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2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1766
Dirk von Werne, Stefano Orlando, Anneleen Van Gils, Thierry Olbrechts, Ivan Bosmans
Abstract A methodology to secure cabin noise and vibration targets is presented. Early in the design process, typically in the Joint Definition Phase, Targets are cascaded from system to component level to comply with the overall cabin noise target in various load cases. During the Detailed Design Phase, 3D simulation models are build up to further secure and refine the vibro-acoustic performance of the cabin noise related subsystems. Noise sources are estimated for the target setting based on layer analytical and empirical expressions from literature. This includes various types of engine noise - fan, jet, and propeller noise - as well as turbulent boundary layer noise. For other noise sources, ECS and various auxiliaries, targets are set such as to ensure the overall cabin noise level. To synthesize the cabin noise, these noise sources are combined with estimates of the noise transfer through panels and the cavity effect of the cabin.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1781
Joshua Wheeler
Abstract The design and operation of a vehicle’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has great impact on the performance of the vehicle’s Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and Hands-Free Communication (HFC) system. HVAC noise provides high amplitudes of broadband frequency content that affects the signal to noise ratio (SNR) within the vehicle cabin, and works to mask the user’s speech. But what’s less obvious is that when the airflow from the panel vents or defroster openings can be directed toward the vehicle microphone, a mechanical “buffeting” phenomenon occurs on the microphone’s diaphragm that distresses the ASR system beyond its ability to interpret the user’s voice. The airflow velocity can be strong enough that a simple windscreen on the microphone is not enough to eliminate the problem. Minimizing this buffeting effect is a vital key to building a vehicle that meets the customer’s expectations for ASR and HFC performance.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1787
Jan Biermann, Adrien Mann, Barbara Neuhierl, Min-Suk Kim
Abstract Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1826
Sagar Deshmukh, Sandip Hazra
Abstract Engine mounting system maintains the position of powertrain in the vehicle with respect to chassis and other accessories during inertia, torque reaction loads and roadway disturbances. The mounting system also plays a role in terms of isolation of the rest of the vehicle and its occupants from powertrain and helps in maintaining vehicle ride and handling condition. This paper investigates the performance comparison between hydromount and switchable hydromount during idle and ride performance. The optimization scheme aims to improve the performance of the mounting system in order to achieve overall powertrain performance and NVH attribute balancing through switchable mount technology.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1836
Fangfang Wang, Peter Johnson, Hugh Davies, Bronson Du
Abstract Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1847
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwar rao.P
Abstract Tractor operators prefer to drive more comfortable tractors in the recent years. The high noise and vibration levels, to which drivers of agricultural tractor are often exposed for long periods of time, have a significant part in the driver’s fatigue and may lead to substantial hearing impairment and health problems. Therefore, it is essential for an optimal cabin design to have time and cost effective analysis tools for the assessment of the noise and vibration characteristics of various design alternatives at both the early design stages and the prototype testing phase. Airborne excitation and Structure Borne excitation are two types of dynamic cabin excitations mainly cause the interior noise in a driver’s cabin. Structure-borne excitation is studied in this paper and it consists of dynamic forces, which are directly transmitted to the cabin through the cabin suspension. These transmitted forces introduce cabin vibrations, which in turn generate interior noise.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1861
Ismail Benhayoun, Frédéric Bonin, Antoine Milliet de Faverges, Julien Masson
Abstract NVH (Noise Vibration & Harshness) is one of the main focus areas during the development of products such as passenger cars or trucks. Physical test methods have traditionally been used to assess NVH, but the necessity for reducing cost and creating a robust solution early in the design process has driven the increased usage of simulation tools. Development of well-defined methods and tools for NVH analysis allows today’s OEMs to have a virtual engineering based development cycle from concept to test. However, a subset of NVH problems including squeak and rattle (S&R) have not been generally focused upon. In a vehicle, S&R is a recurring problem for interior plastic parts such as an instrument panel or door trim. Since 2012, Altair has been developing S&R Director (SnRD), which is a solution that identifies and combats S&R issues by embedding the Evaluation-Line (E-Line) methodology [1] [2].
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1858
James Haylett, Andrew Polte
Abstract Truck and construction seats offer a number of different challenges compared to automotive seats in the identification and characterization of Buzz, Squeak, and Rattle (BSR) noises. These seats typically have a separate air or mechanical suspension and usually a larger number and variety of mechanical adjustments and isolators. Associated vibration excitation tend to have lower frequencies with larger amplitudes. In order to test these seats for both BSR and vibration isolation a low-noise shaker with the ability to test to a minimum frequency of 1 Hz was employed. Slowly swept sine excitation was used to visualize the seat mode shapes and identify nonlinearities at low frequencies. A sample set of seat BSR sounds are described in terms of time and frequency characteristics, then analyzed using sound quality metrics.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1887
Antoine Minard, Christophe Lambourg, Patrick Boussard, Olivier Cheriaux
Abstract While electric and hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common, the issue of engine noise is becoming less important, because it does not dominate the overall noise perceived in the passenger compartment in such vehicles anymore. However, at the same time, other sound sources such as air conditioning, start to emerge, which can also cause annoyance. The CEVAS project, involving VALEO, CETIM, University of Technology of Compiègne, ESI GROUP and GENESIS, deals with the acoustic simulation and perception of automotive air-conditioning (HVAC) and electric battery cooling (BTM) systems. While the other partners focused their work on the aeroacoustic characterization, modeling and simulation, GENESIS’ part in the project is dedicated to HVAC sound synthesis and perception. In order to do the synthesis of the acoustic spectra provided by the partners of the project, an additive model was used.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9627
André Lundkvist, Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen, Jakob Stridfelt
Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1300
Raj Jayachandran, Bhimaraddi Alavandi, Matt Niesluchowski, Erika Low, Yafang Miao, Yi Zhang
Abstract An engine cooling system in an automotive vehicle comprises of heat exchangers such as a radiator, charge air cooler and oil coolers along with engine cooling fan. Typical automotive engine-cooling fan assembly includes an electric motor mounted on a shroud that encloses the radiator core. One of main drivers of fan shroud design is Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements without compromising the main function of airflow for cooling requirements. In addition, there is also a minimum stiffness requirement of fan shroud which is often overlooked in arriving at optimal design of it. Low Speed Damageability (LSD) assessment of an automotive vehicle is about minimizing the cost of repair of vehicle damages in low speed crashes. In low speed accidents, these fan motors are subjected to sudden decelerations which cause fan motors to swing forward thereby damaging the radiator core. So designing fan shroud for low speed damageability is of importance today.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1207
Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
Abstract Lithium-ion batteries, which are nowadays common in laptops, cell phones, toys, and other portable electronic devices, are also viewed as a most promising advanced technology for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs), but battery manufacturers and automakers must understand the performance of these batteries when they are scaled up to the large sizes needed for the propulsion of the vehicle. In addition, accurate thermo-physical property input is crucial to thermal modeling. Therefore, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries for improvement in the design of a thermal management system and also for thermal modeling. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization in terms of measurement of the temperature gradient and temperature response of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1217
Jiangong Zhu, Zechang Sun, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Abstract An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge and over-discharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtain the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25°C to 18°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 is an alternative to replace the conventional refrigerant (R134a) for the air-conditioning system, due to the high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of R134a. There are concerns with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant due to health risks associated with exposure to CO2, if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. For applications with CO2 as the refrigerant, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system; this CO2 is in addition to the CO2 generated from the respiration of the occupants. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration can be detrimental to the customer but is hard to detect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Abstract Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly scan their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1395
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Bum Il Shim
Abstract Seat cushions are considered as one of the important factors influence the seating comfort. In the automotive seat cushions, flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used due to the cushioning performance. Automotive seat designers are paying more attention to the improvement of seat cushion properties. This study introduces an automotive seat that uses an air-mat in the seat cushion along with polyurethane foam. The air-mat can be adjusted with its internal air pressure. The objective of this paper is to examine air-mat seat pressure level on seating comfort. Vibration experiments have been performed on the BSR simulator with random vibration. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure vibration at the foot and hip. All measured vibration were about the vertical direction (z-axis). The whole-body vibration exposure parameters (weighted root-mean-square (RMS), vibration dose value (VDV), transmissibility (SEAT value)) were calculated per ISO 2631-1 standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1393
Georges Beurier, Michelle Cardoso, Xuguang Wang
Abstract A new experimental seat was designed to investigate sitting biomechanics. Previous literature suggested links between sitting discomfort and shear force, however, research on this topic is limited. The evaluation of sitting discomfort derived from past research has been primarily associated with seat pressure distribution. The key innovative feature of the experimental seat is not only pressure distribution evaluation but shear forces as well. The seat pan of the experimental seat compromises of a matrix of 52 cylinders, each equipped with a tri-axial force sensor, enabling us to measure both normal and tangential forces. The position of each cylinder is also adjustable permitting a uniform pressure distribution underneath the soft tissue of the buttocks and thighs. Backrest, armrests, seat pan and flooring are highly adjustable and equipped with forces sensors to measure contact forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1391
Heather Bronczyk, Michael Kolich, Marie-Eve Cote
Abstract Load deflection testing is one type of test that can be used to understand the comfort performance of a complete trimmed automotive seat. This type of testing can be conducted on different areas of the seat and is most commonly used on the seatback, the seat cushion and the head restraint. Load deflection data can be correlated to a customer’s perception of the seat, providing valuable insight for the design and development team. There are several variables that influence the results obtained from this type of testing. These can include but are not limited to: seat structure design, suspension system, component properties, seat materials, seat geometry, and test set-up. Set-up of the seat for physical testing plays a critical role in the final results. This paper looks at the relationship of the load deflection data results on front driver vehicle seatbacks in a supported and unsupported test set-up condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1389
Ankush Kamra, Sandeep Raina, Pankaj Maheshwari, Abhishek Agarwal, Prasad Latkar
Abstract Automotive seating is designed by considering safety, comfort and aesthetics for the occupants. Seating comfort is one of the important parameters for the occupant for enhancing the overall experience in a vehicle. Seating comfort is categorized as static (or showroom) comfort and dynamic comfort. The requirements for achieving static and dynamic comfort can sometimes differ and may require design parameters such as PU hardness to be set in opposite directions. This paper presents a case wherein a base seat with good dynamic comfort is taken and an analysis is done to improve upon the static comfort, without compromising on the dynamic comfort. The study focuses on improving the initial comfort by considering various options for seating upholstery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1392
Abhilash CHOUBEY, RAJESH PAL, Kotanageswararao Puli, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sandeep Raina
Abstract The seating system is an inseparable part of any automobile. Its main function is not only to provide a space to the user for driving but also to provide support, comfort and help to ergonomically access the various features and necessary operations of the vehicle. For comfort and accessibility, seats are provided with various mechanisms for adjustments in different directions. Typical mechanisms used for seating adjustment include seatback recliners, lifters (height adjusters), longitudinal adjusters, lumber support, rear seat folding mechanism etc. These mechanisms can be power operated or manual based on vehicle/market requirements. For manual mechanisms, the occupant adjusts the position of seat by operating the mechanism with his/her hand. Often comfort to the occupant during operation is limited to the operating effort of the mechanism. However, as will be shown through this study, operating effort is only one of the parameters which provide overall comfort feeling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1725
Tanawat Tessathan, Chutiphon Thammasiri, Prabhath De Silva, Rehan Hussain, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract It is common for users of commuting passenger cars in Thailand to use the vehicle’s HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system predominantly in recirculation (REC) mode. This minimizes the compressor work, thereby saving fuel, and reduces dust and odor infiltration into the vehicle cabin. The car windows are rarely opened for ventilation purposes, except for exchanges at service stations such as garage entrances and tollway booths. As such, there are few opportunities for fresh air to enter the cabin with the consequent accumulation of CO2 in vehicle cabins due to occupants’ exhalations being well documented. Field experiments conducted showed that the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations could reach up to 15 times that of the ambient concentration level during typical city commutes. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to quantify the air exchanges between the cabin and the ambient when the doors are opened for occupant egression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0633
Kurt Stuart, Terry Yan, James Mathias
Abstract In this paper, the air-standard cycle analysis is performed for a 5-stroke engine to obtain the indicated thermal efficiency and power output over a range of operating points and design characteristics, including engine RPM, compression ratio, overall expansion ratio, expansion cylinder clearance volume, and transfer port volume. The results are compared with those of a baseline 4-stroke engine. This analysis is accomplished by an air-standard thermodynamic model for both engines with heat release function with heat transfer and mass loss for both the combustion cylinder and the expansion cylinder. The results indicate increased thermal efficiency and power output over the baseline 4-stroke engine, depending on the engine RPM and overall expansion ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0124
V N Bhasker, Abhinav Agarwal, Abhishek Sharma, Avisek Das, Nirajkumar Mishra
Abstract Vehicle heat management has become a serious concern due to escalating under-hood and exhaust temperatures. Compact vehicle packaging caused by downsizing has further magnified this concern. In an automobile, fuel is stored in a metallic or plastic fuel tank. In addition to fuel storage, temperature inside fuel tank has to be maintained at a certain limit in order to control high fuel evaporation rate and prevent deterioration of parts. The fuel tank surface temperature is governed by heat rejection from the engine, exhaust system and heat radiated from the road. Generally, mechanical shielding has been found to be an efficient defense to the heat management problem. However ‘what to shield’, ‘where to place the shield’ and ‘how to shield’ are the major challenges. This paper describes a methodology followed to reduce temperature on fuel tank surface by varying material, geometry and layout of heat shields.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0127
Norimitsu Matsudaira, Mitsuru Iwasaki, Junichiro Hara, Tomohiko Furuhata, Tatsuya Arai, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Naohiro Hasegawa
Abstract Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0150
Ankit Kumar Shukla, Raj Dhami, Aashish Bhargava, Sanjay Tiwari
Abstract In the current landscape of commercial vehicle industry, fuel economy is one of the major parameter for fleet owner’s profitability as well as greenhouse gasses emission. Less fuel efficiency results in more fuel consumption; use of conventional fuel in engines also makes environment polluted. The rapid growth in fuel prices has led to the demand for technologies that can improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Phase change material (PCMs) for Thermal energy storage system (TES) is one of the specific technologies that not only can conserve energy to a large extent but also can reduce emission as well as the dependency on convention fuel. There is a great variety of PCMs that can be used for the extensive range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications in automobiles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0158
Masaaki Nakamura, Koichi Machida, Kiyohiro Shimokawa
Abstract A diesel engine is advantageous in its high thermal efficiency, however it still wastes about 50% of total input energy to exhaust and cooling losses. A feasibility study of thermoacoustic refrigerator was carried out as one of the means to recuperate waste heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator prototyped for this study showed a capability to achieve cooling temperature lower than -20 degree C, which indicated that the system has a potential to be used in refrigerator trucks not only for cargo compartment cooling but also for cabin cooling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0155
Yongbing Xu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Xianyao Ping
Abstract The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0143
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Steve Whelan
Abstract During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0144
Zhijia Yang, Song Lan, Richard Stobart, Edward Winward, Rui Chen, Iain Harber
Abstract The application of state-of-art thermoelectric generator (TEG) in automotive engine has potential to reduce more than 2% fuel consumption and hence the CO2 emissions. This figure is expected to be increased to 5%~10% in the near future when new thermoelectric material with higher properties is fabricated. However, in order to maximize the TEG output power, there are a few issues need to be considered in the design stage such as the number of modules, the connection of modules, the geometry of the thermoelectric module, the DC-DC converter circuit, the geometry of the heat exchanger especially the hot side heat exchanger etc. These issues can only be investigated via a proper TEG model. The authors introduced four ways of TEG modelling which in the increasing complexity order are MATLB function based model, MATLAB Simscape based Simulink model, GT-power TEG model and CFD STAR-CCM+ model. Both Simscape model and GT-Power model have intrinsic dynamic model performance.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4196