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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2888
Devadatta Mukutmoni, Tristan Donley, Jaehoon Han, Karthik Mahadevan Muthuraman, P. David Campbell, Tom Mertz
Design and evaluation of construction equipments and vehicles constitute a very important but expensive and time consuming part of the engineering process. This is especially so because of the large number of variants and the relatively small production volume of each variant leading to large costs of engineering and design of vehicles as a proportion of total sales. A simulation based methodology could potentially reduce the cost and time of the entire design process. In this study, we look into an alternative simulation based approach to the design process. However, given the enormity of the task, we limit the scope of this investigation to design evaluation and improvement for thermal considerations only. In particular, thermal evaluation of the electronic control units are looked into.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2792
Olof Erlandsson, Thomas Skare, Arnaud Contet
The automotive industry have become more and more interesting in recovering waste heat from internal combustion engines (ICE) , especially with future, tighter fuel and CO2 emission regulations in sight. Potential systems that recover waste heats have in all in common that they have lower efficiency than the ICE itself (otherwise the use of ICE would be questioned), hence the recovery system also need to expel a lot of waste heat to the surrounding. In this study we consider a simple automotive Rankine waste heat recovery system (WHRS) on a long-haulage truck that transform some of the ICE waste heat into useful energy but it still needs to return remaining heat to the surrounding, either through a direct condenser (CDS) or from an indirect CDS via a Low temperature radiator (LTR) to the surrounding, and this in the regular cooling module of the vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2873
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Years ago the main purpose of heavy duty truck is to carrying the loads, in the current scenario cabin comfort and safety is also equally important. With the improved infrastructure quality the average speed of these types of vehicle has also been increased. With the higher average speed, the chances of getting crash have also been increased. In order to provide safety to the driver, all the safety parameters should be considered in advance at the time of design and development of cabin. Sufficient survival space must be present at the time of crash. In order to provide optimum ride comfort, fully suspended cab was designed. The main aim of this study is to develop detailed 3D finite element (FE) model of fully suspended heavy duty truck cabin with detailed suspensions system and simulate crash test scenario presented in regulation ECE-R29 using LS-Dyna explicit solver.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2869
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Umashanker Gupta, Ravi Joshi, Shailesh Pawar
Buses are one of the main and favorite sources of public transit in India. Thousands of people die or injure severely every year due to Bus accidents. Passenger injury in Bus accidents can be due to high stiff seat structures. Most of the occupants seated in the second row or further back were injured by hitting the seat back in the row in front of them. AIS023 (AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARDS) is one of the several mandatory standards from CMVR (CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLES RULES) to ensure the safety during crash. As per AIS-023 passenger seat of bus should not cause injury because of high stiffness, on the other hand seat should also be able to carry the passenger force during accidents. With this mechanism AIS023 specifies minimum and maximum range deformations of seat back to minimize the passenger injury. This study includes the FE (Finite Element) analysis and design of Bus seat as per AIS023 test setup with LS-Dyna explicit tool.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2809
Sajit Pillai, Julian LoRusso, Matthew Van Benschoten
Abstract Cylinder deactivation was evaluated both analytically and experimentally on a six cylinder diesel engine to understand potential fuel economy and emission improvements. The benefits of cylinder deactivation in Spark Ignited (SI) engines are well documented, however there is little information on the application of the technology for diesel engines. The analytical model was evaluated at low load, steady state conditions. The modified baseline model that includes cylinder deactivation maintains comparable emission levels through the optimization of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT). The results demonstrated reductions in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and higher exhaust gas temperatures for low and part load operating points. An experimental test validated the analytical results. Disabling fuel injectors and the valve train on half of the engine's cylinders allowed for the implementation of cylinder deactivation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2838
Dharmar Ganesh, Riyaz Mohammed, Hareesh Krishnan, Radakrishnan Rambabu
In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location. This paper deals with how to achieve a visual hindrance free cluster position in a vehicle to protect the important information flow from the vehicle to the driver.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2415
Kyle Shimmin, Greg Russell, Robert A. Reuter, Steven Iden
A reduced order dynamic aircraft model has been created for the purpose of enabling constructive simulation studies involving integrated electrical power and thermal management subsystems using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization methods. Previous higher-order models that have been used for this purpose have the drawbacks of much higher development time, along with much higher execution times in the simulation studies. The new formulation allows for climbs, accelerations and turns without incurring computationally expensive stability considerations; a dynamic inversion control law provides tracking of user-specified mission data. To assess the trade-off of improved run-time performance against model capability, the reduced order formulation is compared to a traditional six degree-of-freedom model of the same air vehicle. Thrust command comparisons against the higher fidelity model are shown to be excellent.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2420
Henry A. Catherino
The heat generation rate of a lithium ion cell was estimated using a reversible heat generation rate equation. Because the equation is based on the energy conservation law, the influence of kinetically slow processes should be considered. In this analysis, the influence of kinetically slow processes is present but it is small within the domain of the test measurements. This approximation can be of significant usefulness for modeling the thermal response of single cells and multi-cell batteries.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2418
Ricardo Gandolfi, Luiz Ribeiro, Jorge Oliveira, Kleber Paiva, Marcia Mantelli
Due to the increasing power density of onboard electrical and electronic equipments and heat dissipation in civil and military aircraft, more efficient ways of transferring heat and new cooling techniques are a necessity. A passive heat transfer prototype was developed and experimentally evaluated in laboratory, at flight and ground tests in an Embraer ERJ-170 test aircraft. The passive heat transfer device consists of a loop-thermosyphon with two condensers and a common evaporator, using water as the heat transfer working fluid. An electrical resistance and a variable power source were used to dissipate heat inside the evaporator, simulating heat transfer from an onboard electronics bay. The fuselage/external air stream and the air flow inside an air conditioning system duct were used as heat sinks. Prior to flight tests, laboratory tests were conducted simulating ground and flight operations.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2419
Naoki Seki, Noriko Morioka, Hidefumi Saito, Hitoshi Oyori
This paper describes the concept of air/fuel integrated thermal management system, which employs VCS (Vapor Cycle System) for the refrigeration unit of ECS (Environment Control System) and exchange the heat between VCS refrigerant and the fuel into the engine, and present feasibility study to apply the concept to the future all electric aircraft system. The key component of the aircraft thermal management system is ECS. The heat generated in the aircraft is transferred to ECS heat exchanger by the recirculation of the cabin air and exhausted into the ram air. While some of the aircrafts employ the fluid heat transfer loop, the transferred heat is exhausted into the ram air as ever. The usage of ram air for the cooling will increase the ram drag and the fuel consumption, thus, less usage of ram air is preferable. Another source for heat exhaust is the fuel.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2416
Charles E. Oberly, Michelle Bash, Benjamin R. Razidlo, Travis E. Michalak, Fernando Rodriguez
Abstract An IPTMS hardware facility has been established in the laboratories of the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Paterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This hardware capability was established to analyze the transient behavior of a high power Electrical Power System (EPS) coupled virtually to a Thermal Management System (TMS) under fast dynamic loading conditions. The system incorporates the use of dynamic electrical load, engine emulation, energy storage, and emulated thermal loads operated to investigate dynamics under step load conditions. Hardware architecture and control options for the IPTMS are discussed. This paper summarizes the IPTMS laboratory demonstration system, its capabilities, and preliminary test results.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2545
Reza Ahmadi, Oliver Marquardt, Marc Riedlinger, Reinhard Reichel
Abstract Aircraft cabin systems, especially cabin management systems (CMS) have to cope with frequent cabin changes during their lifecycle. This includes not only layout rearrangements and technological upgrades during the service, but also extensive CMS customizations and product variations before aircraft delivery. Therefore it is inevitable for the CMS to be highly changeable and offer an easy and agile change process. Today's CMS solutions face this challenge with configurable system architectures. Although such architectures offer a vast change domain, they usually come with time consuming and error prone change processes. This paper introduces an adaptive avionics software architecture that enables the CMS to cope with cabin changes highly automatically and with minimal human interactions. The adaptation is performed during an on ground organization phase, in which system changes are detected and evaluated by the CMS itself.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2561
Fernando Stancato, Sandro Conceicao, Ramon Papa, Luis Santos
Abstract Nowadays CFD analysis including virtual manikins is vastly applied to evaluate thermal comfort inside different working environments, such as buildings cars and aircrafts. Inside aircraft cabins, added to the numerical challenges due to geometrical complexity, the available subjective responses used to judge occupant local thermal comfort are usually based on buildings and cars experiments [1]. In the present paper however, it is applied an aircraft based subjective responses to evaluate thermal comfort which was specifically developed using regional jet mock-up experiments. The evaluation for the two approaches will be compared providing insight of the main differences.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2582
Andre Silva, Nayeff Najjar, Shalabh Gupta, Paul D'Orlando, Rhonda Walthall
Abstract The Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft provides thermal and pressure control of the engine bleed air for comfort of the crew members and passengers onboard. For safe and reliable operation of the ECS under complex operating environments, it is critical to detect and diagnose performance degradations in the system during early phases of fault evolution. One of the critical components of the ECS is the heat exchanger, which ensures proper cooling of the engine bleed air. This paper presents a wavelet-based fouling diagnosis approach for the heat exchanger.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2533
Mirko Bovo, Joop Somhorst
The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. This work presents a time resolved, high resolution 3D engine heat balance model, including all relevant components. Notably, the model calculates the conjugated heat transfer between the solid engine components, the coolant and the oil. Both coolant and oil circuits are simultaneously resolved with a CFD solver in the same finite volume model as the entire engine solid parts. The model includes external convection and radiation. The necessary boundary conditions of the thermodynamic cycle (gas side) are mapped from a calibrated 1D gas exchange model of the same engine. The boundary conditions for the coolant and at the oil circuits are estimated with 1D models of the systems. The model is calibrated and verified with measurement data from the same engine as modeled.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2443
Jesus Benajes, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech, Alberto Vassallo
In the last two decades engine research has been mainly focused on reducing pollutant emissions. This fact together with growing awareness about the impacts of climate change are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency over other criteria in the design of internal combustion engines (ICE). In this framework, the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls can be considered as one of the main sources of indicated efficiency diminution. In particular, in modern direct-injection diesel engines, the radiation emission from soot particles can constitute a significant component of the efficiency losses. Thus, the main of objective of the current research was to evaluate the amount of energy lost to soot radiation relative to the input fuel chemical energy during the combustion event under several representative engine loads and speeds. Moreover, the current research characterized the impact of different engine operating conditions on radiation heat transfer.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2536
Julien Bouilly, Francois Lafossas, Ali Mohammadi, Roger Van Wissen
Abstract In the automotive field, reducing harmful pollutant, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles while increasing customer comfort is a continuous challenge that requires more and more sophisticated technology implementations. However, it is often difficult to anticipate the advantages and drawbacks of a technology without having its prototype parts and/or knowing the optimal control strategy. In order to meet these challenges, the authors have developed a vehicle thermal model in AMESim platform to evaluate the benefits of an Active Grille Shutter (AGS) on fuel economy when applied. The vehicle model was based on a C-Segment vehicle powered by a 1.4L Diesel engine. The complete oil and coolant circuits were modeled as well as a friction model based on engine coolant and oil temperature.
2015-08-28
Standard
ARP5873A
This document presents minimum criteria for the design and installation of LED passenger reading light assemblies in commercial aircraft. The use of “shall” in this specification expresses provisions that are binding. Non-mandatory provisions use the term “should.”
2015-08-28
Standard
ARP1532B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers procedures or methods to be used for fabricating, handling, testing, and installation of oxygen lines in an aircraft oxygen system.
2015-08-28
Standard
J2064_201508
The Scope of SAE J2064 covers coupled hose assemblies intended for containing and circulating lubricant, liquid and gaseous R134a and/or R-1234yf refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems. Historically, requirements for the hose used in coupled automotive refrigerant air conditioning assemblies was included in SAE J2064. SAE J2064 has been changed to establish the requirements for factory and field coupled hose assemblies. SAE J3062 has been issued to define requirements for the hose used in these assemblies into its own standard. SAE J2064 also provides the necessary values used in SAE J2727 Mobile Air Conditioning System Refrigerant Emission charts for R-134a and R-1234yf. The certified coupling of MAC hose assemblies is required in meeting certain regulatory requirements. A hose which has met the requirements of SAE J3062 and certified in J2911 must be used as part of the coupled assembly.
2015-08-20
WIP Standard
AS8034C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for all types of Electronic Displays and Electronic Display Systems that are intended for use in the flight deck by the flightcrew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. The requirements and recommendations in this document are intended to apply to all installed electronic displays and electronic display systems within the flight deck, regardless of intended function, criticality, or location within the flight deck, but may also be used for non-installed electronic displays. This document provides baseline requirements and recommendations (see section 2.3 for definitions of “shall” and “should”). This document primarily addresses hardware requirements, such as electrical, mechanical, optical, and environmental. It does not address system specific functions.
2015-08-19
WIP Standard
J2831
This Information Report provides recommendations for alphanumeric messages that are supplied to the vehicle by external (e.g., RDS, satellite radio) or internal (e.g., infotainment system) sources while the vehicle is in-motion. Information/design recommendations contained in this report apply to OEM (embedded) and aftermarket systems. Ergonomic issues with regard to display characteristics (e.g., viewing angle, brightness, contrast, font design, etc.) should review ISO 15008.
2015-08-14
Standard
AS8049C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards, qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for passenger and crew seats in civil rotorcraft, transport aircraft, and general aviation aircraft. The goal is to achieve comfort, durability, and occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when a seat/occupant/restraint system is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic impact test conditions set forth in the applicable Federal Regulations 14 CFR 23, 25, 27, or 29. Guidance for test procedures, measurements, equipment, and interpretation of results is also presented to promote uniform techniques and to achieve acceptable data. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat supplier and the installation applicant.
2015-08-11
Standard
J2412_201508
This test method specifies the operating procedures for a controlled irradiance, xenon arc apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive interior trim components. Test duration as well as any exceptions to the specimen preparation and performance evaluation procedures contained in this document, are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers. Any deviation to this test method, such as filter combinations, is to be agreed upon by contractual parties.
2015-08-04
Magazine
Chipping in to get more from battery packs Power semiconductors help extend range, keeping their cool while improving efficiency at higher voltages.
2015-07-28
Standard
AS8055A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for airborne binocular Head-Up Displays (HUDs) in fixed wing (14 CFR part 23, 25) aircraft; while this document is also applicable to rotorcraft (14 CFR part 27, 29) additional performance standards may be required for rotorcraft. This aerospace standard covers basic display standards, but does not include specific application requirements. Specific applications can include flight instrumentation, navigation, engine and system status, alerting, surveillance, communication, terrain awareness, weather, enhanced vision, synthetic vision and other displays. This document covers criteria for conformal and non-conformal HUD systems that are intended for use in the flight deck by the pilot or copilot. Display minimum performance characteristics are specified for standard and other environmental conditions for the purpose of product qualification.
2015-07-23
Article
Based in Frankfurt, Pierre Juan manages sales and technical teams across 19 countries as the Global Automotive Vice President at Styrolution. The company describes itself as the leading global styrenics supplier. He discusses the future of plastics in the automotive industry, including opportunities and challenges.
2015-07-17
Standard
ARP5526D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues and design criteria to facilitate certification of seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft. This ARP provides general guidance for seats to be installed in Part 23 aircraft and Parts 27 and 29 rotorcraft and does not specify specific designs or design methods for such certification.
2015-07-13
Standard
ARP1796B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands.
2015-07-08
Standard
J3030_201507
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to establish the specific minimum equipment requirements for recovery/recycling/recharge equipment intended for use with both R-1234yf and R-134a in a common refrigerant circuit that has been directly removed from, and is intended for reuse in, mobile air-conditioning (A/C) systems. This document does not apply to equipment used for R-1234yf and R-134a having a common enclosure with separate circuits for each refrigerant, although some amount of separate circuitry for each refrigerant could be used.
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