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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1363
James F. Krier, Paul Weindorf
Modern automotive cockpit design trends have increased the number of displays and the locations and manner in how they are packaged. One theme in particular is the packaging of the displays in novel locations that may be marginal in terms of dynamic stability during road load vibrations. Examples of this include mirror or deployable displays that adjust their position in the vehicle. The image of the display may be partially or fully blurred during vibration events which can produce a poor HMI experience. This paper will present the results of a HMI study that that evaluated the readability of different sizes and contrast ratios of TFT color display graphics via jury evaluation during varying vibration acceleration and frequency levels in a controlled lab environment. The result of this study was identification of minimum natural frequencies and maximum acceleration levels for the display mounting structure as a function of display graphics size and contrast ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1366
Jeffrey Muttart, Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Suway, Michael Kuzel, Timothy Maloney, Wayne Biever, Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, David Cavanaugh, T.J. Harms
More than half all pedestrian fatalities occur at night. To address this problem, in the 1950s through 1970s Blackwell conducted considerable research that showed that a way to account for the limitations related to drivers’ expectancies at night would be to limit a driver’s time to view the forward roadway. The reduced information during the limited exposure time became a surrogate for the limited information available to on-road drivers at night. With the release of the SHRP-2 naturalistic database, we are able to see how drivers responded to in-road obstacles at night such as animals, bicyclists, pedestrians, and tree limbs. Using the naturalistic response data as a baseline, safe closed road recognition methodology was developed. The closed road study built upon the early nighttime recognition work by Blackwell, the observers were allowed to view the forward roadway for 1 or ¼ second.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0497
Byoung-Keon Daniel Park, Matthew P. Reed
Reliable, accurate data on vehicle occupant characteristics could be used to personalize the occupant experience, potentially improving both satisfaction and safety. Recent improvements in 3D camera technology and increased use of cameras in vehicles offer the capability to effectively capture data on vehicle occupant characteristics, including size, shape, posture, and position. In previous work, the body dimensions of standing individuals were reliably estimated by fitting a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to data from a consumer-grade depth camera (Microsoft Kinect). In the current study, the methodology was extended to consider seated vehicle occupants. The SBSM used in this work was developed using laser scan data gathered from 147 children with stature ranging from 100 to 160 cm and BMI from 12 to 27 kg/m2 in various sitting postures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0496
Suhash Venkata Bingi, Sunit Chanana, Arpit Kapila, Rajat Handa, Mohd Rizwan, Sandeep Raina
Gone are the days when the sole purpose of an automobile was transportation. Automobiles have been evolving continuously to cater the demands of the customer in terms of aesthetics and luxury. Interiors play a major role in forming a luxurious impression on the minds of the customers. One of the popular ways to achieve this is to use decorative skins on the interior parts. In Automotive Industry, there are various methods in use for decorative skin application, out of which one of the most effective method in terms of both cost and quality is kimekomi process. This is a pasting technique in which Fabric/PVC is tucked into the specially provided groove on the main board of side door trim with the help of a Special Purpose Machine (SPM), thus eliminating the need for a separate door trim insert making this process cost effective.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0493
Li Lu, Sean West, Stacey Raines, Jin Zhou, Paul Hoke
Traditionally, Knee Air Bag (KAB) is constructed of a woven nylon or polyester fabric. Recently, Ford developed an injection molded air bag system for the passenger side called Active Glove Box (AGB). This system integrates a bladder welded between the glove box outer and inner door. This new system is smaller and lighter, thus improving the roominess and other creature comforts inside the passenger cabin, while providing equivalent restraint performance as traditional knee airbag system. This patented technology allows positioning of airbags in new locations within the vehicle, thus giving more freedom to designers. The first application of this technology will be standard equipment on the 2015 Ford Mustang. Given that this technology is first in industry, it was a challenge to design, test and evaluate the performance of the system as there is no benchmark to compare the technology against. To overcome this challenge, a CAE driven design methodology was chosen.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0620
Chandrakant Parmar, Sethuramalingam Tyagarajan, Sashikant Tiwari, Ravindra Thonge, S Arun Paul
The engine compartment of passenger car application contain various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the individual component body temperature. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the life or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategise thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and it's components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECU, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0628
Rahul Fageria, Satvik Jain
Turbochargers have become an inevitable part of modern engines for their ability to improve an engine's efficiency and power output through forced induction using the exhaust gas energy which otherwise would have been wasted. And with their use, there is always some unwanted heat as a by-product. For that, turbo intercoolers are employed, they reduce the temperature of the forced air before reaching the engine and improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through an isobaric cooling. The forced air produced by the turbocharger is routed through the intercooler where its temperature is reduced before reaching the engine. Intercoolers also eliminate the need for using the wasteful method of lowering intake charge temperature by the injection of excess fuel into the cylinders' air induction chambers, to cool the intake air charge, prior to its flowing into the cylinders.This has made modern heavy duty diesel vehicles far more efficient.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0210
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Abd El-Rahman Ali Hekal, Dipan P. Arora, Alaa El-Sharkawy, Sadek S. Rahman
With the increase in demand of fuel efficient transportation system, various efforts have been made to collect waste energies to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions in the automobiles. Currently, in a typical internal combustion engine, approximately one third of the fossil fuel combustion by-product is wasted heat. By collecting the heat emitted through the exhaust systems using heat exchanger concept can be used to increase the passenger heating and comfort during cold ambient conditions as well as reduction of exhaust system surface temperatures. Lower exhaust surface temperature improves the durability of various under-hood and underbody components near the exhaust pipe. In this paper, the effects of integrating a gas/coolant heat exchanger close to the engine catalytic converter on reduction of the exhaust surface temperature for various real-world dynamic driving conditions are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0408
Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov
Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0215
Mohammad Nahid, Amin Sharfuzzaman, Joydip Saha, Harry Chen, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axles is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss and have a significant effect on overall vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with the viscosity of the lubricant. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0214
Simon o. Omekanda, Rezwanur Rahman, Eric M. Lott, Sadek S. Rahman, Daniel E. Hornback
Designing an efficient transient thermal system model has become a very important task in improving fuel economy. As opposed to steady-state thermal models, part of the difficulty in designing a transient model is optimizing a set of inputs. The first objective in this work is to develop an engine compatible physics-based 1D thermal model for fuel economy and robust control. In order to capture and study the intrinsic thermo-physical nature, both generic “Three Mass” and “Eight Mass” engine model are developed. The models have been correlated heuristically using Simulink and Flowmaster, respectively. In order to extend the lumped mass engine model it also has been extended to Simulink model. In contrast to the complexity of the models the “Heuristic search” of input parameters has been found to be challenging and time consuming.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0216
Joydip Saha, Harshit Coutinho, Sadek S. Rahman
Current and future automotive systems are becoming more complex than ever. They consist of different subsystems such as the engine, transmission, cooling system, driveline, controls systems, HVAC and active/passive safety systems. Hardware and software development for each of these subsystems have different timeline’s. The subsystems are usually developed by different teams within an organization and in some cases are also developed by suppliers. These are some of the main hurdles for carrying out a system level analysis of the vehicle earlier in the development process. Model.CONNECT was used to overcome the above mentioned hurdles by connecting a driveline model, a cooling system model, thermal controller and two-phase flow models with minimal effort.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0217
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan P. Arora, Amr Gamal Sami, Abd El-Rahman Ali Hekal
In this paper, an algorithm for transient thermal analysis of rotating components has been developed. The analysis considers the effect of a radiation from surrounding heat sources and convection by under-body airflow. The objective of this work is to determine the instantaneous temperature of the rotating element’s surface at different operating conditions. Experimental determination of these temperatures is possible though it is typically a challenging task, especially at high rotational speeds and high temperatures. The proposed model utilizes a modular approach to calculate the view factor between the radiation heat source and the rotating component. This approach can be extended to include any geometric layout and arrangement between the two surfaces. The view factors are dynamically evaluated at each time step during the simulation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0213
Rezwanur Rahman, Sadek S. Rahman
The demand for Hybrid Electrified Vehicles (HEVs) is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0211
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Avik Chakravarty
In this paper we investigate the application of time constant to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients from experimental vehicle-level test data. For simulation of vehicle components temperatures, heat transfer coefficients are critical pieces of information that must be known with a reasonably high level of accuracy. Available data from literature are based on empirical equations that may or may not apply for the components of interest. The variation in accuracy depends on the geometry of the components being investigated and the airflow around it. In this approach, the vehicle speed is allowed to run in a step change under fixed engine load and ambient temperature. The test is allowed to continue until component temperature reaches steady state. The time constant for each component is determined from the response curve. From the time constant data, convective heat transfer coefficient can be determined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0212
Mohammad Nahid, Rezwanur Rahman, Tabassum Hossainy, Shreyas Kapatral, Prashant Modi, Joydip Saha, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more efficient vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the heat produced from burning fuel and improve driveline efficiency. The greatest part of the effort is directed toward the hybridization of automotive transmission systems. The efficiency and durability of hybrid powertrain depends on the heat generation in electric motors and their interactions among each other, ambient condition, the cooling system and the transmission component configuration. These increase the complexity of motor temperature prediction as well as the computational cost of running a conjugate heat-transfer based CFD analysis. In this paper, 1-D physics based thermal model is developed which allows rapid and accurate component-wise temperature estimation of the electric motor as well as transmission lubricant temperature during both steady-state and transient driving cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1390
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Matthew P. Reed
Seat fit is characterized as the spatial relationship between the seat and the sitter’s anthropometric dimensions. Seat surface pressure distribution is one of the best available quantitative measures of the interaction between occupant and seat interface. The relationship between areas of contact or pressure and seat fit has not been well established. The objective of this study is to model seat pressure distribution as a function of the dimensions of the seat and the sitter’s body. A laboratory study was conducted using 12 production driver seats from passenger cars and light trucks. Thirty-eight men and women sat in each seat in a driving mockup. Seat surface pressure distribution was measured on the seatback and cushion. Standard anthropometric dimensions were recorded for each participant and standardized dimensions based on SAE J2732 were acquired for each test seat.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0629
John Kuo, George Garfinkel
Detailed thermal modeling of liquid-cooled vehicle traction battery assemblies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques usually involves large models to accurately resolve small cooling channel details. For large battery packs, some of these meshes may exceed current computational capabilities or result in long and expensive computational efforts. Moreover, only steady-state thermal predictions are usually performed, as drive-cycle transient simulations become impractical due to the exceedingly long solving times. To tackle this problem, an innovative segregated method has been developed for thermal analysis of liquid-cooled traction batteries, where battery cells and their active cooling system are divided into three parts: the cell, the cold plate and the interface between them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0624
Jiaxin Liu, Sicheng Qin, Yankun Jiang, Shumo He
In this work, a XD132 Road Roller from XCMG in China was employed as the research basis to study the heat exchange performance for the heat dissipation module under varied working conditions. The module in XD132 consists of a cooling fan and a radiator group. At first, a numerical investigation on the elementary unit of the radiator was performed to obtain Colburn j factor and Fanning f factor, which was used for the -NTU method that predicts the radiator performance. The fan was numerically tested in a virtual tunnel to acquire the performance curve. The performance data from both investigations were transformed into the boundary conditions for the numerical model in a virtual tunnel. A field experiment was carried out to validate the simulation accuracy, and the performance regularity under four working conditions were discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1033
Ipeleng Mathebula, Nhlanhla Rikhotso
Conventional gasoline engine turbocharger circuits are equipped with waste-gates for uncoupling the turbine from the engine as a technique of regulating peak charge pressure. Electrically actuated waste-gates extend the functionality to emission control. These advantages are, however, offset by an increase in the amount of unpurged heat energy that is expelled to the environment. This paper introduces a passive engine bypass path that uncouples the engine from the compressor, thereby, allowing the sizing and operation of the waste-gate to be optimized. The layout was installed in a 2.0 liter Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) turbocharged engine. A three-way catalytic converter and a lambda control combustion strategy were employed as an Emissions After Treatment (EAT) system. Tests were conducted to estimate peak charge pressure and tailpipe emissions. The measurements include full load brake torque measurements and cold start emission traces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1367
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Jeffrey Muttart
Evaluating luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Currently, a common way to determine the actual luminance of an object is to locate the object on the subject roadway, at a substantially similar position, orientation and illuminance level and then measure the object with a luminance meter. This process can be extremely time consuming and could possibly require the roadway to be closed for safety purposes. Alternatively, the luminance can be calculated by measuring the reflectance of the subject surface and measuring the illuminance incident to the surface. After measuring the reflectance, it can then be used with any known illuminance to calculate the luminance of the object. This allows for an equivalently accurate measurement of luminance that is easier and quicker to make and could result in safer scene and vehicle inspections.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Regulation and certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and type approval. Self-certification requirements, currently used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations, must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements, currently used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations, can be more general relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of a 3rd party is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
For many years the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understand the load cases in the part, the fear for quality issues to occur, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and increase manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through a design process which allows for the design of in-molded attachment clips on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips starting with a design concept idea, testing the basic concept using a personal 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1375
Louis Tijerina, Danielle Warren, Sang-Hwan Kim, Francine Dolins
This study investigated the effects of three different navigation system human-machine interfaces (HMIs) on driver eye glance behavior, navigational errors, and subjective assessments. Thirty-six drivers drove the same unfamiliar 3-segment urban route in downtown Detroit during weekday daylight hours. The three HMIs were: i)a 2D or ii) a 3D (with level-of-detail icons in perspective) electronic map display, both with standard voice prompts; or iii) a 3D map display augmented by a separate display of photorealistic intersection images and landmark-enhanced voice prompts. Each participant drove the same three route segments in the same order but was assigned a different HMI condition for each segment as per a 3-period/3-treatment crossover experimental design. Results indicated that drivers in real traffic made prudent use of their visual attention with advanced navigation systems HMIs, always within recent US Department of Transportation recommended visual distraction limits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1362
James Marr, William Neale, tomas owens, Steven Beier
In 2016, Virtual Reality equipment became both affordable and available to the public market in the form of the Oculus (tm) and Vive (tm). This equipment includes a headset and earphone system that create a fully immersive environment for the user, and provides added abilities over traditional visualization tools like 2-D animation. These abilities include choosing where one looks, and for how long, and a spatial and depth perception, and auditory experience that traditional 2 D visualization cannot achieve without the headgear. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of this equipment in several driving and pedestrian simulation environments for both daytime and nighttime scenarios. As part of the study, the VR environment was compared to photographs, videos, and 2D visualizations of each of the scenarios to evaluate the level of realism achieved by the VR equipment. This was done through feedback from participants and through quantitative comparison of imagery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0633
Kurt Stuart, Terry Yan, James Mathias
In the interest of improving the efficiency of the internal combustion engine, many alternatives to the traditional 4-stroke engine have been proposed. One promising alternative is the 5-stroke engine, which adds an additional expansion stroke to the traditional 4-stroke engine. By adding an additional expansion stroke, the combustion gas can be further expanded with increased work output for the same heat input. The extra expansion stroke, i.e. the 5th stroke, is accomplished in a separate cylinder operating on a 2 stroke cycle. This can be readily accomplished by adding one expansion cylinder with two combustion cylinders operating 360 degree off-phase, creating an engine with 3 cylinders. Previous works have investigated the interactions of the engines operating points and design parameters. Few have, however, included in-cylinder heat transfer and mass lost due to blow-by, which can have a significant effect on the thermodynamic performance of such an engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0448
Prakash T. Thawani, Stephen Sinadinos, John zvonek
Prakash Thawani, Steve Sinadinos and John Zvonek DENSO International America Inc. Southfield, MI Abstract With the advent of EVs/HEVs and implementation of Idle-Stop-Start (ISS) technologies on internal combustion engine driven cars/trucks to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution, refrigerant sub-system (RSS) induced noise phenomena like, hissing, gurgling and tones become readily audible and can result in to Customer complaints and concerns. One of the key components that induces these noise phenomena is the Thermal Expansion Valve (TXV). The TXV throttles compressed refrigerant through the evaporator that results in air-conditioning (A/C) or thermal system comfort and defogging when needed. Under certain operating conditions, the flow of gas and/or liquid/gas refrigerant at high pressure and velocity excites audible acoustical and structural modes inherent in the tubing/evaporator/HVAC case.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0722
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Growing awareness about CO2 emissions and their environmental implications are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency as criteria to design internal combustion engines (ICE). Heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls contributes to a decrease in the indicated efficiency. A strategy explored in this study to mitigate this efficiency loss is to promote almost quiescent conditions in the combustion chamber by using low swirl ratios. A decrease in swirl ratio leads to a reduction in heat transfer, but unfortunately, it can also lead to worsening of combustion development and a decrease in the gross indicated efficiency. Moreover, pumping work plays also an important role due to the effect of reduced intake restriction to generate the swirl motion. Current research evaluates the effect of a dedicated injection pattern to enhance combustion process when low swirl is used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1388
S. M. Akbar Berry, Michael Kolich, Johnathan Line, Waguih ElMaraghy PhD
Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and in discussion for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements is also presented and discussed.
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