Plastic Materials and Coatings for Use In or On Optical Parts Such as Lenses and Reflectors of High-Intensity Discharge Forward Lighting Devices Used in Motor Vehicles
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements to evaluate the suitability of plastic optical materials for possible use in discharge forward lighting (DFL) devices in motor vehicles. These materials are typically used for lenses and reflectors. Separate testing is required for each combination of material, industrial coating, DFL light source, and device focal length. The tests are intended to determine physical and optical characteristics of the materials and coatings. Performance expectations of finished assemblies, including plastic components, are to be based on tests for lighting devices, as specified in SAE Standards and Recommended Practices for motor vehicle lighting equipment. Optical components exposed to weathering should also be subject to SAE J576.
This document defines the method for voltage identification by the use of color-coded insulators at the base of the lamps. Table 1 shows the design volts and corresponding insulator colors. The part numbers shown are for example purposes only, as an option. Insulator colors are to be easily distinguishable as green, yellow, red, and white. Additional colors may be added by a revision process as required.
Plastic Material or Materials for Use in Optical Parts Such as Lenses and Reflex Reflectors of Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements to evaluate the suitability of plastic materials intended for optical applications in motor vehicles. The tests are intended to determine physical and optical characteristics of the material only. Performance expectations of finished assemblies, including plastic components, are to be based on tests for lighting devices, as specified in SAE Standards and Recommended Practices for motor vehicle lighting equipment. Field experience has shown that plastic materials meeting the requirements of this document and molded in accordance with good molding practices will produce durable lighting devices.
This specification covers the general requirements for red and white individual instrument lights. This document has been streamlined. Appendix A to MIL-L-5057F lists those documents required for MIL-L-5057F acquisition and is a mandatory part of MIL-L-5057F. Those documents listed in Appendix A have the same status as those referenced directly in MIL-L-5057F (first tier documents). All other documents, referenced through tiering, may be used as guidance and information to supplement MIL-L-5057F. This document’s scope is limited to lamp source designs solely. Furthermore, the use of red lighting should not be considered for new design and included within this document to support requirements for existing military aircraft that still operate with this system of lighting.
This SAE Automotive Lighting Materials Recommended Practice incorporates several test methods in order to provide performance requirements facilitating a more accurate assessment of headlamp lens systems (lens substrate plus coating(s) if applicable) durability versus the established practice.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) will specify what type night vision goggles are required, minimum requirements for compatible crew station lighting, aircraft exterior lighting such as anticollision lights and position/navigation lights that are "NVG compatible." Also, this document is intended to set standards for NVG utilization for aircraft so that special use aircraft such as the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, Air Rescue, Police Department, Medivacs, etc., will be better equipped to chase drug smugglers and catch illegal immigrants, rescue people in distress, reduce high-speed chases through city streets by police, etc. Test programs and pilot operator programs are required. For those people designing or modifying civil aircraft to be NVG compatible, the documents listed in 2.1.3 are essential.
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
Abstract Advanced technologies in LED's have the potential to reduce maintenance and improve aircraft safety. Aircrafts need adequate illumination for night time landing. New technology such as high-power LEDs allow for better suited light distributions, more whitish light compatible for mesopic lighting conditions and reduced glare in adverse weather conditions. LEDs and the associated electronics are more susceptible to harsh environmental conditions and this needs to be accounted for in the design of the equipment. Highly conductive metal core PCBs (MCPCB) allow for adequate cooling in a mirror telescopic optical arrangement when coupled with robust active cooling. Closed loop optical feedback of output flux ensures constant performance over the lifetime of the light unit and allows for indication of remaining useful life to the operator to plan maintenance activities. Parylene coating inhibits premature degradation of the LEDs induced by water vapor and corrosive gases.
With current LED performance nearing or surpassing that of most traditional light sources, LEDs are now addressing most lighting applications (indoors, outdoors, transportation vehicles and so on), with prices coming down rapidly over the past three to five years. Advances in materials will also broaden LED consumption through improved performance. The report looks at the competing light-source technologies for automotive applications, including Halogen, HID/ Xenon, Combined HID and LED, LED technology, Organic LED (OLED) and Laser technology. It also examines the design flexibility and power savings that LEDs give designers, as well as the differing optics technology and related strict regulations. The Advanced Automotive Lighting and Vision Systems Report - 2014 Edition addresses uses for lighting in vehicles, looking at both exterior and interior applications and the unique set of challenges presented by each.
This document specifies that black is the only color that can be used for the insulator at the bottom of the base of T-1 and T-1 ¾ Flanged Base lamps.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes design guidance and photometric values for adequate cargo compartment and cargo access lighting systems for ground handling. The adoption of a standard set of illuminance values, found appropriate for the performance of the task in specified areas should expedite ground handling.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses the desired characteristics of night vision goggle (NVG) filters that can be used with incandescent, electroluminescent (EL) and light emitting diode (LED) light sources to achieve NVG compatible lighting of aerospace crew stations. This document also discusses the parameters that need to be considered when selecting a night vision goggle/daylight viewing (NVG/DV) filter for proper contrast enhancement to achieve readability in daylight. The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of NVG compatible lighting that will meet the requirements of MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009.
This document covers the general recommendations for cabin lighting in order to provide satisfactory illumination for, but not limited to: a. Boarding and deplaning b. Movement about the cabin c. Reading d. Use of lavatories e. Use of work areas f. Using stowage compartments, coat rooms, and closets g. Using interior stairways and elevators (lifts)
This specification covers the installation of aircraft interior lighting for military aircraft.
Automotive exterior lighting systems has several regulatory requirements & most of the manufactures have defined internal standards to achieve desired expectations based on vehicle category. Unavailability of such requirements for interior light illuminating systems has motivated the authors to generate test specifications & measurement methodology. There has been growing interest in automotive vehicle interior lighting for both functional and aesthetic requirements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Interior light illuminating devices in terms of “Light harmony”. The lighting harmony is “Maintain the color combination and light intensity level within users comfort zone”. In this study the lighting harmony is measured by means of two methods; one is Subjective evaluation & other is Objective evaluation.
This document is intended to highlight critical design issues that a panel designer should understand when designing panels for NVIS applications. It is not intended to be a discussion of the benefits of one lighting technology versus another. See ARP4168 for a more complete discussion of these lighting technologies.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) lists the lamps in Table 1 that are recommended for the type of service indicated. This list is not intended as a catalog and does not include many types that are now in use. This specification is not applicable to Solid State Lighting Lamp Assemblies (Based LED lamps). It does, however, reflect current practice.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the requirements for the types of glass to be utilized in the fabrication of cover glasses and lighting wedges used in aerospace instruments. It defines the maximum extent of physical defects and recommends standard methods of inspection and evaluation. Definitions of terminology used in this document are covered in 2.2.
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This specification is a general level subsystem light source specification that establishes test requirements of Light Emitting Diode (LED) components and modules for use in automotive lighting systems. The completed test data to this test specification is intended to be provided to the OEM by the Tier I lamp set maker as part of the lamp assembly PPAP. Re-testing shall be required if any portion of the approved LED modules experiences a design, manufacturing or component change. This document shall be applied to systems that meet the requirements for design, performance and validation established by government standards. The LED module is defined as the LED devices and any electronics required to properly energize the LEDs using vehicle electrical power system along with any associated electrical wiring, connectors and thermal management system. Samples shall be tested as a subsystem and considered one test sample for the entire test sequence.
This document defines the method for voltage identification by use of color coded insulators at the base of the lamp. Table 1 shows the design volts and corresponding insulator colors. The part numbers shown are for example purposes only. Insulator colors are to be easily distinguishable as green, yellow, red, and white. Additional colors may be added by a revision process as required.
Lighting and illumination systems using visible Lasers light sources are being developed under a number of US Navy programs to reduce the ship's costs including acquisition, installation, operation, and maintenance. Recent advances resulting from research initiatives funded thru the Office of Naval Research Mantech program and a Navy SBIR project are making broader applications of this technology feasible, including possible transition into aircrafts for position, landing, anti-collision, cargo loading, wing icing detection, and interior lights. The development of these lasers is being driven by the high definition projection industry, with substantial investments made to bring the technology to broad scale implementation, and with the anticipated increase in product availability and decrease in costs. The laser systems offer significant advantages over fiber optic systems using other light sources including metal halide and LEDs.
Fiber optics has been a viable technology for data communication applications in many environments including aircrafts, providing higher bandwidth, longer transmission distances, EMI/RFI immunity, and lower weight than copper cables. Until recently however fiber optics was not a viable transmission medium to efficiently distribute light for illumination on aircrafts. Fiber optic lighting systems, referred to as the Remote Source Lighting technology have been installed on US Navy vessels including the LPD 17 class, the Italian Multi-Mission Frigate FREMM class, and the DDG 1000 class. Optical fibers can offer advantages over conventional lighting systems that use copper cables due to safety, lower maintenance, EMI/RFI immunity, no possibility of short circuits or sparks, lightweight, and low operating costs. Higher procurement costs, primarily driven by the 37 fibers optical cable, have prevented a broader usage on naval vessels and for other applications including aircrafts.
Highly transparent, UV and heat-resistant, yet flexible and injection-moldable - these are the characteristics of the new, heat curable liquid silicone rubbers (LSR) which supplement the range of established materials used in lighting applications. With the rapid developments seen in recent years in lighting technology, the classic material - glass - is facing increasing competition from alternative transparent plastics entering into applications such as light guides, primary optics and lenses. This field is dominated by materials such as PC, PMMA, COP and PMMI, offering advantages in molding and high degree of design freedom, glass does not have. The injection molding process is the key to cost effective manufacturing, particularly in the case of high-volume production. Other advantages over glass are a less tendency to crack and a lower component weight. However, thermoplastics are also subject to application-related limitations such as temperature or UV-light resistance.