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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0079
Daisuke Fukui, Yoshinari Ninomiya
With the remarkable rise of gas price and the global air pollution, measures to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emission have become the urgent need in the motorcycle industry following automobile. For the improvement of the engine thermal efficiency that is one of those problems, there is a well-known fact that various research and development are continued from the past. We recognize that the coexistence of the high mobility and fuel efficiency performance of the Community-Based small motorcycles are demanded in the developed country not only developing countries. And we recognize that the coexistence of driveability and emission control of recreation and sports motorcycles is demanded. However, in the development of the engines for small motorcycles, due to differences in engine speed range, emission control, cost, infrastructure, we need some different approaches from the automobile engines which are full of advanced technologies.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0008
Balagovind Nandakumar Kartha, Srikanth Vijaykumar, Pramod Reddemreddy
Today, nations are in the path of low-emission transformation mandating stricter emission norms with periodic revisions. With the expected introduction of Bharath Stage VI (BS VI) for two wheelers in India by 2020, limitation in primary pollutants namely - Carbon Monoxide (CO), Total Hydro-Carbons (THC) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) are reduced by 50%, 75% and 85% respectively in comparison to the existing Bharath Stage IV. The original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are identifying measures to improve the overall efficiency and raw emissions from the engine through strategies like multi-spark configurations, improved charge induction concepts, liquid cooling, lean combustion etc. With end user demands for performance, low end torque, high power to displacement ratio, quick acceleration and fuel efficiency, the balance with the emission regulation is expected to be challenging.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0033
Tiago J. Costa, Mark Nickerson, Daniele Littera, Jorge Martins, Alexander Shkolnik, Nikolay Shkolnik, Francisco Brito
This paper describes the method used for heat transfer measurement and prediction on the LiquidPiston XMv3 small rotary engine at its current state of development. A 1D engine model (GT-POWER) and a 3D CFD model (CONVERGE), were coupled together with the objective of quantifying the engine heat transfer losses inside the combustion chamber. Experimental data was used to validate and calibrate the 1D engine model. Parameters used in calibration include heat transfer constants, and equivalent critical orifice for “atmospheric” and “inter-chamber” leak areas. These parameters were calibrated to match experimental motoring traces, and then lumped in with heat release parameters while fitting firing traces. The GT-Power model results were used as boundary conditions for the CFD modelling. A detailed chemistry combustion model (SAGE) was used to better calculate flame front propagation and flame quenching at the engine walls, relevant for a predictive heat transfer modelling.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2336
Ken Naitoh, Soichi Ohara, Yuichi Onuma, Kentaro Kojima, Kenya Hasegawa, Tomoya Shirai
Combustion experiments obtained for a small single-point auto-ignition gasoline engine having strongly-asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles with pulse collide around the combustion chamber center, showed both a high thermal efficiency comparable to that of today’s diesel engine and also a silent combustion comparable to that of today’s spark-ignition gasoline engines, at the condition of low road and 2000rpm. While this gasoline engine having a medium level of point compression generated by a negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves, steady-state experiments of combustion at air-fuel ratios between 20:1 and 40:1 (lean conditions) show apparent increase of exhaust temperature over 100 degrees and pressures over 1.5 MPa, even at the situations without any plugs.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2262
Atsushi Shimada, Yuzo Shirakawa, Takao Ishikawa
Abstract Bio-ethanol can be produced from several type of biomass, and the CO2 emission of bio-ethanol is low compared with gasoline. Bio-ethanol is a high octane fuel, therefore, it has characteristics that allow it to burn at a high compression ratio condition. However, bio-ethanol is usually refined to be high purity ethanol (>99.5%). It requires much energy to refine; thus large-scale refinery plants are needed, increasing the cost of refining bio-ethanol. High purity ethanol (>99.5%) can be refined after fermentation and a distillation. If hydrous ethanol can be used as a fuel for engines, the distillation process can be simplified. As a result, the costs of refinement can be reduced. An innovated engine can be developed by using hydrous ethanol as the fuel because three highly efficient methods can be combined. First, exhaust heat can be recovered by the steam reforming of hydrous ethanol.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2161
Gangfeng Tan, Xuefeng Yang, Li Zhou, Kangping Ji, Mengying Yang
Abstract In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2221
Joshua Kurtis Carroll, Mohammad Alzorgan, Corey Page, Abdel Raouf Mayyas
Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as a promising future solution for sustainable transportation. This is due to the reduction in energy consumption when compared to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles. EVs and PHEVs contain an Energy Storage Systems (ESS). This increases the complexity of the system but also provides additional margins and fields for optimization. One of the most important elements of these vehicles is the ESS. The electrochemistry nature of battery systems is inherently sensitive to the temperature shifts. The shifts are controlled by the thermal management system of the traction battery systems, for electric-drive vehicles, which directly affects the overall vehicle dynamics. These dynamics include performance, long-term durability, and cost of the battery systems. Hence, thermal management becomes an essential element in the achievement to meet the demand for better performance.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2160
Alexander Bech, Paul J. Shayler, Michael McGhee
A physics based, lumped thermal capacity model of a 1litre, 3 cylinder, turbocharged, directly injected spark ignition engine has been developed to investigate the effects of cylinder deactivation on the thermal behaviour and fuel economy of small capacity, 3 cylinder engines. When one is deactivated, the output of the two firing cylinders is increased by 50%. The largest temperature differences resulting from this are between exhaust ports and between the upper parts of liners of the deactivated cylinder and the adjacent firing cylinder. These differences increase with load. The deactivated cylinder liner cools to near-coolant temperature. Temperatures in the lower engine structure show little response to deactivation. Temperature response times following deactivation or reactivation events are similar. Motoring work for the deactivated cylinder is a minor loss; the net benefit of deactivation diminishes with increasing load.
2016-09-30
Article
The VW I.D. Concept, with a claimed range of up to 373 mi (600 km) on a single charge, heralds a blitz of new electrified vehicles based on the company’s new MEB modular platform dedicated to battery-electric models.
CURRENT
2016-09-30
Standard
J2678_201609
This document provides the rationale used by the Navigation Function Accessibility Subcommittee (the Subcommittee) for the development and content of a SAE J2364 Recommended Practice: Navigation and Route Guidance Function Accessibility While Driving. It provides both the reasoning for the overall recommended practice as well as each of its elements.
2016-09-29
Article
Many among the 13 partners that jointly developed the Genius CAB concept are firmly established in the automotive industry, and quite of few of these suppliers note the influence their automotive arms played in their contributions to the project.
2016-09-28
WIP Standard
ARP4102/11D
This document recommends criteria for Airborne Windshear Systems, including operational objectives, characteristics and functional requirements. The recommendations of the document apply to transport aircraft, and describe the operational objectives of windshear alerting systems, situational displays, guidance systems and avoidance/detection systems.
2016-09-28
WIP Standard
ARP4102/13B
This document recommends criteria for a system designed to manage and communicate information via data link to support flight operations.
2016-09-28
WIP Standard
ARP4102/5SECT3A
This document recommends design criteria for the flight deck installation of electrically signaled flight control systems on fixed wing airplanes.
2016-09-28
WIP Standard
ARP4102/5SECT1A
This document recommends design criteria for the flight deck installation of electrically signaled engine control systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8121
Riccardo Bianchi, Addison Alexander, Andrea Vacca
Abstract Typically, earthmoving machines do not have wheel suspensions. This lack of components often causes uncomfortable driving, and in some cases reduces machine productivity and safety. Several solutions to this problem have been proposed in the last decades, and particularly successful is the passive solution based on the introduction of accumulators in the hydraulic circuit connecting the machine boom. The extra capacitance effect created by the accumulator causes a magnification of the boom oscillations, in such a way that these oscillations counter-react the machine oscillation caused by the driving on uneven ground. This principle of counter-reacting machine oscillations through the boom motion can be achieved also with electro-hydraulic solutions, properly actuating the flow supply to the boom actuators on the basis of a feedback sensors and a proper control strategy.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8100
Jordan Kelleher, Nikhil Ajotikar
Abstract Piston cooling nozzles/jets play several crucial roles in the power cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Primarily, they help with the thermal management of the piston and provide lubrication to the cylinder liner and the piston’s wrist pin. In order to evaluate the oil jet characteristics from various piston cooling nozzle (PCN) designs, a quantitative and objective process was developed. The PCN characterization began with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulent model to analyze the mean oil velocity and flow distribution at the nozzle exit/tip. Subsequently, the PCN was tested on a rig for a given oil temperature and pressure. A high-speed camera captured images at 2500 frames per second to observe the evolution of the oil stream as a function of distance from the nozzle exit. An algorithm comprised of standard digital image processing techniques was created to calculate the oil jet width and density.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8085
Yanjun Ren, Gangfeng Tan, Kangping Ji, Li Zhou, Ruobing Zhan
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device generally equipped on commercial vehicles. Its oil temperature change influences the brake performance of hydraulic retarder. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a good means to recover exhausted heat. Moreover, it can cool oil and stably control oil temperature with the help of heat absorption related with evaporation. Comprehensively considering the heat-producing characteristics of hydraulic retarder and the temperature control demand, the aimed boundary conditions are determined. Also the changing rules about the working medium flow rate are obtained. In this work, the heat-producing properties of hydraulic retarder under different conditions and the oil external circulating performance is firstly analyzed. By researching the system’s adaptation to the limiting conditions, the aimed temperature to control is prescribed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8057
Michael Glensvig, Heimo Schreier, Mauro Tizianel, Helmut Theissl, Peter Krähenbühl, Fabio Cococcetta, Ivan Calaon
Abstract This paper presents the results of a long haul truck Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system from simulation, test bench and public road testing. The WHR system uses exhaust gas recuperation only and utilizes up to 110kW of exhaust waste heat for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a typical European driving cycle. The testing and simulation procedures are explained in detail together with the tested and simulated WHR fuel consumption benefit for different real life cycles in Europe and USA reaching fuel consumption benefits between 2.5% and 3.4%. Additionally a technology road map is shown which discusses the role of WHR in fulfilling the future CARB BSFC target value (minimum in map) of around 172 g/kWh.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8079
Zhiwei Zhang, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Zhongjie Yang, Mengzuo Han
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device. With merits such as its high braking torque, smooth braking, low noise, long service life and small size, it is widely used on modern commercial vehicles. Transmission fluid of traditional hydraulic retarder is cooled by engine cooling system, which exhausts the heat directly and need additional energy consumption for the thermal management component. On account of the working characteristics of hydraulic retarder, this study designs a set of waste heat recovery system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Under the premise of ensuring stable performance of hydraulic retarder, waste heat energy in transmission fluid is recycled to supplement energy requirements for cooling system. First of all, a principle model, which is scaled down according to D300 retarder`s thermal power generation ration of 1:100, is established.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8071
Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Yurii Gutarevych, Vasyl Mateichyk, Valeriy Verbovskiy
Abstract The article discusses the use of the combined heating system with phase-transitional thermal accumulator. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, coolant and motor oil, and emissions of the internal combustion engine during its operation to accumulate the thermal energy. The results of experimental studies of the combined heating system are shown. A system and methods for pre-start and after-start heating of the vehicular engine in the investigated system are developed. The structure of the "combined heating” system to study the impact of its structural and adjustment parameters on the performance of thermal development of the vehicular engine is described. The use of the combined heating system within phase-transitional thermal accumulators is compared with the use of standard systems for a truck engine 8FS 9.2 / 8. It reduces the time of coolant and motor oil thermal development by 22.9-57.5% and 25-57% accordingly.
2016-09-20
Article
Expect vehicle interiors to get advanced touch screens and more HUDs, as IHS Automotive says customers seek a user interface that not only simplifies but just plain works.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1978
Philippe Coni, Sylvain Hourlier, Xavier Servantie, Laurent Laluque, Aude Gueguen
Abstract A 3D Stereoscopic Head-Up Display (HUD) using direct projection on a transparent screen is presented. Symbol incrustation in conformity with the landscape is performed through the use of simulated collimation offering a large eye-box, in excess of conventional HUD. The use of spectral glasses for our transparent screen was decided as most commonly used polarizing or active glasses were not adapted. Furthermore it gave ususeful green laser attack protection.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1997
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract The aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling fan is a critical component because an EMA failure caused by overheating could lead to a catastrophic failure in aircraft. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to access the failure probability of EMA fans with the goal of improving their mean time to failure (MTTF) from ∼O(5×104) to ∼ O(2.5×109) hours without incurring heavy weight penalty and high cost. The dual-winding and dual-bearing approaches are analyzed and a contra rotating dual-fan design is proposed. Fan motors are assumed to be brushless direct current (BLDC) motors. To have a full understanding of fan reliability, all possible failure mechanisms and failure modes are taken into account.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1998
Michele Trancossi, Jose Pascoa, Carlos Xisto
Abstract Environmental and economic issues related to the aeronautic transport, with particular reference to the high-speed one are opening new perspectives to pulsejets and derived pulse detonation engines. Their importance relates to high thrust to weight ratio and low cost of manufacturing with very low energy efficiency. This papers presents a preliminary evaluation in the direction of a new family of pulsejets which can be coupled with both an air compression system which is currently in pre-patenting study and a more efficient and enduring valve systems with respect to today ones. This new pulsejet has bee specifically studied to reach three objectives: a better thermodynamic efficiency, a substantial reduction of vibrations by a multi-chamber cooled architecture, a much longer operative life by more affordable valves. Another objective of this research connects directly to the possibility of feeding the pulsejet with hydrogen.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1994
Wei Wu, Yeong-Ren Lin, Louis Chow, Edmund Gyasi, John P. Kizito, Quinn Leland
Abstract For aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling applications using forced air produced by axial fans, the main objective in fan design is to generate high static pressure head, high volumetric flow rate, and high efficiency over a wide operating range of rotational speed (1x∼3x) and ambient pressure (0.2∼1 atm). In this paper, a fan design based on a fan diameter of 86 mm, fan depth (thickness) of 25.4 mm, and hub diameter of 48 mm is presented. The blade setting angle and the chord lengths at the leading and trailing edges are varied in their suitable ranges to determine the optimal blade profiles. The fan static pressure head, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity are calculated at various ambient pressures and rotational speeds. The optimal blade design in terms of maximum total-to-total pressure ratio and efficiency at the design point is obtained via CFD simulation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1999
Debabrata Pal, Frank Feng
Abstract In 3-phase AC application, there is additional heat dissipation due to skin effects and proximity effects in bus bars. In addition, when the 3- phase AC is used to drive a motor at high fundamental frequency, for example between 666 Hz and 1450 Hz, there are higher bus bar losses due to presence of higher frequency harmonic content. High frequency current carrying bus bars in aircraft power panels are typically cooled by natural convection and radiation. In this paper a thermal and electrical finite element analysis (FEA) is done for a bus bar system. For electrical loss modeling, 3D electromagnetic FEA is used to characterize losses in three parallel bus bars carrying AC at various frequencies. This loss analysis provides correlation of heat loss as function of frequency. A method is presented where this AC loss is incorporated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based thermal model.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2000
Mark Bodie, Thierry Pamphile, Jon Zumberge, Thomas Baudendistel, Michael Boyd
Abstract As technology for both military and civilian aviation systems mature into a new era, techniques to test and evaluate these systems have become of great interest. To achieve a general understanding as well as save time and cost, the use of computer modeling and simulation for component, subsystem or integrated system testing has become a central part of technology development programs. However, the evolving complexity of the systems being modeled leads to a tremendous increase in the complexity of the developed models. To gain confidence in these models there is a need to evaluate the risk in using those models for decision making. Statistical model validation techniques are used to assess the risk of using a given model in decision making exercises. In this paper, we formulate a transient model validation challenge problem for an air cycle machine (ACM) and present a hardware test bench used to generate experimental data relevant to the model.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2023
Timothy Deppen, Brian Raczkowski, Marco Amrhein, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Mark Bodie, Soumya Patnaik
Abstract Future aircraft systems are projected to have order of magnitude greater power and thermal demands, along with tighter constraints on the performance of the power and thermal management subsystems. This trend has led to the need for a fully integrated design process where power and thermal systems, and their interactions, are considered simultaneously. To support this new design paradigm, a general framework for codifying and checking specifications and requirements is presented. This framework is domain independent and can be used to translate requirement language into a structured definition that can be quickly queried and applied to simulation and measurement data. It is constructed by generalizing a previously developed power quality analysis framework. The application of this framework is demonstrated through the translation of thermal specifications for airborne electrical equipment, into the SPecification And Requirement Evaluation (SPARE) Tool.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1995
Patrick McCarthy, Nicholas Niedbalski, Kevin McCarthy, Eric Walters, Joshua Cory, Soumya Patnaik
Abstract As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems increases, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for reducing development cost and optimizing performance. To facilitate this, an appropriate modeling environment is required that allows developers to rapidly explore a wider design space than can cost effectively be considered through hardware construction and testing. This wide design space can then yield solutions that are far more energy efficient than previous generation designs. In addition, non-intuitive cross-coupled subsystem behavior can also be explored to ensure integrated system stability prior to hardware fabrication and testing. In recent years, optimization of control strategies between coupled subsystems has necessitated the understanding of the integrated system dynamics.
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