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2014-10-16
Standard
AIR1169C
The scope of this document is to provide a list of documents of types pertaining to the effects of oxygen on ignition and combustion of materials. Consolidating these references in one place makes it easier to find documents of this type as these references are difficult to locate.
2014-10-16
Standard
AS452B
The purpose of this standard is to establish optimum standards for crew demand and pressure-breathing oxygen mask assemblies for use by crew members in civil aircraft. This standard covers both general type and quick-donning type mask assemblies in the following classes: a. Class A, oronasal, demand b. Class B, oronasal, pressure-demand c. Class C, full face, demand d. Class D, full face, pressure-demand
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
J826/3
This document describes the CAD model data of legs and back hardware available from SAE for the HPM-1 three-dimensional H-point machine. The elements of the CAD model include the feet, lower and thighs as well as headroom probe and t-bar. Also included are datum points and lines, and calibration references. The intended purpose for this information is to provide a CAD reference for design and benchmarking as well as a calibration reference for the physical HPM-1 audits. The content and format of the data files that are available are also described. The actual CAD model files are included with this product and are provided in the following formats: CATIA v4 (without parametrics), CATIA v5 (without parametrics), IGES, and STEP.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2857
Jose Serrano, Pablo Olmeda, Francisco Arnau, Artem Dombrovsky
Abstract These days many research efforts on internal combustion engines are centred on optimising turbocharger matching and performance on the engine. In the last years a number of studies have pointed out the strong effect on turbocharger behaviour of heat transfer phenomena. The main difficulty for taking into account these phenomena comes from the little information provided by turbocharger manufacturers. In this background, Original Engine Manufacturers (OEM) need general engineering tools able to provide reasonably precise results in predicting the mentioned heat transfer phenomena. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to provide a procedure, applicable to small automotive turbochargers, able to predict the heat transfer characteristics that can be used in a lumped 1D turbocharger heat transfer model. This model must be suitable to work coupled to whole-engine simulation codes (such as GT-Power or Ricardo WAVE) for being used in global engine models by the OEM.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2600
Le-zhong Fu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Xiao Yu
Abstract The present work discusses a novel oxyfuel combustion method named internal combustion rankine cycle (ICRC) used in reciprocating engines. Water is heated up through heat exchanger by exhaust gas and engine cooling system, and then injected into the cylinder near top dead center to control the combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise rate, meanwhile to enhance the thermo efficiency and work of the combustion cycle. That is because injected water increases the mass of the working fluid inside the cylinder, and can make use of the combustion heat more effectively. Waste heat carried away by engine coolant and exhaust gas can be recovered and utilized in this way. This study investigates the effect of water injection temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of an ICRC engine based on self-designed test bench. The results indicate that both indicated work and thermal efficiency increase significantly due to water injection process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2594
Xinyu Wang, Yadong Deng
Abstract Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), which effectively converts exhaust thermal energy into electrical energy, can gradually improve the utilization efficiency of energy. The heat exchanger of TEG is one of the most important components for heat transfer, so as to realize energy saving and emission reduction. Hence, its configuration and thermal performance should be intensively studied. In this paper, a new configuration of heat exchanger, whose heat transfer area is regular octagon, is designed in comparison with the pervious rectangle one. In order to improve average temperature and thermal distribution uniformity, typical CFD software named FLUENT is used to simulate the multi-coupling of temperature - fluid - solid, and the temperature distribution on heat transfer area is gained. Moreover, the temperature distribution will be analyzed to evaluate the merits and weaknesses of configuration and thermal performance.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2596
Bo Hu, Colin Copeland, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Alessandro Romagnoli, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, J.W.G Turner
Abstract Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2592
Dhaminda Hewavitarane, Sadami Yoshiyama, Hisashi Wadahama, Xin Li
Abstract High temperature liquids held in a subcooled state are capable of storing large amounts of energy and then explosively releasing this energy when depressurized in a phase change process known as “Flashing”. The rapid volume expansion that results from this flashing has been harnessed to drive an expansion engine working on a cycle called “The Superheated Liquid Flash, Boiling” (S.L.F.B) cycle. The first stage showed that multiphase convective boiling of the unflashed water off the heated walls of the expansion unit supplemented the Flash work output. Furthermore, Flashing was seen to improve the effectiveness of convective boiling off the walls. The results were shown to be repeatable in a modified piston engine. Convective boiling was again shown to be able to supplement the power output under specific conditions.
2014-10-09
Standard
ARP4103A
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
2014-10-06
Standard
AS5671
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides design criteria for onboard stairways intended for use by passengers aboard multi-deck transport category airplanes. It is not intended for stairways designed for use only by crewmembers, supernumeries, or maintenance personnel. Additionally, this AS does not apply to fuselage mounted or external stairways used for boarding passengers, which are covered by ARP836. The purpose of this AS is to assist airplane manufacturers in designing stairways on which users will be less likely to experience a misstep or fall during normal operations and on which movement during an emergency evacuation will be as efficient as is possible.
2014-10-01
Magazine
Propulsion: Energy Sources Flying on vegetation Avionics/Electronics Avionics heat up, in a good way Unmanned Vehicles Reaching the benchmark in secure unmanned vehicle software Thermal Management Submersion and directed flow cooling technology for military applications RF & Microwave Technology Airborne antenna considerations for C-Band telemetry systems Software-designed system improves wireless test speed and coverage
2014-09-30
Article
Brose is manufacturing different vehicle mechatronic systems from its recently renovated New Boston, MI, plant.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2406
Marco Carriglio, Alberto Clarich, Rosario Russo, Enrico Nobile, Paola Ranut
Abstract The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2395
Gurunathan Varun Kumar, Meer Reshma Sheerin, Vedachalam Saravana Prabu, Kallikadan Jean, Chaitanya Rajguru, Murugesan Dinesh, Andrew Croft
Abstract Automotive climate control systems are evolving at a rapid pace to meet the overall vehicle requirements and the user expectations for comfort and convenience. This poses a challenge in the product development life cycle of multi-platform vehicle systems with respect to development time and optimal performance in the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. This paper proposes rapid HVAC plant model design and development using simplified one-dimensional (1D) simulation models for fast simulations. The specific accuracy limitations of such a simplified model are overcome using limited three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modelling. User-level control strategy is developed in an integrated simulation environment that includes a reference 1D model and a control algorithm simulator. The simulation data is used to study and analyse the temperature and airflow distribution in the system.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2429
C Venkatesan, V Faustino, S Arun, S Ravi Shankar
Abstract The automotive industry needs sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concerns as far as polyurethane (PU) is concerned. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic Polyolefin (PO) materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. It is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn't absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has a better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, it is possible to eliminate upholstery and would reduce system level cost.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2325
Michael Franke, Shirish Bhide, Jack Liang, Michael Neitz, Thomas Hamm
Abstract Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2341
Salvador Sermeno, Eric Bideaux, Tessa Morgan, Duc Nguyen
Abstract Vehicle thermal management covers the engineering field of solutions that maintain the complete vehicle in acceptable operating conditions regarding component and fluid temperatures in an engine. The maximum efficiency rating of a Diesel engine reaches up to 45%. In order to improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle one can reduce the losses generated by the cooling system. Ideally, the full motive force of the engine should be used for propulsion and new and more efficient energy sources have to be explored to power the secondary systems (cooling, compressed air…). This paper introduces a dynamic programming algorithm which is used to determine the maximum gains during operation for a given architecture of the cooling system of a Heavy Duty Truck. The algorithm, based in Bellman principle, will determine the best control trajectory for the pump and the fan according to energetic and control goals (fuel economy, regulation of temperature…).
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2343
Manfei Bai, Gangfeng Tan, Yadong Deng, Wenying Wang, Hui Yan
Abstract To make full use of engine exhaust heat and further improve the utilization of the energy efficiency of the heavy truck, thermoelectric module is used to contribute to thermoelectric power generation. The hot-end temperature of the module varies with the engine operating condition because it is connected with the exhaust pipe. The cold-end of the thermoelectric module is mainly cooled by engine cooling system. Increasing the temperature difference between the hot-end and cold-end of the thermoelectric module is a good way to improve the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. For the poor controllability of the hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module, this study puts forward by lowering the cold-end temperature of the thermoelectric module so as to ensure the improvement of the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. The cooling circle for the cold-end of the thermoelectric module which is independent of the engine cooling system is built.
2014-09-26
WIP Standard
AIR4766/2A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: - Airborne contaminant gases, vapors, and aerosols. - Identified potential sources. - Comfort, health and safety issues. - Airborne chemical measurement. - Regulations and standards. - Operating conditions and equipment that may cause aircraft cabin contamination by airborne chemicals (including Failure Conditions and normal Commercial Practices). - Airborne chemical control systems. It does not deal with airflow requirements.
2014-09-17
WIP Standard
J2670
This SAE standard applies to any and all additives and chemical solutions intended for aftermarket use in the refrigerant circuit of vehicle air-conditioning systems with belt-driven compressors, except as noted below. This standard provides testing and acceptance criteria for determining the stability and compatibility of additives and flushing materials (solutions) with A/C system materials and components, that may be intended for use in servicing or operation of vehicle air conditioning systems. This standard does not provide test criteria for additive, compressor lubricant, or flushing solution effectiveness; such testing is the responsibility of the additive and/or solution manufacturer/supplier. This standard does not cover additives or flushing materials for electrically driven compressors. The use of additives with electrically driven compressors might cause electrical shorting and compressor failure.
2014-09-17
WIP Standard
J2297
This SAE Standard applies to dyes intended to be introduced into a mobile air-conditioning system refrigerant circuit for the purpose of allowing the application of ultraviolet leak detection. In order to label any product(s) they shall meet SAE J2297, and the certification process as described in SAE J2911 must be followed and the documentation described in the appendix shall be submitted to SAE.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2224
Stephen Emo, Jamie Ervin, Travis E. Michalak, Victor Tsao
Abstract Numerous previous studies have highlighted the potential efficiency improvements which can be provided to aircraft thermal management systems by the incorporation of vapor cycle systems (VCS), either in place of, or in conjunction with, standard air cycle systems, for providing the needed thermal management for aircraft equipment and crews. This paper summarizes the results of a cycle-based VCS control architecture as tested using the Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) in the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. VCSRF is a flexible, dynamic, multi-evaporator VCS which incorporates electronic expansion valves and a variable speed compressor allowing the flexibility to test both components and control schemes. The goal of this facility is to reduce the risk of incorporating VCS into the thermal management systems (TMS) of future advanced aircraft.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2225
Hidefumi Saito, Shoji Uryu, Norio Takahashi, Noriko Morioka, Hitoshi Oyori
Abstract To improve an energy optimization issue of ECS for MEA, we propose our concept in which ACS is replaced with VCS. A VCS is generally evaluated as auxiliary or limited cooling system of an aircraft. Cooling demand of commercial aircraft usually becomes large due to ventilation air at hot day conditions. In case of using conventional VCS for whole cooling demand, the ECS becomes too heavy as aircraft equipment. Though ACS's light weight is advantageous, the issue that VCS will be available for aircraft ECS is important for saving energy. ECS of commercial aircraft should work for three basic functions, i.e. pressurization, ventilation, and temperature control. The three functions of the ECS for bleed-less type of MEA can be distributed among equipment of the ECS. MDFAC works for pressurization and ventilation. Therefore, we should select appropriate system for only temperature control.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2220
Jesse Miller, John Hoke, Frederick Schauer
Abstract Two compact intercoolers are designed for the Rotax 914 aircraft engine to increase engine power and avoid engine knock. A study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady airflow on intercooler performance. Both intercoolers use air-to-liquid cross flow heat exchangers with staggered fins. The intercoolers are first tested by connecting the four air outlets of the intercooler to a common restricted exit creating a constant back pressure which allows for steady airflow. The intercoolers are then tested by connecting the four air outlets to a 2.4 liter, 4 cylinder engine head and varying the engine speed from 6000 to 1200 RPM corresponding to decreasing flow steadiness. The test is performed under average flight conditions with air entering the intercooler at 180°F and about 5 psig. Results from the experiment indicate that airflow unsteadiness has a significant effect on the intercooler's performance.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2117
Michael L. Zierolf, Thomas Brinson, Andrew Fleming
Abstract Recent emphasis on optimization of engine technologies with ancillary subsystems such as power and thermal management has created a need for integrated system modeling. These systems are coupled such that federated design methods may not lead to the most synergetic solution. Obtaining an optimal design is often contingent on developing an integrated model. Integrated models, however, can involve combining complex simulation platforms into a single system of systems, which can present many challenges. Model organization and configuration control become increasingly important when orchestrating various models into a single simulation. Additionally, it is important to understand such details as the interface between models and signal routing to ensure the integrated behavior is not contaminated or biased. This paper will present some key learnings for model integration to help alleviate some of the challenges with system-based modeling.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2123
Andre Hessling
Abstract Advanced technologies in LED's have the potential to reduce maintenance and improve aircraft safety. Aircrafts need adequate illumination for night time landing. New technology such as high-power LEDs allow for better suited light distributions, more whitish light compatible for mesopic lighting conditions and reduced glare in adverse weather conditions. LEDs and the associated electronics are more susceptible to harsh environmental conditions and this needs to be accounted for in the design of the equipment. Highly conductive metal core PCBs (MCPCB) allow for adequate cooling in a mirror telescopic optical arrangement when coupled with robust active cooling. Closed loop optical feedback of output flux ensures constant performance over the lifetime of the light unit and allows for indication of remaining useful life to the operator to plan maintenance activities. Parylene coating inhibits premature degradation of the LEDs induced by water vapor and corrosive gases.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2160
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow
Abstract In this paper, we address the thermal management issues which limit the lifespan, specific power and overall efficiency of an air-cooled rotary Wankel engine used in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). Our goal is to eliminate the hot spots and reduce the temperature gradients in the engine housing and side plates by aggressive heat spreading using heat pipes. We demonstrate by simulation that, for a specific power requirement, with heat spreading and more effective heat dissipation, thermal stress and distortion can be significantly reduced, even with air cooling. The maximum temperature drop was substantial, from 231°C to 129°C. The temperature difference (measure of temperature uniformity) decreased by 8.8 times (from 159°C to 18°C) for a typical UAV engine. Our heat spreaders would not change the frontal area of the engine and should have a negligible impact on the installed weight of the propulsion assembly.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2161
Alireza R. Behbahani, Alex Von Moll, Robert Zeller, James Ordo
Abstract Modern propulsion system designers face challenges that require that aircraft and engine manufacturers improve performance as well as reduce the life-cycle cost (LCC). These improvements will require a more efficient, more reliable, and more advanced propulsion system. The concept of smart components is built around actively controlling the engine and the aircraft to operate optimally. Usage of smart components intelligently increases efficiency and system safety throughout the flight envelope, all while meeting environmental challenges. This approach requires an integration and optimization, both at the local level and the system level, to reduce cost. Interactions between the various subsystems must be understood through the use of modeling and simulation. This is accomplished by starting with individual subsystem models and combining them into a complete system model. Hierarchical, decentralized control reduces cost and risk by enabling integration and modularity.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2152
Pedro Del valle, Pablo Blazquez Munoz
Abstract Advance thermal management systems are being developed to optimise the energy balance within aircraft. This is being done in parallel to the concept of the More Electrical Aircraft (MEA) which has been developing throughout the last decades. The objective of such complex systems is to use efficiently the hot and cold sources available within the air vehicle to reduce the engine fuel consumption. A reduction of electrical power consumption, minimisation of weight, optimisation of aircraft aerodynamics (for example RAM inlets area minimisation) and the reduction of bleed air from engine all result in a fuel consumption saving. Any thermal management system to optimise energy consumption implies complex and advanced systems. This requires a high engineering effort to design and integrate the system within an aircraft due to the large quantity of variables and interfaces that need to be taken into account.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2155
Javier A. Parrilla
Abstract Current industry trends demonstrate aircraft electrification will be part of future platforms in order to achieve higher levels of efficiency in various vehicle level sub-systems. However, electrification requires a substantial change in aircraft design that is not suitable for re-winged or re-engined applications as some aircraft manufacturers are opting for today. Thermal limits arise as engine cores progressively get smaller and hotter to improve overall engine efficiency, while legacy systems still demand a substantial amount of pneumatic, hydraulic and electric power extraction. The environmental control system (ECS) provides pressurization, ventilation and air conditioning in commercial aircraft, making it the main heat sink for all aircraft loads with exception of the engine fuel thermal management system.
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