severe crashes. A survey is made of structure deformations due to longitudinal, transversal and vertical loads dynamically or statically applied on trucks cabs and car passenger’s compartments. A high-power static test rig permitting the study of structure is described. Orientative values of the survival space are proposed for truck cabs and car passenger’s compartments.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690243
R. G. Snyder
In recent years, automotive occupant restraint system development has gained impetus, stimulated, in part, by new federal standards. But in the resolution of the basic question of whether automobiles should be equipped with restraints, many new problems have arisen, including, ironically, some brought on by regulation. While there is little doubt that restraint systems can provide the single most important contribution to occupant protection, such restraint systems remain useless unless adequately installed and properly worn. Current problems involve not only what concepts provide most promise for future restraint systems, but diverse and often conflicting industry and governmental opinion about what are the best interests of the motoring public. Restraints are still not provided in buses, trucks, and utility vehicles. In addition, the problems of child and infant restraints and restraints for retrofit in older vehicles remain unresolved.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690642
Richard W. Smith
This paper presents a trade-off study to select a water separator system for a 3-man, 140-day, zero-g mission. Included is a summary of feasible concepts, a compilation of data on existing hardware, and a comparison of the performance characteristics of each with respect to the overall system. Six approaches to zero-g water separation were considered and are discussed: hydrophobic/hydrophilic screens; integrated condenser-water separators; centrifugal separators; cellular sponges; vortex separators; and elbow separators. Some of these techniques have high-performance characteristics with regard to water removal efficiency. However, when reduced to hardware, these same techniques may not integrate well with the overall system. The system selected was the integrated condenser-water-separator. This system requires no power, has no moving parts, and has a very small envelope.
1968-12-15
Standard
ARP794
This Aerospace Recommended Practice recommends the industry standards for an Airstream Deviation Instrument primarily for use with turbine-powered, subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in this report.
1968-12-01
Standard
AS1065
This specification covers the servicing of gaseous oxygen cylinders used for breathing purposes in civil aircraft. (Refer to AIR1059 on transfilling & Maintenance of Oxygen Cylinders.)
1968-12-01
Standard
AS1066
This standard covers all types of manually operated high pressure oxygen, cylinder shut off valves for use in commercial type aircraft. It is intended that the valve shall be attached to a pressure cylinder storing oxygen under pressure of 1800 to 2100 psi at 70 F. Upon opening the valve, oxygen will be permitted to discharge from the storage cylinder to the valve outlet and thence to other components of the oxygen system. It shall also be possible to recharge the cylinder through the valve. The purpose of this standard is to define general minimum standards for the design, fabrication, test and packaging of manually operated, high pressure breathing oxygen cylinder shut off valves. Applicable is AS 861, MINIMUM GENERAL STANDARDS FOR OXYGEN SYSTEMS.
1968-12-01
Standard
AIR1059
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
1968-12-01
Standard
AIR1059A
Recharging of small portable oxygen cylinders by the user is a practice both condemned and discouraged by the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Their condemnation is based on the firm conviction of the majority of the Association members that 'transfilling' and oxygen cylinder by 'unqualified' personnel is basically unsafe and should not be performed. By logic, therefore, it must be deduced that all personnel assigned to transfilling must be qualified. The purpose of this document is to list the best available information and guidelines for the qualification of personnel who are responsible for the filling of fixed or portable aircraft oxygen cylinders. It is a matter of record that the commercial airlines, aircraft manufacturers, and aircraft service stations have been involved in, and will continue to follow, the practice of filling the small portable oxygen units and fixed oxygen cylinders in commercial and general aviation.
1968-11-01
Standard
ARP1048
The desired system for general aviation aircraft instrument panel and cockpit lighting should furnish light of adequate intensity and distribution under all conditions of external illumination so that the crew may read instrumentation, placards, check lists, manuals, maps, instrument color coding, and distinguish controls without undue interference with their vision outside of the aircraft. Heretofore, considerable effort has been made to insure night vision adaptation at all costs. Efforts to maintain this adaptation have been based on certain military requirements, night flight involving pilotage and takeoffs or landings using only moonlight or less light intensity. With present navigational methods, adequate airport lighting and aircraft landing lights, night vision adaptation is rarely necessary.
1968-10-07
Technical Paper
680714
J. J. Konikoff, T. K. Slawecki
Long term multimanned space missions present numerous complex problems in devising a suitable life support system. Among these problems is the management of the waste Products generated during the mission. A promising approach appears to be the wet oxidation process wherein the organic waste materials are decomposed at high pressures (50 atm or higher) and intermediate temperatures (100 - 300 C). This technique is promising because: effluent may be used as a nutrient media, and thermodynamically it is exothermic. Problems associated with the adoption of this approach to waste management are amenable to experimental investigation and resolution.
1968-10-07
Technical Paper
680717
C. David Good, James E. Mars, Eckart W. Schmidt
The accumulation of waste products aboard spacecraft during manned missions of long duration still is an unsolved problem. Even if life support systems with regeneration of water (from urine and condensates) and oxygen are installed, waste accumulates at such a fast rate that within a short time storage space problems are encountered. Also, additional weight is required to provide a means of processing the waste material. To date, spacecraft designers have considered life support systems and rocket propulsion systems as independent subsystems of a manned spacecraft. The Integrated Waste Management/Rocket Propulsion System concept developed by Rocket Research Corp. under NASA Contract NAS 1–6750, has demonstrated that human waste products can form a useful propellant ingredient and provide propulsion, as well as be an effective means of removing and sterilizing spacecraft waste.
1968-10-01
Standard
ARP920
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the design and installation requirements for pitot-static systems. The purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice is to present recommendations for the design and installation of pitot and static systems for transport type aircraft. This document also makes recommendations for several system configurations and sets forth the acceptable quality control requirements and the means by which they are to be controlled.
1968-10-01
Standard
AIR1069
Determine the required minimum oxygen concentration to be breathed prior to, during, and after a loss of cabin pressurization. Determine recommended means necessary to provide the required oxygen concentrations.
1968-08-01
Magazine
1968-07-01
Standard
J879B_196807
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures and certain minimum performance requirements for motor vehicle seats and seat adjusters. it is limited to tests that can be conducted on uniform test fixtures and equipment available in commercial laboratory test facilities. This practice includes a minimum requirement for horizontal forward loads encountered in vehicle forward impacts, and horizontal loads encountered in vehicle forward impacts, and horizontal loads obtained by impacting the vehicle from the rear. The requirements and test procedures in this recommended practice reflect current technology and industry experience. it is intended to subject this recommended practice to a continuing review and revision as technology advances and experience is expanded.
1968-04-29
Technical Paper
680292
E. R. Hattendorf, C. A. Fenwick, H. M. Schweighofer
Advances in avionics technology have made possible a number of new airborne equipments which can provide improved operating capabilities desired by the airlines. The individual control and display requirements of such equipments could, however, increase the total pilot workload. New techniques, including digital processing and control, must be applied to the control/display problem in the proper manner to assure that these added devices are truly pilot aids.
1968-04-01
Standard
ARP922
The recommendations set forth herein are the results of the combined efforts of engineers associated with manufacturing of lamps, instrumentation, aircraft, aerospace equipment and vehicles, Air Transport and interested Government Agencies. The information contained in this initial release of the ARP is general in nature and will suffice as an introduction to this type of lighting. However, it is recommended that it be developed, in further revisions, into a more specific document.
1968-03-01
Magazine
1968-03-01
Standard
AIR822
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general overview of oxygen systems for general aviation use. Included are a brief review of the factors and effects of hypoxia, system descriptions and mission explanations for system or component selection, and techniques for safe handling of oxygen distribution systems.
1968-02-15
Standard
ARP498A
This document is intended to cover the design of plastic lighted panels, mounting plates, and their installation.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680079
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of twelve automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat, seat backrest and head-restraint design. Five speeds of impact, six seatback heights and six seatback strength values were studied. The purpose was to evaluate the relative protective merits and the practicality of various seat designs with respect to the many variables common to rear-end collisions. This research data provides a basic reference system of collision performance for seat designs with respect to occupant size, posture and proximity to injury producing structures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680080
R. J. Berton
The effect of seat back rotation, head restraint position, and collision speed on crash dummy head acceleration, extension and flexion was determined by tests using an acceleration sled and vehicle collisions. The sled tests were run with a rigid seat and an adjustable back at 10, 20, and 30 mph. Vehicle collisions were conducted with production seats with and without head restraint devices at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, and 50 mph impact speeds. Fifty percentile adult male Sierra dummies were used. The head was able to move freely when accelerated backward. In both sled and vehicle collisions, head restraint devices reduced the measured severity criteria on the crash dummies employed in the tests.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680478
Vernon D. Halliday, Donald R. Hoover, Harry G. Holcombe, Ben C. Parr
The authors examine the engineering requirements of a passenger car instrument panel having improved ability to reduce occupant injury. In the development of materials and their geometric configuration, the pad and its underlying structure receive primary consideration. A prototype instrument panel is described, and data are presented on approximately 40 different materials and combinations of materials evaluating their ability to absorb occupant energy.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680775
John L. Martinez
Abstract A nonlinear mathematical model is used to predict head motions during an automotive rear-end collision. The physical characteristics of the seat back are extremely important factors in the mechanics of the torso and head of the car occupant. This paper studies the velocity and displacement as well as acceleration patterns of the subject's head and torso on absolute and relative bases. Once these patterns are established, mathematical experiments are performed to study the variation in patterns produced. Specifically, the concept of the yielding seat back (damped and undamped) is studied as a design concept for attenuating the impact experienced by the subject in the rear-end collision.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680774
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of three automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat, seat backrest, and head-restraint design. Five seat back heights and four seat back strength values were studied in connection with their practicality and relative protective features, when subjected to a 55 mph rear-end collision exposure. These research data provide a basic reference system of high-speed collision performance for seat designs with respect to occupant size and proximity to injury producing structures. Additionally, methodology, instrumentation, and related equipment required for post-crash fire studies were included in experiment 106, providing what is believed to be the first published data on the precise time-related events associated with collision-induced passenger car fires. Design revisions suggested by these findings are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680716
R. J. Kiraly, A. D. Babinsky, P. D. Quattrone
TRW, under NASA sponsorship, is developing an on-board aircraft oxygen generation system. Oxygen is generated by water electrolysis and carbon dioxide is removed from the rebreather loop by an electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator. The design objectives are to develop a safe, reliable, compact system which would replace the present LOX system, thereby minimizing the need for ground support facilities and reduce time and effort required for servicing. The only periodic servicing required is to refill a water reservoir between flights. The system, with the rebreather loop, requires only the generation of oxygen at a rate equal to approximately 1.5 times that metabolically consumed by the user. This system is also applicable for use in closed environments such as spacecraft and submarines. This paper describes the oxygen system and its design. Projected sizes and weights for a fully-developed prototype are presented. Other applications are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680715
P. Budininkas, G. A. Remus, J. Shapira
Formaldehyde is an intermediate in the synthesis of edible carbohydrates from CO2, O2, and H2 derived from crew member metabolic wastes on spacecraft missions. Methods of accomplishing the synthesis of formaldehyde were studied, and the CO2 → CH4 → CH2O route was selected as the most suitable for spacecraft conditions. Partial oxidation of methane using heterogeneous solid catalysts, ozonated oxygen, and gaseous nitric oxide was investigated. The highest yield achieved was with nitric oxide, amounting to 2.5% of the methane admitted to a single pass reactor. The feasibility of converting CO2 into formaldehyde was demonstrated with a recycle system entailing two reactors. A methanation reactor converted feed and by-product CO2 into CH4; the CH4 in turn was oxidized to formaldehyde in an oxidation reactor. With recycling, essentially 100% conversion of CO2 to formaldehyde was achieved at ambient pressures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680587
Frank D. Eischen
Farm tractor cab design with respect to quiet comfort and convenience is discussed. The areas of visibility, accessibility, environmental control, and noise suppression are investigated. Various approaches to accomplish optimum conditions in these areas are analyzed, components are evaluated, and design recommendations are made.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680722
R. C. Bready
The C-5A bleed air control, air conditioning, temperature control, and fuselage pressurization systems are described. Peculiar design problems of this mammoth cargo transport are discussed with respect to the effect on system configurations and equipment design. A brief review is also presented on the development test programs conducted by the subsystem contractor and the air vehicle manufacturer.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680719
B. C. Kim, J. E. Clifford
Experimental research on an integrated Bosch reactor and water-vapor electrolysis unit for oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide is described. A principal feature of the integration is the use of regenerable solid absorbent for periodic water-vapor transfer in a gravity-independent manner to avoid gas-liquid separation problems. The carbon dioxide reduction subsystem was based on batch-wise operation of two Bosch reactors to permit periodic shutdown for carbon removal. Experimental results are presented on operation of the Bosch reactor which include catalyst activation, recycle rate, recycle gas composition, reactor temperature, catalyst consumption, packing density of carbon and life of reactor materials during extended operation. Experimental data are presented on the solid-absorbent unit with silica gel and synthetic zeolites for removal of water vapor from the Bosch reaction and for water-vapor feed to an electrolysis unit.
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