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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0215
Mohammad Nahid, Amin Sharfuzzaman, Joydip Saha, Harry Chen, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axles is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss and have a significant effect on overall vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with the viscosity of the lubricant. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0216
Joydip Saha, Harshit Coutinho, Sadek S. Rahman
Current and future automotive systems are becoming more complex than ever. They consist of different subsystems such as the engine, transmission, cooling system, driveline, controls systems, HVAC and active/passive safety systems. Hardware and software development for each of these subsystems have different timeline’s. The subsystems are usually developed by different teams within an organization and in some cases are also developed by suppliers. These are some of the main hurdles for carrying out a system level analysis of the vehicle earlier in the development process. Model.CONNECT was used to overcome the above mentioned hurdles by connecting a driveline model, a cooling system model, thermal controller and two-phase flow models with minimal effort.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0214
Simon O. Omekanda, Rezwanur Rahman, Eric M. Lott, Sadek S. Rahman, Daniel E. Hornback
Designing an efficient transient thermal system model has become a very important task in improving fuel economy. As opposed to steady-state thermal models, part of the difficulty in designing a transient model is optimizing a set of inputs. The first objective in this work is to develop an engine compatible physics-based 1D thermal model for fuel economy and robust control. In order to capture and study the intrinsic thermo-physical nature, both generic “Three Mass” and “Eight Mass” engine model are developed. The models have been correlated heuristically using Simulink and Flowmaster, respectively. In order to extend the lumped mass engine model it also has been extended to Simulink model. In contrast to the complexity of the models the “Heuristic search” of input parameters has been found to be challenging and time consuming.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0448
Prakash T. Thawani, Stephen Sinadinos, John Zvonek
Abstract With the advent of EVs/HEVs and implementation of Idle-Stop-Start (ISS) technologies on internal combustion engine (ICE) driven cars/trucks to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution, refrigerant sub-system (RSS) induced noise phenomena like, hissing, gurgling and tones become readily audible and can result in customer complaints and concerns. One of the key components that induce these noise phenomena is the Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV). The TXV throttles compressed liquid refrigerant through the evaporator that results in air-conditioning (A/C) or thermal system comfort for occupants and dehumidification for safety, when needed. Under certain operating conditions, the flow of gas and/or liquid/gas refrigerant at high pressure and velocity excites audible acoustical and structural modes inherent in the tubing/evaporator/HVAC case. These modes may often get masked and sometimes enhanced by the engine harmonics and blower noise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Abstract Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly scan their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Abstract Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1395
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Bum Il Shim
Abstract Seat cushions are considered as one of the important factors influence the seating comfort. In the automotive seat cushions, flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used due to the cushioning performance. Automotive seat designers are paying more attention to the improvement of seat cushion properties. This study introduces an automotive seat that uses an air-mat in the seat cushion along with polyurethane foam. The air-mat can be adjusted with its internal air pressure. The objective of this paper is to examine air-mat seat pressure level on seating comfort. Vibration experiments have been performed on the BSR simulator with random vibration. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure vibration at the foot and hip. All measured vibration were about the vertical direction (z-axis). The whole-body vibration exposure parameters (weighted root-mean-square (RMS), vibration dose value (VDV), transmissibility (SEAT value)) were calculated per ISO 2631-1 standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1392
Abhilash CHOUBEY, RAJESH PAL, Kotanageswararao Puli, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sandeep Raina
Abstract The seating system is an inseparable part of any automobile. Its main function is not only to provide a space to the user for driving but also to provide support, comfort and help to ergonomically access the various features and necessary operations of the vehicle. For comfort and accessibility, seats are provided with various mechanisms for adjustments in different directions. Typical mechanisms used for seating adjustment include seatback recliners, lifters (height adjusters), longitudinal adjusters, lumber support, rear seat folding mechanism etc. These mechanisms can be power operated or manual based on vehicle/market requirements. For manual mechanisms, the occupant adjusts the position of seat by operating the mechanism with his/her hand. Often comfort to the occupant during operation is limited to the operating effort of the mechanism. However, as will be shown through this study, operating effort is only one of the parameters which provide overall comfort feeling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1389
Ankush Kamra, Sandeep Raina, Pankaj Maheshwari, Abhishek Agarwal, Prasad Latkar
Abstract Automotive seating is designed by considering safety, comfort and aesthetics for the occupants. Seating comfort is one of the important parameters for the occupant for enhancing the overall experience in a vehicle. Seating comfort is categorized as static (or showroom) comfort and dynamic comfort. The requirements for achieving static and dynamic comfort can sometimes differ and may require design parameters such as PU hardness to be set in opposite directions. This paper presents a case wherein a base seat with good dynamic comfort is taken and an analysis is done to improve upon the static comfort, without compromising on the dynamic comfort. The study focuses on improving the initial comfort by considering various options for seating upholstery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0212
Mohammad Nahid, Rezwanur Rahman, Tabassum Hossainy, Shreyas Kapatral, Prashant Modi, Joydip Saha, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more efficient vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the heat produced from burning fuel and improve driveline efficiency. The greatest part of the effort is directed toward the hybridization of automotive transmission systems. The efficiency and durability of hybrid powertrain depends on the heat generation in electric motors and their interactions among each other, ambient condition, the cooling system and the transmission component configuration. These increase the complexity of motor temperature prediction as well as the computational cost of running a conjugate heat-transfer based CFD analysis. In this paper, 1-D physics based thermal model is developed which allows rapid and accurate component-wise temperature estimation of the electric motor as well as transmission lubricant temperature during both steady-state and transient driving cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1388
S. M. Akbar Berry, Michael Kolich, Johnathan Line, Waguih ElMaraghy
Abstract Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1391
Heather Bronczyk, Michael Kolich, Marie-Eve Cote
Abstract Load deflection testing is one type of test that can be used to understand the comfort performance of a complete trimmed automotive seat. This type of testing can be conducted on different areas of the seat and is most commonly used on the seatback, the seat cushion and the head restraint. Load deflection data can be correlated to a customer’s perception of the seat, providing valuable insight for the design and development team. There are several variables that influence the results obtained from this type of testing. These can include but are not limited to: seat structure design, suspension system, component properties, seat materials, seat geometry, and test set-up. Set-up of the seat for physical testing plays a critical role in the final results. This paper looks at the relationship of the load deflection data results on front driver vehicle seatbacks in a supported and unsupported test set-up condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1375
Louis Tijerina, Danielle Warren, Sang-Hwan Kim, Francine Dolins
Abstract This study investigated the effects of three navigation system human-machine interfaces (HMIs) on driver eye-glance behavior, navigational errors, and subjective assessments. Thirty-six drivers drove an unfamiliar 3-segment route in downtown Detroit. HMIs were 2D or 3D (level-of-detail) electronic map display + standard voice prompts, or 3D map-display augmented by photorealistic images + landmark-enhanced voice prompts. Participants drove the same three route segments in order but were assigned a different HMI condition/segment in a 3-period/3-treatment crossover experimental design. Results indicate that drivers’ visual attention using the advanced navigation systems HMIs were within US Department of Transportation recommended visual distraction limits. More turns missed in the first route segment, regardless of HMI, were attributable to greater route complexity and a late-onset voice prompt.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0497
Byoung-Keon Daniel Park, Matthew P. Reed
Abstract Reliable, accurate data on vehicle occupant characteristics could be used to personalize the occupant experience, potentially improving both satisfaction and safety. Recent improvements in 3D camera technology and increased use of cameras in vehicles offer the capability to effectively capture data on vehicle occupant characteristics, including size, shape, posture, and position. In previous work, the body dimensions of standing individuals were reliably estimated by fitting a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to data from a consumer-grade depth camera (Microsoft Kinect). In the current study, the methodology was extended to consider seated vehicle occupants. The SBSM used in this work was developed using laser scan data gathered from 147 children with stature ranging from 100 to 160 cm and BMI from 12 to 27 kg/m2 in various sitting postures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0492
Mahendra Beera, Dinesh Pahuja, Arpit Kapila, Rajat Handa, Sandeep Raina
Abstract Plastic plays a major role in automotive interiors. Till now most of the Indian automobile industries are using plastics mainly to cover the bare sheet metal panels and to reduce the weight of the vehicle along with safety concerns. Eventually Indian customer requirement is changing towards luxury vehicles. Premium look and luxury feel of the vehicle plays an equal role along with fuel economy and cost. Interior cabin is the place where aesthetics and comfort is the key to attract customers. Door Trims are one of the major areas of interiors where one can be able to provide premium feeling to the customer by giving PVC skin and decorative inserts. This paper deals with different types of PVC skins and its properties based on process constraints, complexity of the inserts. Door trim inserts can be manufactured by various methods like adhesive pasting, thermo-compression molding and low pressure injection molding process etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0016
Don Zaremba, Emily Linehan, Carlos Ramirez Ramos
Abstract For over thirty years, the silicon power MOSFET’s role has expanded from a few key components in electronic engine control to a key component in nearly every automotive electronics system. New and emerging automotive applications such as 48 V micro hybrids and autonomous vehicle operation require improved power MOSFET performance. This paper reviews mature and state of the art power MOSFET technologies, from planar to shield gate trench, with emphasis on applicability to automotive electronic systems. The automotive application environment presents unique challenges for electronic systems and associated components such as potential for direct short to high capacity battery, high voltage battery transients, high ambient temperature, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limitations, and large delta temperature power cycling. Moreover, high reliability performance of semiconductor components is mandatory; sub 1 ppm overall failure rate is now a fundamental requirement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0937
David Culbertson, James Pradun, Magdi Khair, Jeff Diestelmeier
Abstract Tightening regulations throughout the world demand a reduction in fuel consumption and NOX emission levels, creating an increasing need for additional heat for SCR aftertreatment. A durable and low cost heating system is needed for vehicles with hybrid or 24Vdc electricity. Recent development efforts have resulted in much smaller and lower cost heating systems for electrical systems ranging from 400 to 24Vdc. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the size of the heater and the relationship of heater power to the amount of time required to heat the exhaust. Intelligent solid state switching enables the heater to be smaller without compromising durability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1207
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
Abstract Lithium-ion batteries, which are nowadays common in laptops, cell phones, toys, and other portable electronic devices, are also viewed as a most promising advanced technology for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs), but battery manufacturers and automakers must understand the performance of these batteries when they are scaled up to the large sizes needed for the propulsion of the vehicle. In addition, accurate thermo-physical property input is crucial to thermal modeling. Therefore, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries for improvement in the design of a thermal management system and also for thermal modeling. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization in terms of measurement of the temperature gradient and temperature response of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1217
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge and over-discharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtain the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25°C to 18°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1308
Abhishek Softa, Anuj Shami, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The fuel efficiency of a vehicle depends on multiple factors such as engine efficiency, type of fuel, aerodynamic drag, and tire friction and vehicle weight. Analysis of weight and functionality was done, to develop a lightweight and low-cost Roof rack rail. The Roof rack rail is made up of a lightweight material with thin cross section and has the design that allows the fitment of luggage carrier or luggage rack on the car roof. In starting this paper describes the design and weight contribution by standard Roof rack rail and its related parts. Secondly, the selection of material within different proposed options studied and a comparison of manufacturing and design-related factors. Thirdly, it has a description of the design of Roof rack rail to accommodate the luggage carrier fitment on the car roof. Moreover, optimizations of Roof rack rail design by continuous change in position, shape, and parts used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0513
Jose Serrano, Luis Miguel García-Cuevas lng, Andres Tiseira, Tatiana Rodriguez Usaquen, Guillaume Mijotte
Abstract The growing concerns about emissions in internal combustion engines, makes necessary a good prediction of the after-treatment inlet temperature in fast one-dimensional engine simulation codes. Different simple models have been developed during the last years which improve the prediction of the turbocharger heat transfer phenomena. Although these models produce good results when computing the turbine outlet temperature, those models focus on the axial heat transfer paths and lack the capability of producing detailed results about the internal thermal behavior of the turbocharger. In this work, a new version of heat transfer model for automotive turbochargers is presented. This model discretizes the turbocharger in both the radial and axial directions, and computes the heat transfer and temperature at different parts of the machine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0521
Richard Merrett, John Murray, Doug Kolak
Abstract The development of experimental ORC systems is an extremely complex, time consuming and costly task. Running a range of experiments on a number of different component configurations may be prohibitively expensive and subject to equipment issues and failures. Yet ORC systems offer significant potential for automotive manufacturers to improve vehicle efficiency, reduce fuel consumption and vehicle emissions; the technology is particularly relevant for those involved in the design and/or manufacture of heavy duty trucks. This paper is focused on the validation of a computational ORC system simulation tool against a number of SAE published test results based on the European Stationary Cycle. Such studies on industry standard systems are essential in order to help promote confidence in a virtual prototype approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0527
Arya Yazdani, Jeffrey Naber, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Paul Dice, Chris Glugla, Stephen Cooper, Douglas McEwan, Garlan Huberts
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0526
Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek
Abstract The proposed paper deals with thermodynamic optimization of highly flexible ICE (variable compression ratio, intake/exhaust VVA) while comparing e-turbocharging concept with classical one. The e-turbocharging approach is based on idea that compressor/turbine has its own electric machine (motor/generator) and that additional electric energy can be supplied/attached from/to engine crank train. Hence it allows independent control of compressor/turbine. On the other hand, classical approach is based on a standard mechanical connection between turbine and compressor. The whole system (flexible engine + boost device) is optimized under steady operation – low load (BMEP of 4 bar), medium load (BMEP of 13 bar), high load (BMEP of 30, 25 and 18 bar) and maximum load are considered. Moreover, 3 combustion concepts are considered – classical SI and CI, and ideal RCCI.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0627
Bo Yang, Peter Woyciesjes, Aleksei Gershun
Abstract In this paper, new test results in the use of electrochemical techniques to measure corrosion in extended life engine coolants are presented. Corrosion protection performance of the engine coolants (including both fresh coolants and simulated used coolants) for typical cooling system metals under heat rejecting and heat accepting surface corrosion conditions for both general corrosion and localized corrosion are measured under conditions similar to the ones encountered in vehicle engine cooling systems as a function of immersion time. Fleet tests of the coolants were also conducted. They are used to provide support on the electrochemical test methodologies adopted. The effective use of electrochemical techniques to aid the development of the next generation of extended life coolant technologies with improved corrosion protection performance and a longer service life will be demonstrated and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0624
Jiaxin Liu, Sicheng Qin, Yankun Jiang, Shumo He
Abstract In this work, a XD132 Road Roller from XCMG in China was employed as a research basis to study the heat exchange performance of the heat dissipation module under varied working conditions. The module in the XD132 consists of a cooling fan and three radiators. At first, the numerical investigation on the elementary units of radiators was performed to obtain Colburn j factor and Fanning friction f factor, which were used for the ε-NTU method to predict the radiator performance. The fan was numerically tested in a wind test tunnel to acquire the performance curve. The performance data from both investigations were transformed into the boundary conditions of the numerical vehicle model in a virtual tunnel. A field experiment was carried out to validate the simulation accuracy, and an entrance coefficient was proposed to discuss the performance regularity under four working conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0634
Schoeffmann Wolfgang, Helfried Sorger, Siegfried Loesch, Wolfgang Unzeitig, Thomas Huettner, Alois Fuerhapter
Abstract In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0631
David C. Ogbuaku, Timothy Potter, James M. Boileau
Abstract The need to increase the fuel-efficiency of modern vehicles while lowering the emission footprint is a continuous driver in automotive design. This has given rise to the use of engines with smaller displacements and higher power outputs. Compared to past engine designs, this combination generates greater amounts of excess heat which must be removed to ensure the durability of the engine. This has resulted in an increase in the number and size of the heat exchangers required to adequately cool the engine. Further, the use of smaller, more aerodynamic front-end designs has reduced the area available in the engine compartment to mount the heat exchangers. This is an issue, since the reduced engine compartment space is increasingly incapable of supporting an enlarged rectangular radiator system.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 11207

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