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Viewing 9601 to 9630 of 10063
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680775
John L. Martinez
Abstract A nonlinear mathematical model is used to predict head motions during an automotive rear-end collision. The physical characteristics of the seat back are extremely important factors in the mechanics of the torso and head of the car occupant. This paper studies the velocity and displacement as well as acceleration patterns of the subject's head and torso on absolute and relative bases. Once these patterns are established, mathematical experiments are performed to study the variation in patterns produced. Specifically, the concept of the yielding seat back (damped and undamped) is studied as a design concept for attenuating the impact experienced by the subject in the rear-end collision.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680774
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to a series of three automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat, seat backrest, and head-restraint design. Five seat back heights and four seat back strength values were studied in connection with their practicality and relative protective features, when subjected to a 55 mph rear-end collision exposure. These research data provide a basic reference system of high-speed collision performance for seat designs with respect to occupant size and proximity to injury producing structures. Additionally, methodology, instrumentation, and related equipment required for post-crash fire studies were included in experiment 106, providing what is believed to be the first published data on the precise time-related events associated with collision-induced passenger car fires. Design revisions suggested by these findings are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680716
R. J. Kiraly, A. D. Babinsky, P. D. Quattrone
TRW, under NASA sponsorship, is developing an on-board aircraft oxygen generation system. Oxygen is generated by water electrolysis and carbon dioxide is removed from the rebreather loop by an electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator. The design objectives are to develop a safe, reliable, compact system which would replace the present LOX system, thereby minimizing the need for ground support facilities and reduce time and effort required for servicing. The only periodic servicing required is to refill a water reservoir between flights. The system, with the rebreather loop, requires only the generation of oxygen at a rate equal to approximately 1.5 times that metabolically consumed by the user. This system is also applicable for use in closed environments such as spacecraft and submarines. This paper describes the oxygen system and its design. Projected sizes and weights for a fully-developed prototype are presented. Other applications are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680715
P. Budininkas, G. A. Remus, J. Shapira
Formaldehyde is an intermediate in the synthesis of edible carbohydrates from CO2, O2, and H2 derived from crew member metabolic wastes on spacecraft missions. Methods of accomplishing the synthesis of formaldehyde were studied, and the CO2 → CH4 → CH2O route was selected as the most suitable for spacecraft conditions. Partial oxidation of methane using heterogeneous solid catalysts, ozonated oxygen, and gaseous nitric oxide was investigated. The highest yield achieved was with nitric oxide, amounting to 2.5% of the methane admitted to a single pass reactor. The feasibility of converting CO2 into formaldehyde was demonstrated with a recycle system entailing two reactors. A methanation reactor converted feed and by-product CO2 into CH4; the CH4 in turn was oxidized to formaldehyde in an oxidation reactor. With recycling, essentially 100% conversion of CO2 to formaldehyde was achieved at ambient pressures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680587
Frank D. Eischen
Farm tractor cab design with respect to quiet comfort and convenience is discussed. The areas of visibility, accessibility, environmental control, and noise suppression are investigated. Various approaches to accomplish optimum conditions in these areas are analyzed, components are evaluated, and design recommendations are made.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680722
R. C. Bready
The C-5A bleed air control, air conditioning, temperature control, and fuselage pressurization systems are described. Peculiar design problems of this mammoth cargo transport are discussed with respect to the effect on system configurations and equipment design. A brief review is also presented on the development test programs conducted by the subsystem contractor and the air vehicle manufacturer.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680719
B. C. Kim, J. E. Clifford
Experimental research on an integrated Bosch reactor and water-vapor electrolysis unit for oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide is described. A principal feature of the integration is the use of regenerable solid absorbent for periodic water-vapor transfer in a gravity-independent manner to avoid gas-liquid separation problems. The carbon dioxide reduction subsystem was based on batch-wise operation of two Bosch reactors to permit periodic shutdown for carbon removal. Experimental results are presented on operation of the Bosch reactor which include catalyst activation, recycle rate, recycle gas composition, reactor temperature, catalyst consumption, packing density of carbon and life of reactor materials during extended operation. Experimental data are presented on the solid-absorbent unit with silica gel and synthetic zeolites for removal of water vapor from the Bosch reaction and for water-vapor feed to an electrolysis unit.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680718
Judd R. Wilkins, David C. Grana
Currently under investigation at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., is a research test chamber to study and test life support subsystems for long-duration space missions. This system is designed to support four men for a period of 1 year in a near-earth circular orbit with resupply at a 90 day interval. Critical life support subsystems include the recovery of water from urine, waste management, and personal hygiene. Microbiological studies in support of the development and testing of a wick evaporator, water management subsystem are reported. The goal of this program is to produce water meeting the recommended standard of “essential sterility,” that is, no more than a sum total of 10 micro-organisms per ml. Modification of the wick evaporator system to permit the use of heat for sterilization will be described. Microbiological and chemical results obtained during research and development on a bench model and from two units inside the ILSS test chamber are presented.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680742
J. C. Ballinger, G. B. Wood
In a study conducted to evaluate low-gravity capabilities of life support components and processes of the Langley Research Center Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), primary emphasis was placed on: 1. Identification and analysis of gravity sensitivities inherent in performance of ILSS components and processes. 2. Investigation of methods for experimentally evaluating critical items for which zero-gravity performance could not be determined by analytical techniques. 3. Formulation of generalized criteria for assessing gravity sensitivity of alternate or advanced life support processes as well as those originally incorporated in the ILSS. Of 92 ILSS processes identified, the majority were of such nature that their g sensitivities could be satisfactorily assessed by analyses, precluding the need for extensive testing. Experiments included gravity-sensitive aspects of liquid droplet release, heat exchanger passage plugging, and liquid film stability.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680741
J. K. Jackson, M. S. Bonura, D. F. Putnam
A 60-day manned test of a closed-cycle life-support system was completed in a Space Cabin Simulator. Life-support equipment was installed within the chamber and was operated, maintained, and repaired by a 4-man crew. Major objectives of the test included demonstrations of the recovery of potable water from urine and humidity condensate, and the recovery of oxygen from carbon dioxide. Other life-support equipment included a thermal-control subsystem, a two-gas atmosphere control, a trace-contaminant removal subsystem, and a fecal-waste collector that featured vacuum dehydration.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680725
David T. Feldman
Design criteria utilized in the development of an air conditioning system for a 50–70 passenger jet aircraft for the short haul market are presented. Because the aircraft’s mission requires high speed over short stage lengths, special problems result. A short haul aircraft is described and related to the environmental system. Concepts for air conditioning that were considered as well as the one recommended are discussed. Final air conditioning design is reviewed relative to performance, operation, safety, reliability, and maintainability. The result is a package with larger than average cooling performance per passenger and design features not found in any other aircraft environmental system.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680724
D. M. Taylor
A new concept for approaching the problems of the airshipment of perishables, based on their physiological characteristics, is presented. This concept consists of grouping perishables into classes with common physiological characteristics and defining for each class its environmental requirements. The effects of temperature, atmospheric composition, and relative humidity are discussed in relation to respiratory and microbial decomposition for each class. Three basic handling systems are identified for the airshipment of perishable commodities, as well as considerations for container requirements and cargo compatibility.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680744
J. R. Burnett, C. D. King
The reliability and maintainability problems confronting environmental control/life support systems for long duration space flight present the designer with one of the most challenging tasks in the wide array of still unproved approaches to the design of manned space systems. Examination of the realities of current equipment experience indicates that reliability and maintainability of most aerospace equipments are far from meeting requirements of long duration missions, and some concepts currently influencing designs are not applicable to the true characteristics of the manned spacecraft environment. Several examples are given of analytical processes and design techniques which show promise of making progress toward practical goals. Emphasis is placed on the requirement to see reliability and maintainability progress made as an integrated part of an orderly design maturation process.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680745
Hugh A. Jennings
Extensive maintainability (M) and reliability (R) studies of a number of manned spacecraft missions indicate that the Environmental Control/Life Support System (EC/LSS) generally requires more scheduled and unscheduled maintenance than any other subsystem. This paper summarizes the EC/LSS M and R analyses performed on some of these studies. The expected redundancy and spares required to achieve a desired reliability is discussed. The requirements for scheduled and unscheduled maintenance are evaluated in terms of expected spares usage, maintenance time, and potential problem areas.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680746
Robert S. Barker, Stuart W. Nicol, Mahmoud M. Yakut, Joseph L. Anderson
Abstract A parametric analysis of the life support systems was completed, from which scaling laws were developed and adapted to computer solutions. This new tool permits the evaluation of a great variety of life support system types and combinations. The interdependencies and interrelations within the life support system itself can be evaluated, as well as the interactions between the life support system, spacecraft, and other systems. Representative data are presented for several partially closed life support system configurations usable for manned Earth orbital missions. The life support systems are principally affected by alternative degree of closure, the functional methods selected for the various subsystems, and mission requirements.
1968-02-01
Magazine
1968-02-01
Standard
J381_196802
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures and performance requirements for the defrosting system of enclosed cab trucks, buses, and multipurpose vehicles. It is limited to a test that can be conducted on uniform test equipment in commercially available laboratory facilities. Current engineering practice prescribes that for laboratory evaluation of defroster systems, an ice coating of known thickness be applied to the windshield and left- and right-hand side windows to provide more uniform and repeatable test results, even though under actual conditions such a coating would necessarily be scraped off before driving. The test condition, therefore, represents a more severe condition than the actual condition, where the defroster system must merely be capable of maintaining a cleared viewing area.
1968-01-01
Standard
J557_196801
The specifications contained in this report cover high tension cable used in motor vehicles or tractor engine ignition systems. DOCUMENT REPLACED BY J2031
1968-01-01
Magazine
1967-12-01
Magazine
1967-11-01
Standard
AS1046
This standard is intended to apply to portable compressed gaseous oxygen equipment. When properly configured, this equipment is used either for the administration of supplemental oxygen, first aid oxygen or smoke protection to one or more occupants of either private or commercial transport aircraft.
1967-11-01
Standard
ARP998
This ARP is intended to make recommendations for flight crew and cabin attendant restraint systems in aircraft. A properly designed crew restraint system will avoid injury or debilitation during a survivable crash and enable post crash assistance to occupants and escape from the aircraft. Consideration is given to existing requirements of the FAA and to the recommendations of aircraft operators and those involved in the manufacture or use of restraining devices. Crew member safety is the primary objective, with appropriate provisions for crew comfort taken into consideration. The criteria established herein are designed to standardize restraining systems without hindering the development of new, improved systems.
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP582A
This ARP covers the general requirements and test procedures for illuminating systems for integrally lighted aircraft instruments in order to provide (a) uniformity of illumination within each instrument, (b) legibility of instrument presentation under daylight or integral light, and (c) uniformity of illumination between instrument displays.
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP583B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design and location of flight attendant stations, including emergency equipment installations at or near such stations, so as to enable the flight attendant to function effectively in emergency situations, including emergency evacuations. Recommendations regarding design of flight attendant stations apply to all such stations; recommendations regarding location apply to those stations located near or adjacent to floor level exits.
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP767
This ARP provides design guidelines based on currently available information for the impact safety design of the cabin occupant environment.
1967-09-01
Magazine
1967-08-01
Standard
ARP997
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to establish criteria for the installation of emergency equipment that shall permit its efficient use and encourage standardization, thereby reducing reorientation of crewmembers to equipment accessibility while working on differing types, models, and series of transport-category aircraft. This does not preclude the requirement to pre-flight check all emergency equipment relative to its location, availability, and operational status.
1967-08-01
Magazine
1967-07-01
Standard
ARP435
This Aerospace Recommended Practice establishes performance standards for overspeed warning instruments primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in paragraph 3.4. This ARP covers an electro-mechanical pneumatic device which is calibrated to provide control contacts that can be made to operate a warning device whenever the indicated airspeed (IAS) reaches a maximum value as defined by the operating limit speed curve for the specific model aircraft.
1967-06-01
Standard
J902A_196706
This SAE Recommend Practice establishes for passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10 000 lb) or less, as defined by EPA, and M1 category vehicles as defined by the European Commission: a. Minimum performance standards for defrosting and demisting systems. b. Test procedures that can be conducted on uniform test equipment by commercially available laboratory facilities.
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