This document defines the method for voltage identification by the use of color-coded insulators at the base of the lamps. Table 1 shows the design volts and corresponding insulator colors. The part numbers shown are for example purposes only, as an option. Insulator colors are to be easily distinguishable as green, yellow, red, and white. Additional colors may be added by a revision process as required.
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
Abstract Advanced technologies in LED's have the potential to reduce maintenance and improve aircraft safety. Aircrafts need adequate illumination for night time landing. New technology such as high-power LEDs allow for better suited light distributions, more whitish light compatible for mesopic lighting conditions and reduced glare in adverse weather conditions. LEDs and the associated electronics are more susceptible to harsh environmental conditions and this needs to be accounted for in the design of the equipment. Highly conductive metal core PCBs (MCPCB) allow for adequate cooling in a mirror telescopic optical arrangement when coupled with robust active cooling. Closed loop optical feedback of output flux ensures constant performance over the lifetime of the light unit and allows for indication of remaining useful life to the operator to plan maintenance activities. Parylene coating inhibits premature degradation of the LEDs induced by water vapor and corrosive gases.
With current LED performance nearing or surpassing that of most traditional light sources, LEDs are now addressing most lighting applications (indoors, outdoors, transportation vehicles and so on), with prices coming down rapidly over the past three to five years. Advances in materials will also broaden LED consumption through improved performance. The report looks at the competing light-source technologies for automotive applications, including Halogen, HID/ Xenon, Combined HID and LED, LED technology, Organic LED (OLED) and Laser technology. It also examines the design flexibility and power savings that LEDs give designers, as well as the differing optics technology and related strict regulations. The Advanced Automotive Lighting and Vision Systems Report - 2014 Edition addresses uses for lighting in vehicles, looking at both exterior and interior applications and the unique set of challenges presented by each.
This document specifies that black is the only color that can be used for the insulator at the bottom of the base of T-1 and T-1 ¾ Flanged Base lamps.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes design guidance and photometric values for adequate cargo compartment and cargo access lighting systems for ground handling. The adoption of a standard set of illuminance values, found appropriate for the performance of the task in specified areas should expedite ground handling.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses the desired characteristics of night vision goggle (NVG) filters that can be used with incandescent, electroluminescent (EL) and light emitting diode (LED) light sources to achieve NVG compatible lighting of aerospace crew stations. This document also discusses the parameters that need to be considered when selecting a night vision goggle/daylight viewing (NVG/DV) filter for proper contrast enhancement to achieve readability in daylight. The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of NVG compatible lighting that will meet the requirements of MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009.
This document covers the general recommendations for cabin lighting in order to provide satisfactory illumination for, but not limited to: a. Boarding and deplaning b. Movement about the cabin c. Reading d. Use of lavatories e. Use of work areas f. Using stowage compartments, coat rooms, and closets g. Using interior stairways and elevators (lifts)
This specification covers the installation of aircraft interior lighting for military aircraft.
Automotive exterior lighting systems has several regulatory requirements & most of the manufactures have defined internal standards to achieve desired expectations based on vehicle category. Unavailability of such requirements for interior light illuminating systems has motivated the authors to generate test specifications & measurement methodology. There has been growing interest in automotive vehicle interior lighting for both functional and aesthetic requirements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Interior light illuminating devices in terms of “Light harmony”. The lighting harmony is “Maintain the color combination and light intensity level within users comfort zone”. In this study the lighting harmony is measured by means of two methods; one is Subjective evaluation & other is Objective evaluation.
This document is intended to highlight critical design issues that a panel designer should understand when designing panels for NVIS applications. It is not intended to be a discussion of the benefits of one lighting technology versus another. See ARP4168 for a more complete discussion of these lighting technologies.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) lists the lamps in Table 1 that are recommended for the type of service indicated. This list is not intended as a catalog and does not include many types that are now in use. This specification is not applicable to Solid State Lighting Lamp Assemblies (Based LED lamps). It does, however, reflect current practice.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the requirements for the types of glass to be utilized in the fabrication of cover glasses and lighting wedges used in aerospace instruments. It defines the maximum extent of physical defects and recommends standard methods of inspection and evaluation. Definitions of terminology used in this document are covered in 2.2.
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This document defines the method for voltage identification by use of color coded insulators at the base of the lamp. Table 1 shows the design volts and corresponding insulator colors. The part numbers shown are for example purposes only. Insulator colors are to be easily distinguishable as green, yellow, red, and white. Additional colors may be added by a revision process as required.
Fiber optics has been a viable technology for data communication applications in many environments including aircrafts, providing higher bandwidth, longer transmission distances, EMI/RFI immunity, and lower weight than copper cables. Until recently however fiber optics was not a viable transmission medium to efficiently distribute light for illumination on aircrafts. Fiber optic lighting systems, referred to as the Remote Source Lighting technology have been installed on US Navy vessels including the LPD 17 class, the Italian Multi-Mission Frigate FREMM class, and the DDG 1000 class. Optical fibers can offer advantages over conventional lighting systems that use copper cables due to safety, lower maintenance, EMI/RFI immunity, no possibility of short circuits or sparks, lightweight, and low operating costs. Higher procurement costs, primarily driven by the 37 fibers optical cable, have prevented a broader usage on naval vessels and for other applications including aircrafts.
Lighting and illumination systems using visible Lasers light sources are being developed under a number of US Navy programs to reduce the ship's costs including acquisition, installation, operation, and maintenance. Recent advances resulting from research initiatives funded thru the Office of Naval Research Mantech program and a Navy SBIR project are making broader applications of this technology feasible, including possible transition into aircrafts for position, landing, anti-collision, cargo loading, wing icing detection, and interior lights. The development of these lasers is being driven by the high definition projection industry, with substantial investments made to bring the technology to broad scale implementation, and with the anticipated increase in product availability and decrease in costs. The laser systems offer significant advantages over fiber optic systems using other light sources including metal halide and LEDs.
Highly transparent, UV and heat-resistant, yet flexible and injection-moldable - these are the characteristics of the new, heat curable liquid silicone rubbers (LSR) which supplement the range of established materials used in lighting applications. With the rapid developments seen in recent years in lighting technology, the classic material - glass - is facing increasing competition from alternative transparent plastics entering into applications such as light guides, primary optics and lenses. This field is dominated by materials such as PC, PMMA, COP and PMMI, offering advantages in molding and high degree of design freedom, glass does not have. The injection molding process is the key to cost effective manufacturing, particularly in the case of high-volume production. Other advantages over glass are a less tendency to crack and a lower component weight. However, thermoplastics are also subject to application-related limitations such as temperature or UV-light resistance.
This ARP describes methods for measuring the visual performance of direct view cathode ray tube displays used in aircraft flight decks and cockpits. Procedures may vary depending upon the type of display (for example, monochrome, color shadowmask, beam index, etc.), but all types are considered. This ARP describes the methods to be used in measuring those performance characteristics important for color and luminance use in direct view airborne electronic display systems.
The welding game changer Daniel Jubera of Novelis talks exclusively to Ian Adcock about its new laser weldable aluminium On the supercharge A new variable supercharger from V-Charge could herald a new era of downsized engines. Ian Adcock reports Making the MOST of in-car data Mark Fletcher takes a look at MOST and discovers how it is helping OEMs to keep pace with consumer demands
As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a huge pressure to design parts which are cost effective. This paper gives details of design & development of low cost mechanical latch-able switch with a feel of a push-push switch (Tact switch) for roof lamp application.
This document is intended to cover the design of plastic lighted panels, mounting plates, and their installation.
Lighting, Integral, For Aircraft Instruments: Criteria for Design of Red Incandescent Lighted Instruments
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the general requirements and test procedures for illuminating systems for integrally lighted aircraft instruments in order to provide (a) uniformity of illumination within each instrument, (b) legibility of instrument presentation under daylight or integral light, and (c) uniformity of illumination between instrument displays.
Automotive Engineering International 2012 SAE World Congress Tech Awards The editors of Automotive Engineering International preview the most innovative supplier technologies to be displayed April 24-26 in Detroit at the SAE 2012 World Congress. The top five are highlighted in this edition, but additional technologies and other event coverage can be viewed online at www.sae.org/mags/aei/saewc. The quest for better turbocharger compressors With the prevalence of automotive engine downsizing for better efficiency and emissions, greater emphasis is being placed on turbo aerodynamics to achieve wider-range and high-efficiency single-stage compressors. HCCI: The search for a better burn continues A Bosch-led consortium sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and a research team at Sandia National Laboratories, are pushing to unlock the fuel-efficiency potential of the elusive homogeneous-charge compression ignition engine.