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2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1814
Maxime Legros, Jean Michel Ville, Solène Moreau, Xavier Carniel, Christophe Lambourg, Guillaume Stempfel
Abstract The new requirements during the first stages of the conception of a HVAC prompt the designer to integrate the acoustic problematic increasingly upstream. The designer needs to select a coherent components’ choice in order to comply with the specifications in terms of aeraulic and acoustic performances. A tool has been created to guide the designer’s choices based on an acoustic synthesis which is a design and/or diagnosis approach used to analyze and predict the acoustic behavior of a complex system. The synthesis is developed in order to propose an approach which considers the integration effects and some interaction effects. The acoustic synthesis results are the starting point of a psycho-acoustic study providing audio samples of the prediction and indications of the HVAC acceptance by the prospective user. Also, one may compare the results of different acoustic synthesis projects to study the influence of the parameters on the acoustic prediction.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1812
Saad Bennouna, Solène Moreau, Jean Michel Ville, Olivier Cheriaux
Abstract The noise radiated inside the car cabin depends on many sources such as the embedded equipments like the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) module. An HVAC is a compact and complex system composed of several elements: blower, flaps, thermal exchangers, ducts… Air provided by an HVAC is blown by a blower passing through different components and then distributed to car cabin areas. Interactions between airflow and the HVAC fixed components generate noises that emerge in the car cabin. CEVAS project, managed by the automotive equipment manufacturer Valeo, is aiming to develop a prediction tool which will provide HVAC noise spectrum and sound quality data. The tool is based, in particular, on aeroacoustic characterization of individual elements and associations of elements.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1800
Xavier Carniel, Anne Sanon
Abstract The control of sound fields radiated by vibrating structures in a passenger compartment, (especially structures connected to different organs like the engine powertrain, the fan motor unit, seats, the steering column, electrical motors more and more, etc.) is among the functions of the automotive manufacturers. The absence of physical prototypes in the development phase systems led OEMs1 to use tests results obtained on benches following technical specifications from manufacturers. The transition "bench to vehicle" for vibro- acoustic behaviour sets many challenges that this standard intends to clear up. This standard specifies the experimental method to transpose the dynamic forces generated by the global movements of an active component between the vehicle and a test bench. The efforts are first measured on test benches and then transposed from test bench towards the vehicle. The standard is now a French standard (XP R 19-701) and is submitted to ISO process [1].
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1810
Marie Escouflaire, Nicolas Zerbib, David Mas, Nicolas Papaxanthos, Saad Bennouna, Emmanuel Perrey-Debain, Boureima Ouedraogo, Solène Moreau, Jean Michel Ville
Abstract In the framework of noise reduction of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems designed for cars, the present study deals with the numerical prediction of aeroacoustics phenomena encountered inside such devices for industrial purposes, i.e. with a reasonable CPU time. It is then proposed in this paper to assess the validity of the chaining, via Lighthill-Curle analogy, of a DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) resulting from the CFD code OpenFOAM (ESI Group) versus a RANS-LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and a BEM calculation resulting from the Vibro/Aeroacoustics software VA One (ESI Group) on an academic case of air passing through a rectangular diaphragm at a low Mach number. The BEM code being parallelized, the performances of DMP (Distributed Memory Processing) solution will also be assessed.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1808
Manfred Kaltenbacher, Andreas Hüppe, Aaron Reppenhagen, Matthias Tautz, Stefan Becker, Wolfram Kuehnel
Abstract We present a recently developed computational scheme for the numerical simulation of flow induced sound for rotating systems. Thereby, the flow is computed by scale resolving simulations using an arbitrary mesh interface scheme for connecting rotating and stationary domains. The acoustic field is modeled by a perturbation ansatz resulting in a convective wave equation based on the acoustic scalar potential and the substational time derivative of the incompressible flow pressure as a source term. We use the Finite-Element (FE) method for solving the convective wave equation and apply a Nitsche type mortaring at the interface between rotating and stationary domains. The whole scheme is applied to the numerical computation of a side channel blower.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1778
Gesche Fender, Steffen Marburg, Fabian Duddeck
Abstract One method to lower noise in a cabin is to position damping layers on vibrating panels, thereby reducing their radiated power. To assess the damping effect, criteria like the ERP (equivalent radiated power) are widely employed, which estimate the radiated sound power of a panel without taking into account the actual complex system. Advantageously only a part of the structure has to be modeled, but the optimal solution found on the simplified model then often fails for the complete, coupled system, especially if several variants of a cabin have to be considered. Hence, it is proposed to use the structure-only optimization for identification of a set of candidate solutions for optimal positioning of damping layers. These candidate solutions used as initial designs for the coupled investigations should be well distributed in the design space to avoid being wrongly stuck in an optimum with inferior coupled performance.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1780
Francesca Ronzio, Theophane Courtois
Abstract In automotive acoustics, body NVH design is traditionally carried out without considering the acoustic trim parts. Nevertheless, the vibro-acoustic interaction of body structure and insulation trim cannot be neglected in the middle frequency range, where structure borne propagation might still be dominating and where classical statistical approaches are generally not able to represent the influence of local changes in stiffness and damping. This, together with the market requirement of lightweight and more efficient sound package solutions, is leading the CAE engineers to evaluate new design approaches dedicated to vehicle components such as dash or floor systems, for which the multi-physics interaction between damping, body stiffness and trim impedance is important.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1851
Arnaud Duval, Minh Tan Hoang, Valérie Marcel, Ludovic Dejaeger
Abstract The noise treatments weight reduction strategy, which consists in combining broadband absorption and insulation acoustic properties in order to reduce the weight of barriers, depends strongly on surface to volume ratio of the absorbing layers in the reception cavity. Indeed, lightweight technologies like the now classical Absorber /Barrier /Absorber layup are extremely efficient behind the Instrument Panel of a vehicle, but most of the time disappointing when applied as floor insulator behind the carpet. This work aims at showing that a minimum of 20 mm equivalent “shoddy” standard cotton felt absorption is requested for a floor carpet insulator, in order to be able to reduce the weight of barriers. This means that a pure absorbing system that would destroy completely the insulation properties and slopes can only work, if the noise sources are extremely low in this specific area, which is seldom the case even at the rear footwells location.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1853
Timo Hartmann, Gregor Tanner, Gang Xie, David J. Chappell
Abstract Car floor structures typically contain a number of smaller-scale features which make them challenging for vibro-acoustic modelling beyond the low frequency regime. The floor structure considered here consists of a thin shell floor panel connected to a number of rails through spot welds leading to an interesting multi-scale modelling problem. Structures of this type are arguably best modelled using hybrid methods, where a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) description of the larger thin shell regions is combined with a finite element model (FEM) for the stiffer rails. In this way the modal peaks from the stiff regions are included in the overall prediction, which a pure SEA treatment would not capture. However, in the SEA regions, spot welds, geometrically dependent features and directivity of the wave field are all omitted. In this work we present an SEA/FEM hybrid model of a car floor and discuss an alternative model for the SEA subsystem using Discrete Flow Mapping (DFM).
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1841
Peter R. Hooper
Powertrain system duplication for hybrid electric vehicles and range-extenders presents serious cost challenges. Cost increase can be mitigated by reducing the number of cylinders but this usually has a negative impact on noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the vehicle system. This paper considers a novel form of two-stroke cycle engine offering potential for low emissions, reduced production cost and high potential vehicle efficiency. The engine uses segregated pump charging via the use of stepped pistons offering potential for low emissions. Installation as a power plant for automotive hybrid electric vehicles or as a range-extender for electric vehicles could present a low mass solution addressing the drive for vehicle fleet CO2 reduction. Operation on the two-stroke cycle enables NVH advantages over comparable four-stroke cycle units, however the durability of conventional crankcase scavenged engines can present significant challenges.
2016-05-18
Journal Article
2016-01-9110
Jignesh Vaghela
Abstract This study involves the experimental aspects of R134a Automobile Air Conditioning (AAC) system with & without Liquid Suction Heat Exchanger (LSHX). To evaluate the performance of an Automobile Air Conditioning system, an experimental system consisting of original components from an R134a Automobile Air Conditioning system has been set up and instrumented. An additional Liquid Suction Heat Exchanger is used in conventional Automobile Air Conditioning system. Effect of evaporator temperature variation & compressor speed variation on R134a Automobile Air Conditioning system performance is evaluated. From experimental evaluation, it is derived that there is a Coefficient of Performance (COP) improvement in Automobile Air Conditioning system with Liquid Suction Heat Exchanger compared to Automobile Air Conditioning system without Liquid Suction Heat Exchanger. Performance of an R134a Automobile Air Conditioning system degrades with increase in compressor speed.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9148
Saeed Asgari, Shailendra Kaushik
Abstract A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0646
Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, Diego Blanco, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech
Abstract Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting internal combustion engine (ICE) design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, and also on the air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI Diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out keeping constant the conditions at the IVC and the combustion centering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0647
Azmi Osman, M. Khairul Arif Muhammad Yusof, Mohammad Rafi
Abstract Additional fuel consumption reduction during the NEDC test cycle and real life driving can be effectively achieved by quickly raising the temperatures of the powertrain’s parts, oils and coolant closer to the optimal operating temperatures. In particular, the engine cooling system today must play a bigger role in the overall thermal management of the powertrain’s fluids and metals during warm-up, idle and severe operating conditions. In responding to these additional requirements, the previously proposed cost effective split cooling system has been further evolved to expedite the powertrain’s warming up process without compromising the overall heat rejection performance during severe operating conditions. In achieving these warming and cooling functions, the coolant flow rate in the cylinder head is almost stagnant when the single thermostat is closed and at its maximum when the thermostat is fully opened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0641
Thomas De Cuyper, Sam Bracke, Jolien Lavens, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only for the performance, but also for the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. This poses certain requirements on the heat flux sensor. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0604
Julien Bohbot, Olivier Colin, Anthony Velghe, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Mingjie Wang, P. K. Senecal, Eric Pomraning
Abstract The 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z) and the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition (TKI) auto-ignition model are widely used for RANS simulations of reactive flows in Diesel engines. ECFM3Z accounts for the turbulent mixing between one zone that contains compressed air and EGR and another zone that contains evaporated fuel. These zones mix to form a reactive zone where combustion occurs. In this mixing zone TKI is applied to predict the auto-ignition event, including the ignition delay time and the heat release rate. Because it is tabulated, TKI can model complex fuels over a wide range of engine thermodynamic conditions. However, the ECFM3Z/TKI combustion modeling approach requires an efficient predictive spray injection calculation. In a Diesel direct injection engine, the turbulent mixing and spray atomization are mainly driven by the liquid/gas coupling phenomenon that occurs at moving liquid/gas interfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0555
Federico Millo, Sabino Caputo, Claudio Cubito, Antonella Calamiello, Davide Mercuri, Marcello Rimondi
The target for future cooling systems is to control the fluid temperatures and flows through a demand oriented control of the engine cooling to minimize energy demand and to achieve comfort, emissions, or service life advantages. The scope of this work is to create a complete engine thermal model (including both cooling and lubrication circuits) able to reproduce engine warm up along the New European Driving Cycle in order to assess the impact of different thermal management concepts on fuel consumption. The engine cylinder structure was modeled through a finite element representation of cylinder liner, piston and head in order to simulate the cylinder heat exchange to coolant or oil flow circuits and to predict heat distribution during transient conditions. Heat exchanges with other components (EGR cooler, turbo cooler, oil cooler) were also taken into account.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0548
Estefanía Hervas-Blasco, Emilio Navarro-Peris, José Corberan, Alex Rinaldi
Abstract Nowadays, more than 50% of the fuel energy is lost in CNG Engines. While efforts to increase their efficiency have been focused mainly on the improvement of the combustion process, the combustion chamber and the reduction of friction losses, heat losses still remain the most important inefficient factor. A global strategy in which several energy recovery strategies are implemented could lead to engine improvements up to 15%. Therefore, the development of accurate models to size and predict the performance of the integrated components as well as to define an optimized control strategy is crucial. In this contribution, a model to analyze the potential of a new powertrain based on the electrification of the main auxiliaries, the integration of a kinetic energy recovery system and the exhaust gases heat recovery through a thermoelectric generator and a turbo-component is presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0576
Chad Koci, Kenth Svensson, Christopher Gehrke
Abstract A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0562
Hassan Karaky, Gilles Mauviot, Xavier Tauzia, Alain Maiboom
Abstract Due to its harmful effect on both human health and environment, soot emission is considered as one of the most important diesel engine pollutants. In the last decades, the industrial engine manufacturers have been able to strongly reduce its engine-out value by many different techniques, in order to respect the stricter emission norms. Simulation modeling has played and continues to play a key role for this purpose in the engine control system development. In this context, this paper proposes a new soot emission model for a direct injection diesel engine. This soot model is based on a zero-dimensional semi-physical approach coupled with a crank-angle resolved combustion model and a thermodynamic calculation of the burned gas products temperature. Furthermore, a multi linear regression model has been used to estimate the soot emissions as function of significant physical combustion parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0564
Pengfei Lu, Chris Brace, Bo Hu
Abstract The turbo-compounding has been extensively researched as a mean of improving the overall thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Many of the studies aiming to optimize the turbo-compounding system lead to the unified conclusion that this approach is more suitable for the operation under constant high load condition, while it has little effect on improving the fuel economy under low load conditions. Besides, in a traditional series turbo-compounding engine, the increased back pressure unavoidably results in a serious parasitic load to the system by increasing the resistance to the scavenging process. In order to improve this situation, a novel turbo-compounding arrangement has been proposed, in which the turbocharger was replaced by a continuously variable transmission (CVT) coupled supercharger (CVT superchargedr) to supply sufficient air mass flow rate to the engine at lower engine speeds.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0736
Michael Tess, Matthew Kurman, Chol-Bum Kweon
Abstract This research compares the spray development and combustion characteristics of jet propellant 8 (JP-8) and iso-paraffinic kerosene (IPK) through a range of diesel engine in-cylinder operating conditions. Non-reacting spray experiments were performed in a constant-pressure flow chamber with 99% nitrogen gas composition at constant temperature (900 K) and densities ranging from 11-56 kg/m3. Near-simultaneous, high-speed Mie and schlieren images of the spray were acquired to measure the liquid and vapor penetration lengths of the non-reacting jet. Reacting experiments, consisting of photodiode measurements and intensified high-speed movies of OH* chemiluminescence, were performed at the same thermodynamic conditions as the non-reacting experiments, except with a 21%/79% oxygen/nitrogen ambient gas composition. Measurements of the rate of injection, issued from a single-hole axial common-rail fuel injector, showed negligible differences between the fuels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0722
Yoshihiro Funayama, Hiroshi Nakajima, Kiyohiro Shimokawa
Abstract In order to improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, such as cooling and friction losses from the theoretical thermal efficiency, it is necessary to minimize various losses. However, it is also essential to consider improvements in theoretical thermal efficiency along with the reduction of the various losses. In an effort to improve the brake thermal efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, this research focused on two important factors leading to the engine's theoretical thermal efficiency: the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio. Based on the results of theoretical thermodynamic cycle analyses for the effects of the above two factors, it was predicted that raising the compression ratio from a base engine specification of 17 to 26, and increasing the specific heat ratio would lead to a significant increase in theoretical thermal efficiency.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0729
Takeshi Okamoto, Noboru Uchida
Abstract To overcome the trade-offs of thermal efficiency with energy loss and exhaust emissions typical of conventional diesel engines, a new diffusion-combustion-based concept with multiple fuel injectors has been developed. This engine employs neither low temperature combustion nor homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. One injector was mounted vertically at the cylinder center like in a conventional direct injection diesel engine, and two additional injectors were slant-mounted at the piston cavity circumference. The sprays from the side injectors were directed along the swirl direction to prevent both spray interference and spray impingement on the cavity wall, while improving air utilization near the center of the cavity.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0686
Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Margaret Wooldridge, Mohammad Fatouraie, Zhichao Jia, Yunliang Qi, Xin He, Mengke Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Super-knock has been a significant obstacle for the development of highly turbocharged (downsized) gasoline engines with spark ignition, due to the catastrophic damage super-knock can cause to the engine. According to previous research by the authors, one combustion process leading to super-knock may be described as hot-spot induced pre-ignition followed by deflagration which can induce detonation from another hot spot followed by high pressure oscillation. The sources of the hot spots which lead to pre-ignition (including oil films, deposits, gas-dynamics, etc.) may occur sporadically, which leads to super-knock occurring randomly at practical engine operating conditions. In this study, a spark plasma was used to induce preignition and the correlation between super-knock combustion and the thermodynamic state of the reactant mixture was investigated in a four-cylinder production gasoline engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1588
Abdalla Abdel-Rahman, Martin Agelin-Chaab, Gary Elfstrom, John Komar
Abstract Wind tunnels with integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing with yaw capabilities are not common. In this study however, an integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing system with yaw capabilities is developed and applied in the climatic wind tunnel at the University of Ontario-Institute of Technology (UOIT). This was done by installing an incremental force measuring system (FMS) on the large turntable that features a chassis dynamometer. The testing system was utilized to implement an integrated aero-thermal test on a full-scale race car. An efficient testing protocol was developed to streamline the integrated testing process. The FMS was used to enhance the test car’s stability, cornering speed, and fuel efficiency by using aerodynamic devices. These objectives were achieved by installing a high rear wing to increase the rear downforce, a modified front splitter extension to produce a front downforce gain, and front canards to contribute to drag reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1416
Rambabu Radakrishnan, Ganesh Dharmar, Mohanraj Balakrishnan, Sarath Padattil
Abstract Infotainment screens have become critical interface between occupant and Vehicle. Historical development of In-vehicle infotainment (IVI) has shown us the growth of interface size and usability is tremendously increased. The basic small segmented displays of past decades have transformed into large touch screen interface [1]. Earlier small screen interfaces had minimal information and less driver assist functions. It was mainly entertainment based information, which does not require much attention from driver. But recently it has changed from glancing the screen to seeing the screen, due to increased driver assist functions like GPS navigation etc. The amount of information displayed is also increased tremendously [2]. This scenario demands that the infotainment screen positioning inside the vehicle should be free from any visual obscuration, reflection and direct illumination on the infotainment screen due to ambient lighting.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Abstract The use of a head-up display (HUD) system has become popular recently, as it can provide feedback information at a position easily seen by the driver. However, the outline of the HUD bezel often reflects on the windshield of a HUD equipped vehicle. This phenomenon occurs when the sun is at a high position and reflects off the top of the instrument panel and the front view is dark. For this reason, it can occur when driving on asphalt paved roads, causing annoyance to the driver. Under fixed environmental conditions, the vehicle based factors that influence the annoyance caused by reflected boundary lines are the position of the reflection, line thickness, and the contrast of the reflected boundary line. These can be represented by the conspicuity of a striped pattern (contrast sensitivity function). In previous research in 1991, M. S. Banks et al. studied a contrast sensitivity function that included the factors stated above.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
Abstract This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure SAE J2732 (2008) seat dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated dimension-extraction process consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, back and cushion angles, (2) calculate centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su Sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Abstract Seating comfort is associated with the various factors, and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept that use double-wall 3D air-mat in cushion along with foam cushion in the seat cushion system. To test the developed seat on vibration isolation characteristics, seating comfort, and ride quality experiments have been performed. This research is divided into two parts. At first, the newly developed seat tested on the motion simulator. In study 2, road tests were performed on the national highway. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure acceleration at the foot and hip in two different seats (seat with and without double-wall 3D air-mat).
Viewing 241 to 270 of 8625