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1967-07-01
Standard
ARP435
This Aerospace Recommended Practice establishes performance standards for overspeed warning instruments primarily for use with turbine powered subsonic transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in paragraph 3.4. This ARP covers an electro-mechanical pneumatic device which is calibrated to provide control contacts that can be made to operate a warning device whenever the indicated airspeed (IAS) reaches a maximum value as defined by the operating limit speed curve for the specific model aircraft.
1967-06-01
Standard
J902A_196706
This SAE Recommend Practice establishes for passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10 000 lb) or less, as defined by EPA, and M1 category vehicles as defined by the European Commission: a. Minimum performance standards for defrosting and demisting systems. b. Test procedures that can be conducted on uniform test equipment by commercially available laboratory facilities.
1967-05-15
Standard
ARP488
null, null
The purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide design recommendations for passenger cabin entry doors, service doors, and emergency exits. The objective is to have a reliable system standardized to make operation of the exits simple, quick and obvious to all occupants under normal and emergency conditions and facilitate qualification of cabin attendants for different airplanes. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this ARP to specify the design method or specific mechanism to accomplish the objectives.
1967-03-01
Standard
J902A_196703
This SAE Recommend Practice establishes for passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10 000 lb) or less, as defined by EPA, and M1 category vehicles as defined by the European Commission: a. Minimum performance standards for defrosting and demisting systems. b. Test procedures that can be conducted on uniform test equipment by commercially available laboratory facilities.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670840
Wilbert E. Ellis, Noel C. Willis Jr.
This paper contains a discussion of the hardware development effort expended by the personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in the field of environmental/thermal control and life support systems in support of the Apollo Applications Program. Although the Manned Spacecraft Center staff anticipated that the next space program would be an Apollo extension, it was also recognized that the detailed definition of the program would lag the requirement for basic subsystem development. Thus, to permit the vehicle prime contractor to proceed judiciously with the design of the spacecraft upon program definition, the MSG staff initiated an effort to provide the required subsystem advances. The basic goals of this effort were to meet the subsystem development requirements with a directed development program and to develop the new hardware components such that a qualification program could be instituted by the prime contractor with minimum development efforts.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670044
A. W. Moesta
Through continuing and realistic innovations in concept, design, and testing, mechanical spring seating in trucks has vastly improved in recent years. Development of modern truck seats begins with the original seat package layout derived from the cab package. Then the details covering seat frame design are worked out so that prototype models can be received by the truck manufacturer at least a year in adfance of model production in order to provide adequate test, development, ride, and refinement time. Numerous and comprehensive laboratory and road vehicle tests are conducted to insure that the best seat is made available for the intended truck, with comfortable seating for the occupant at an economical cost.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670043
Elmer A. Herider, William F. Le Fevre
This is a two part paper on the considerations involved in truck seating design. The first part discusses physiological factors of seating comfort which are essentially static in comparison to requirements for vibration isolation discussed in the second part. Basically, a truck driver’s seat should be designed to furnish the most in driver seating comfort within bounds of reasonable cost. Improved safety is gained by reducing muscular and nervous tensions which, in turn, reduce physical fatigue. The ability of the chair to isolate the driver from vibrations influences riding comfort. While the proper chair design can isolate high frequency, low amplitude vibrations the lower frequency, high amplitude chassis pitch vibrations can best be controlled by proper vehicle suspension systems, thus providing optimum riding comfort.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670196
George K. C. Hardesty
The term “Guided-light” applies to a new concept of internal light utilization applicable primarily to opaque-faced, “edge-lighted,” plastic panels. Manufacturing techniques based on this concept make possible the production of “one-piece” illuminable cockpit and control console panels that have unprecedented efficiency and “light-throw” yet retain the dimensions and conventional appearance of the “single panel” types. It is estimated that Guided-Light panels require less than 25% of the number of embedded lamps that are now used in state-of-the-art, embedded lamp, single panels. Some of the techniques of “guided-light” light distribution are related to those that have been developed for the Duo-Panel but others are unique. This paper lays the ground work for early industrial application to aero-space indicating instruments. Optical efficacy of candidate combinations of materials may be determined through use of the curves presented.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670921
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Abstract Scientific methodology and engineering techniques were applied to the initial 4 of a series of 12 automobile rear-end collision experiments to provide data relating to seat and head support design. Two speeds of impact, three seatback heights, and two seatback strength values were studied. This is a study to evaluate the relative protective merits and the practicality of various seat designs with respect to the many variables common to rear-end collisions. This basic research data will provide a standard reference system for determining collision performance of seat and head support designs with respect to occupant size, posture, and proximity to injury-producing structures. IN THIS SERIES OF FOUR COLLISION EXPERIMENTS, a stationary 1967 4-door sedan was rear-ended by an identical striking car for each experiment. In the first experiment, the striking car was traveling at 30 mph; in the second experiment, at 20 mph; and in the remaining two experiments, at 30 mph.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670230
Paul Gagnon
In order to reduce the incidence and spread of forest fires in the province of Quebec, the Department of Transportation and Communications has set up an Air Service Division which provides aircraft to both detect and fight forest fires. Their method for transmitting accurate fire location data based on a master grid numerical reference system is described, as well as the water pickup and drop procedure that is part of the design mission. Research currently in the development stage is expected to effect further improvements in forest fire suppression through the use of aircraft.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670267
Donald H. Trompier, James B. O’Reilly
Aircraft cabin pressurization is a means of providing an adequate cabin environment while achieving the performance available from a supercharged engine. The Mooney M22 is a single-engine pressurized four-to-five place aircraft powered by an engine incorporating a small low cost exhaust driven turbosupercharger based on a diesel automotive unit. By means of this turbocharger, the M22 was pressurized and met its performance goals while remaining close to the same economic class as previous conventional single-engine aircraft.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670842
J. K. Jackson, R. L Blakely
Important parameters in designing regenerable adsorption beds for spacecraft life support systems are defined. Typical applications include synthetic zeolite, which is used for carbon dioxide removal; and silica gel, which dehumidifies the atmospheric gas prior to passing it through the zeolite beds. Bed performance is evaluated from correlated test data. A linearized solution of the dymanic mass transfer equations is presented, which provides a simplified method of bed design. This method is used to find the optimum design for a typical four bed regenerable, isothermal, carbon dioxide removal system. Results of this simplified analysis are compared with those of a detail digital computer study. This comparison indicates that the simplified method predicts system weight approximately 10% higher than the detailed evaluation.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670843
Sam H. Davis
The paper reports basic adsorption data for CO2 and water vapor on molecular sieves and silica gel, a mathematical model used to predict the behavior of regenerative adsorption multibed systems, and prototype tests of an Apollo size system and comparison of this system with model predictions. The basic data include equilibrium isotherm data and non-equilibrium adsorption and desorption data taken in a small cross-section bed. The prototype tests were performed in a 6 by 6 by 6 in. adsorption bed that was packed with silica gel and molecular sieve.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670837
J. R. Frahm, H. F. Walthall
An analytical thermal model of the project Apollo Command Module has been developed by the General Electric Co., Apollo Support Dept. for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center. This model simulates the entire spacecraft structure and the four closed fluid loops of the Environmental Control System. The configuration of the model is discussed as well as the correlation of this type model with test data. Also covered are the environmental data used in conjunction with the model for mission analysis. Typical results of the mission analyses are discussed in more detail.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670839
Robert Ebersole, Louis Pochettino, Walter Kugler
This paper presents the environmental control and life-support system design for the 21 and 30 day mission NASA Biosatellite program. A two-loop system is described which provides temperature control for the fuel cell power source, cryogenic gases, water and urine storage, and the gas management system. The latter provides control of the gaseous environment in the recovery capsule. It controls temperature, relative humidity, recirculation and filtration of the atmosphere, buildup of toxic and/or nontoxic gases and odors, and partial and total pressure of the nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere. Comparison of experimental results with analytical predictions are presented. Extensive thermal vacuum system testing was performed to verify design predictions; good agreement with analysis was achieved.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670851
J. E. Clifford
An oxygen-producing water electrolysis cell with phosphoric acid electrolyte can operate on the water vapor in recirculated cabin air and accomplish concurrent dehumidification. The development of the concept over the past 3 years involved research to define the components of electrode overvoltage and design analysis to provide a small, lightweight unit to compensate for the electrolysis power. Theoretical equations based on electrochemistry, fluid dynamics, and heat and mass transfer correlate with the observed steady state operation obtained in extended testing of experimental cells for over 1000 hr. Data on electrode life, gas purity, and voltage characteristics combined with size, weight, and power estimates indicate that the new concept would be competitive with other methods of oxygen generation for advanced space missions. The recent satisfactory performance of a prototype module in an extended test of over 1000 hr is reviewed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670844
A. J. Glueckert, P. P. Nuccio, J. D. Zeff
A regenerable absorbent in solid granular form has been developed for the removal of carbon dioxide from air or other gases. The unique features of the absorbent are: (a) no pre-drying of the gas stream is necessary prior to carbon dioxide absorption, and (b) only moderate regeneration conditions are necessary to desorb CO2, for example, heating to 180 F and evacuating to a 40 mm vacuum. An operating laboratory prototype having a four-man capacity was built and tested, continuously removing 0.41 lb/hr of carbon dioxide at a 7.6 mm CO2 partial pressure. The system penalties for the unoptimized prototype were: 1. Absorbent weight - 30 lb (7.5 lb/man) 2. Structure and controls - 63 lb (total: 93 lb, or 23.3 lb/man) 3. Electrical power - 288 w (thermal power(electrical or sensible), 472 w; total 760 w, or 190 w/man) 4. Envelope volume - 14 × 24 × 33 in.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670852
J. D. Zeff, B. J. Intorre, A. B. Hearld, C. A. Metzger
A novel prototype waste management unit for the collection, sampling, drying, and storage of fecal wastes in a life-support simulator, or aerospace flights has been designed, developed, and tested. The unit collects the feces, which are subsequently air dried at ambient temperature and pressure, and stored. The unit is designed for use in a weightless environment yet has the convenience of operation of an ordinary terrestrial toilet. Other design features include measures to prevent fecal contamination or odors from entering the space cabin, low power requirements, and minimum loss of cabin air overboard. Weight of the unit is about 50 lb.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670849
G. L Drake, J. R. Burnett
Selecting a specific technique for optimal integration with other functions of an environmental control/life support (EC/LS) system for a multimission spacecraft is a continuing challenge to the systems integrator. The task requires a broad understanding and appreciation of the detail technical aspects of EC/LS processes; the realities of their realizable mechanization and performance; other systems capabilities, interactions, and design selection effects -- both as applied within the EC/LS system and with other spacecraft systems; mission requirements; and the methodologies to relate and evaluate the evolving engineering information against the program goals. Selection of an oxygen recovery system provides a significant opportunity to illustrate the procedural aspects of the selection problem and the technical aspects of current approaches to, and experience with, oxygen recovery systems.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670853
L. Cooper, G. L. Fogal, R. W. Murray
A simple and reliable concept for the collection, processing, disposal or storage of human waste products has been developed for application under conditions of weightlessness. Psychological acceptance is achieved by utilization of a hardware design permitting conventional earth-like procedures. Bag type containers are not used for collection and storage, thus manual handling of waste products and storage containers is not required. The system is capable of handling urine and fecal waste as well as Yomitus and food debris. The solids are vacuum dried to permit bacteriostatic storage and urine can be jettisoned to space.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670040
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
This paper contains findings from the first series of comprehensive school bus collision experiments. Three full-scale collision experiments involving a school bus were conducted using research techniques and engineering methodology designed to provide realistic and objective findings relating to school bus passenger safety. The experiments conducted were: A head-on collision between two fully loaded, moderate-sized school buses, each traveling 30 mph; a stationary bus rear-ended by a passenger car traveling 60 mph; a stationary bus impacted on its right side by a passenger car traveling 60 mph. The following categories relating to passenger injury causation were studied: location and type of impact, structural integrity of vehicles, vehicle size, seat design, type of restraint or force moderator, type of safety glass, passenger size, standing versus seated passengers, passenger kinematics and interactions, forces sustained by passengers, and many related factors.
1967-02-01
Standard
ARP924
This recommended practice cover the requirements for the types of glass to be utilized in the fabrication of cover glasses and lighting wedges used in aerospace instruments. It defines the maximum extent of physical defects and recommend standard methods of inspection and evaluation. Definitions of terminology used in this document are covered in Appendix A.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670458
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, Jack D. Baird
Engineering evaluations of the collision performance for the Liberty Mutual Safety Car and the 1966 Chevrolet sedan were made, consisting of two 30 mph rear-end and two 40 mph intersection collision experiments. Methodology provided comparative analysis of functional characteristics for five types of seats, each studied for different exposure conditions. Five conditions of restraint were included for four sizes of occupants; the anthropometric dummies, their restraints, seats, and crashing cars all carried appropriate transducers. Seven high G-tolerant, high-speed cameras, carried by the crashing cars provided close-up continuous monitoring of these quarter-second collision sequences, supported by many more tower and ground level special photographic units arranged about the collision scene. Data from photographic, electronic and related instrumentation are presented using photographic and graphical techniques designed to facilitate comprehension.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670854
John F. Foster, John H. Litchfield
Experimental results obtained with a continuous culture system for the cultivation of Hydrogenomonas eutropha for waste management in a life-support system indicate that a reliable and stable system can be designed under the present state-of-the-art. The present system provides for control of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, cell density, temperature, urea, and ammonia during growth. The culture system design is adaptable to operation in a zero-gravity field, and should be adaptable to integration with proposed water electrolysis and product recovery systems for waste management in an overall life support system.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670984
R. Trebosc
Discussed are the followed components of the Concorde's air conditioning system: dual pressure reduction/shutoff valve, mass flow control valve, primary heat exchanger bypass temperature control loop, cold air unit, temperature control valve, water extractor, and water extractor actuator controller. Functional and mechanical descriptions are given for each. The system is basically a bootstrap air cycle in which fuel and ram air cooling are provided in the intercooler loop.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670982
B. B. Turner
The Environmental Control System of the SST must keep the passengers safe and comfortable under all operating conditions. This requires not only an excellent system design, but a system that can be maintained and operated by typical airline personnel under all airline conditions of time and place. The airlines are working toward these objectives with the airframe manufacturer through SST specialist teams composed of engineering personnel from the airlines purchasing the 2707 or the Concorde. This paper discusses the objectives and considerations of the Environmental Control System specialist team in working toward minimizing the airlines problems on the SST.
1967-01-31
Standard
AS439
This standard covers stall warning instruments to provide positive warning to the pilot of an impending stall. Stall, as defined for the purpose of this standard, is the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable.
1966-08-15
Standard
ARP842A
This recommended practice sets forth the design objectives for handling qualities applicable to transport aircraft operating in the subsonic, transonic and supersonic speed range. These objectives are not necessarily applicable to rotor or VTOL aircraft.
1966-08-01
Standard
AIR818A
This Aerospace Information Report, (AIR) is intended to provide the sponsors of Aerospace Standards, (AS), with standard wording, formatting, and minimum environment and design requirements for use in the preparation of their document. The individual shall use only those parts of this AIR which apply to their particular document. The individual sponsor may expand the standard wording, especially under Sections 4, 5, and 6 as required. The paragraphs of this AIR shall be used verbatim wherever possible. Unless otherwise directed by SAE, cross referenced documents shall be called out by specific revision letter, e.g. "shall be in accordance with AS XXXXB." In addition, all non-SAE documents called out shall include the document title when initially identified. However, every effort shall be made to keep cross-referencing to an absolute minimum.
1966-08-01
Standard
ARP699C
This Recommended Practice is intended to outline the design, installation, testing, and field maintenance criteria for a high temperature metal pneumatic duct system, for use as a guide in the aircraft industry. These recommendations are to be considered as currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time, as a result of the rapid development of the industry.
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