Adaptive driving beam (ADB), which was first homologated in the ECE world (ECE 123) in 2012 has changed the automotive Front Lighting philosophy completely. Whereas we currently live with separate low beam and high beam features, also used in a combined way, we will have in the future a camera driven light distribution, which is a kind of modified high beam light pattern. ADB is a camera based lighting system, which enables the driver to achieve at night nearly high beam visibility without glaring oncoming or proceeding vehicles and road users. Once the presence of other vehicles is detected the headlamps change the light pattern and block the light where the oncoming or proceeding vehicles are located. The typical low beam light distribution with given and specified cutoff line will only be used in small speed areas. In US this development was well recognized and NHTSA is preparing a way to enable and approve the ADB systems with specific boundary conditions also for the US market.
Although adaptive driving beam headlight systems are not presently defined in North American headlighting standards, evidence for the potential safety benefits of these systems is increasing. Field measurements of the photometric performance of an adaptive driving bean system were made in response to simulated headlight and tail light conditions. Roadway geometries were varied and multiple measurements for many conditions were made to assess repeatability of measurements. The results of the testing are summarized in the context of validating the likely safety impacts of these systems and of providing recommendations for standardized measurement conditions to ensure reliability.
Cost optimization strategy to implement integrated LED drivers for automotive rear combination light.
LED in automotive rear combination lighting (RCL) is becoming widely used in high end to mid class segment car. This is mainly fuelled by the strong influence of styling and requirement of a compact design. With OEMs competing to provide higher value to the customers such as longer warranty and advanced diagnostic features, the topic of semiconductor integration is becoming significant. Integration is a key to enable small form factor, high robustness and implementation of advanced technical functionality in the LED driver. However, the cost of implementing an integrated driver, if not partitioned effectively, will be much higher than the discrete solution. Therefore, it is important to implement the cost optimization strategy right from the conceptualization of the LED driver integrated device. In the beginning of this paper, the LED driving concept that is commonly used in the RCL lighting such as linear current sources and switching supply discussed.
The technology for ADB/AFS systems is facing a transition to addressable LED arrays. ADB concepts today on the market use single row and multi row solutions. The “µAFS” consortium funded by the German Ministry of Research and Education consisting of Daimler, Hella, OSRAM SP and OS, Fraunhofer IZM and IAF and Infineon wants to go one step further. By hetero integration of a LED Chip providing 256 pixels with an intelligent driver IC, a building block for high resolution ADB/AFS light sources with more than 1000 pixels is realized. New headlamp design and optic solutions can be adapted to this illumination source with a pixel size in the range of 0.1 mm. In parallel the electronic infrastructure on the lamp and vehicle side is redefined to deal with the communication requirements coming along with high pixel numbers. New processing concepts create adaptive high resolution light patterns in real time and allow the car integration.
Retroreflective (RR) optical elements play a critical role in signalling, safety, and aesthetic/styling functionality of automotive lighting. The commonly used inverted-cube RR structures with hexagonal aperture have significant limitations that are primarily rooted in their manufacturing technique that involves complex assemblies/shapes of hexagonal pins and electroforms, particularly in case of freeform surfaces. This study introduces two new types of RR elements, namely: right triangular prism (RTP) and triangular pyramid. The mathematical/analytical models underlying these two new geometries were detailed as the intersection between a cube and a plane placed in a particular relative orientation with respect of each other. Following this, non-sequential optical simulation studies were performed using Zemax OpticStudio software.
Condensation occurrence in automotive headlights can be detrimental to consumer acceptance of a product. This paper describes a technique for transient numerical simulation of liquid film formation on surfaces during lighting thermal analysis performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), including how the film’s properties influence the thermal solution. The numerical technique presented accounts for the change in the film thermal state and thickness due to heat exchange with external fluid flow and solid bodies, surface evaporation/condensation, melting/crystallization within the film volume, and its motion due to gravity and friction forces from the surrounding airflow.
The desired system for aircraft instrument panel and cockpit lighting is one that will furnishlight of adequate intensity and distribution under all conditions of external lighting so that the crew may read instrumentation, placards, check lists, manuals, maps, instrument color coding, distinguish controls, etc., without undue interference with their vision outside of the aircraft.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides criteria for design and location of power supplies, controls, light fixtures, and associated equipment which are used to provide emergency illumination in transport aircraft, designed to comply with 14 CFR part 25 (Reference 1) for operation under 14 CFR part 91 (Reference 11) and 14 CFR part 121 (Reference 2), and also in compliance with FAA Advisory Circulars AC25.812-1A (Reference 3) and AC25.812-2 (Reference 10). It is not the purpose of an ARP to specify design methods to be followed in the accomplishment of the stated objectives.
This SAE Standard describes those factors which affect the accuracy and reliability of voltage indicating units and electrical indicating and sending units for fuel level, pressure, and temperature suitable for off-road, self-propelled work machines as described in SAE J1116 and agricultural tractors as defined in ASAE S390. Indicating units are divided into two groups, fully sealed and partially sealed. Serviceable lighting is not covered by this document unless otherwise specified. No ISO document has been found to be compatible.
This document presents minimum criteria for the design and installation of LED passenger reading light assemblies in commercial aircraft. The use of “shall” in this specification expresses provisions that are binding. Non-mandatory provisions use the term “should.”
This document defines the method for voltage identification by the use of color-coded insulators at the base of the lamps. Table 1 shows the design volts and corresponding insulator colors. The part numbers shown are for example purposes only, as an option. Insulator colors are to be easily distinguishable as green, yellow, red, and white. Additional colors may be added by a revision process as required.
Plastic Material or Materials for Use in Optical Parts Such as Lenses and Reflex Reflectors of Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and requirements to evaluate the suitability of plastic materials intended for optical applications in motor vehicles. The tests are intended to determine physical and optical characteristics of the material only. Performance expectations of finished assemblies, including plastic components, are to be based on tests for lighting devices, as specified in SAE Standards and Recommended Practices for motor vehicle lighting equipment. Field experience has shown that plastic materials meeting the requirements of this document and molded in accordance with good molding practices will produce durable lighting devices.
This specification covers the general requirements for red and white individual instrument lights. This document has been streamlined. Appendix A to MIL-L-5057F lists those documents required for MIL-L-5057F acquisition and is a mandatory part of MIL-L-5057F. Those documents listed in Appendix A have the same status as those referenced directly in MIL-L-5057F (first tier documents). All other documents, referenced through tiering, may be used as guidance and information to supplement MIL-L-5057F. This document’s scope is limited to lamp source designs solely. Furthermore, the use of red lighting should not be considered for new design and included within this document to support requirements for existing military aircraft that still operate with this system of lighting.
This SAE Automotive Lighting Materials Recommended Practice incorporates several test methods in order to provide performance requirements facilitating a more accurate assessment of headlamp lens systems (lens substrate plus coating(s) if applicable) durability versus the established practice.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) will specify what type night vision goggles are required, minimum requirements for compatible crew station lighting, aircraft exterior lighting such as anticollision lights and position/navigation lights that are "NVG compatible." Also, this document is intended to set standards for NVG utilization for aircraft so that special use aircraft such as the Coast Guard, Border Patrol, Air Rescue, Police Department, Medivacs, etc., will be better equipped to chase drug smugglers and catch illegal immigrants, rescue people in distress, reduce high-speed chases through city streets by police, etc. Test programs and pilot operator programs are required. For those people designing or modifying civil aircraft to be NVG compatible, the documents listed in 2.1.3 are essential.
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
Abstract Advanced technologies in LED's have the potential to reduce maintenance and improve aircraft safety. Aircrafts need adequate illumination for night time landing. New technology such as high-power LEDs allow for better suited light distributions, more whitish light compatible for mesopic lighting conditions and reduced glare in adverse weather conditions. LEDs and the associated electronics are more susceptible to harsh environmental conditions and this needs to be accounted for in the design of the equipment. Highly conductive metal core PCBs (MCPCB) allow for adequate cooling in a mirror telescopic optical arrangement when coupled with robust active cooling. Closed loop optical feedback of output flux ensures constant performance over the lifetime of the light unit and allows for indication of remaining useful life to the operator to plan maintenance activities. Parylene coating inhibits premature degradation of the LEDs induced by water vapor and corrosive gases.
With current LED performance nearing or surpassing that of most traditional light sources, LEDs are now addressing most lighting applications (indoors, outdoors, transportation vehicles and so on), with prices coming down rapidly over the past three to five years. Advances in materials will also broaden LED consumption through improved performance. The report looks at the competing light-source technologies for automotive applications, including Halogen, HID/ Xenon, Combined HID and LED, LED technology, Organic LED (OLED) and Laser technology. It also examines the design flexibility and power savings that LEDs give designers, as well as the differing optics technology and related strict regulations. The Advanced Automotive Lighting and Vision Systems Report - 2014 Edition addresses uses for lighting in vehicles, looking at both exterior and interior applications and the unique set of challenges presented by each.
This document specifies that black is the only color that can be used for the insulator at the bottom of the base of T-1 and T-1 ¾ Flanged Base lamps.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes design guidance and photometric values for adequate cargo compartment and cargo access lighting systems for ground handling. The adoption of a standard set of illuminance values, found appropriate for the performance of the task in specified areas should expedite ground handling.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the lighting function identification codes for use on all passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, motorcycles, and emergency vehicles.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses the desired characteristics of night vision goggle (NVG) filters that can be used with incandescent, electroluminescent (EL) and light emitting diode (LED) light sources to achieve NVG compatible lighting of aerospace crew stations. This document also discusses the parameters that need to be considered when selecting a night vision goggle/daylight viewing (NVG/DV) filter for proper contrast enhancement to achieve readability in daylight. The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of NVG compatible lighting that will meet the requirements of MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009.
This specification covers the installation of aircraft interior lighting for military aircraft.
This document covers the general recommendations for cabin lighting in order to provide satisfactory illumination for, but not limited to: a. Boarding and deplaning b. Movement about the cabin c. Reading d. Use of lavatories e. Use of work areas f. Using stowage compartments, coat rooms, and closets g. Using interior stairways and elevators (lifts)
Automotive exterior lighting systems has several regulatory requirements & most of the manufactures have defined internal standards to achieve desired expectations based on vehicle category. Unavailability of such requirements for interior light illuminating systems has motivated the authors to generate test specifications & measurement methodology. There has been growing interest in automotive vehicle interior lighting for both functional and aesthetic requirements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Interior light illuminating devices in terms of “Light harmony”. The lighting harmony is “Maintain the color combination and light intensity level within users comfort zone”. In this study the lighting harmony is measured by means of two methods; one is Subjective evaluation & other is Objective evaluation.
This document is intended to highlight critical design issues that a panel designer should understand when designing panels for NVIS applications. It is not intended to be a discussion of the benefits of one lighting technology versus another. See ARP4168 for a more complete discussion of these lighting technologies.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) lists the lamps in Table 1 that are recommended for the type of service indicated. This list is not intended as a catalog and does not include many types that are now in use. This specification is not applicable to Solid State Lighting Lamp Assemblies (Based LED lamps). It does, however, reflect current practice.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the requirements for the types of glass to be utilized in the fabrication of cover glasses and lighting wedges used in aerospace instruments. It defines the maximum extent of physical defects and recommends standard methods of inspection and evaluation. Definitions of terminology used in this document are covered in 2.2.