During the course of automobile Instrument Panel (IP) design development, the occupant head impact CAE simulation on IP are routinely performed to validate FMVSS201 requirements. Based on FMVSS201 requirements, the potential head impact zones on the IP are first identified. Then, the head impact zones are used to locate the various target points that must be impacted on IP. Once the critical target locations on IP are chosen, there are several computational steps that are required to calculate impact angles and head form (HF) center of rotation in reference to target points. Then, CAE engineer performs a repetitive process that involves positioning each individual HF with proper impact angle, assigning initial velocity to HF, and defining surface contacts within the finite element model (FEM). To simplify these lengthy manual steps, a commercially available CAE software tool is used to automate these steps.
This study is to document how NA customer’s perception of Quality has changed over time and has shifted from Quality/Dependability/Reliability (QDR) to Interior Sensory Quality (ISQ) . The idea of perception of quality has changed from basic QDR to the harmony of emotions that excite a customer. Interior Sensory Quality is defined as the harmony of characteristics that combine to make an emotional connection to the vehicles’ interior. Decisions that were previously based on QDR have shifted to more emotional purchase decisions. Now, Toyota wants to correctly appeal to customers’ emotional side through providing class-leading Interior Sensory Quality. To identify key ISQ strengths, weaknesses, and preferences, multiple customer clinics were held across the country. The key goals were to understand customer judgment of ISQ Execution, understand Customer ISQ Priority (by segment), and to understand Customer preference of detailed component areas.
The Automotive industry’s use of digital tools such as Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to perform virtual validation has progressed to effectively replace a large percentage of physical validation. This is primarily due to cost and time efficiencies virtual validation offers versus conventional physical prototyping and testing. With product development cycles becoming more compressed, CAE has assumed a more significant role in advanced design and structural evaluation. One of the major challenges to upfront effective and efficient CAE analyses is the availability of Computer Aided Design (CAD) data. Many OEMs and their suppliers are looking to leverage existing CAE models by mapping or adapting previous models using morphing tools to develop CAE models for quick analysis feedback. For Tier 1 suppliers, such as Inteva Products, this agility is becoming paramount.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance to achieve the optimum integration of new aircraft systems which have an impact on the cockpit layout or crew operating procedures. This process may also be used for modification of existing cockpits.
Develop and propagate recommended practices for the design, development, testing and implementation of head worn displays in piloted airborne platforms
This recommended practice is intended to provide industry technical personnel with an overview of vehicle speedometer system accuracy and offset requirements and odometer system accuracy requirements. Speedometer and odometer systems covered by this document are integrated into a vehicle's electrical and electronics system, assembled directly into the vehicle by the OEM, and use rotational data from at least one vehicle wheel that is appropriately converted into longitudinal vehicle speed and distance traveled information. This standard is limited to radial ply tires on new (as manufactured) cars, light trucks, and medium duty trucks. Other methods for measuring vehicle speed and distance traveled may be used provided they meet the performance recommendations herein. Any local market regulatory requirements must be met and shall supersede this document. Service parts are beyond the scope of this recommended practice.
Abstract The OEM's aim is to reduce development time and testing cost, hence the objective behind this work is to achieve a flexible stateflow model so that changes in the application during supply chain or development, on adding/deleting any switches, varying timer cycle, changing the logic for future advancements or else using the logic in different application, would end in minimal changes in the chart or in its states which would reflect least changes in the code. This research is about designing state machine architecture for chime/buzzer warning system and wiper/washer motor control system. The chime/buzzer stateflow chart includes various input switches like ignition, parking, seat belt buckle, driver door and speed accompanied with warning in the form of LED, lamp and buzzer. The logic is differentiated according to gentle and strong warning. Various conditions and scenarios of the vehicle and driver are considered for driver door and seat belt which is resolved in the chart.
pilots, air traffic controllers, dispatchers, aviation meteorologists
This document presents criteria for flight deck controls and displays for airborne collision avoidance systems providing vertical-only guidance, and provides design guidance for operational, functional, and installation characteristics and requirements for airborne collision avoidance systems in existing and future aircraft.
This document recommends criteria for standardization of flight deck interior doors and their operation which will provide optimum use under normal and emergency conditions.
This standard will be an updated version of SAEJ548/1. It is intended to specify the design requirements and dimensions for spark plugs and their cylinder head mounting. This standard will cover automotive, light duty non-automotive and small engine spark plugs. It does not include aircraft and large industrial engine type spark plugs..
Set-up a consistent geometry and requirements for measuring the Vehicles HUD, covering the AR-HUD performance.
This SAE Standard describes those factors which affect the accuracy and reliability of voltage indicating units and electrical indicating and sending units for fuel level, pressure, and temperature suitable for off-road, self-propelled work machines as described in SAE J1116 and agricultural tractors as defined in ASAE S390. Indicating units are divided into two groups, fully sealed and partially sealed. Serviceable lighting is not covered by this document unless otherwise specified. No ISO document has been found to be compatible.
SAE Jxxxx provides principles and a process for developing icons for use in electronic displays related to Off Road Work Machines as stated defined in SAE J 1116. Following the process insures that icons are derived from ISO registered graphical symbols or ISO compliant non-registered graphical symbols.
Abstract In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location.
The scope of this SAE Standard is to provide methods to determine display optical performance in all typical automotive ambient light illumination - with focus on High Ambient Contrast Ratio, which is critical for display legibility in a sunshine environment. It covers indoor measurements and simulated outdoor lighting. It is not the scope of this document to set threshold values for automotive compliance. However some recommended values are presented for reference.
This SAE Standard specifies the minimum performance recommendation for spark plugs intended for use in various internal combustion engines including Automotive, Marine, Motorcycle and Utility engine applications. This standard is not intended to supply information for spark plugs used in aircraft applications of any type.
Comfort-Driven Design of Car Interiors: A Method to Trace Iso-Comfort Surfaces for P ositioning the Dashboard Commands
Abstract General comfort can be defined as the measure of the “level of wellbeing” perceived by humans when interacting with a working environment. The state of the art for comfort/discomfort evaluation shows the need for an objective method to evaluate both “effects on the internal body” and “perceived effects” when considering the perception of comfort. Medical studies show that each joint has its own natural resting posture. In this posture, our muscles are completely relaxed or at minimum levels of strain. The body's geometrical configuration corresponds to the natural resting position of arms/legs/neck etc. From this starting point, the authors experimented to develop and built postural-comfort curves for each degree of freedom (DOF) of upper-limb joints. These curves are regular, and do not show any kind of discontinuity. Software (CA-Man®) was developed to analyze different postures and calculate a postural comfort index for the entire upper body.
Artist-Centric HMI Software Development Tool for Reconfigurable Instrument Clusters: Integration with Model-Based Development Tool
Abstract Instrument clusters that display all information on a TFT-LCD screen, also known as reconfigurable instrument clusters, have become the new trend in automotive interiors. DENSO mass-produced the world's first reconfigurable instrument cluster in 2008. To satisfy customer requirements, large quantities of resources were required. Coupled with an iterative process due to requirement changes, development costs became very high. Reducing development costs was vital in order to expand the reconfigurable instrument cluster product line. A new artist-centric HMI (human machine interface) software development workflow is proposed to reduce the development effort by introducing a data converter and real-time 3D rendering engine in our earlier paper. Our goal is to realize an environment with little programming during development by utilizing a tool chain to automate the majority of the programmer's tasks.
Abstract The explicit methods analysis solver LS-DYNA was used to create technology for simulating airbag deployment and plastic airbag lid tear-away in the front passenger seat. The present study clarified the mechanical properties and the transitions in fracture pattern of the material at low temperature plastic this way, an appropriate modeling method was developed and the prediction accuracy of the simulation of airbag lid tear-away on deployment was increased. Tensile testing of the material was carried out where there were differences in thickness of the tear-away section and the fracture characteristics were determined. A material model was created by analyzing changes in fracture characteristics and collapse patterns, taking into consideration the effects of strain and strain rate localization on fracture strain as well as ductile-brittle fracture transition. Next, airbags were subjected to the impactor testing.
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper describes the concept design, prototyping, and validation for interior subsystems of the MMLV. Case studies are presented for two of the interior subsystems: the instrument panel/cross-car beam (IP/CCB) and the front seat structures.
Abstract In order to reduce the cost and weight of the soft-foamed instrument-panel (IP), we developed the new IP which is made by the 2 kinds of injection methods. One is the compression-injection with back-foamed foil inserted, and the other is two-shot injection with the passenger-side airbag (PAB) door. We named it ‘IMX-IP’ which means that all components (‘X’) of the IP with different resins are made In a Mold. The development procedure of this technology was introduced (1) Design of the new injection mold through TRIZ application, (2) Optimization of the injection conditions and back foamed-foil for minimizing the foam loss and thickness deviation, (3) Development of CAE method for two-shot injection compression, (4) Reliability performance test and application to the mass production. The reduction of the processes through the two-shot molding with back foamed-foil inserted made it possible to enhance soft feeling on IP and reduce the cost and weight simultaneously.
This SAE Standard specifies the general requirements and test methods for nonshielded high-tension ignition cable assemblies.
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide any technical person or group interested in ignition system design and/or evaluation with the specific equipment, conditions, and methods which will produce test results definitive and reproducible for his own work and yet sufficiently standardized to be acceptable to other groups working on battery ignition systems for automotive engines.
This document recommends design and performance criteria for aircraft lighting systems used to illuminate flight deck controls, luminous visual displays used for transfer of information, and flight deck background and instrument surfaces that form the flight deck visual environment. This document is for commercial transport aircraft except for applications requiring night vision compatibility.
The specifications contained in this SAE Standard pertain to high tension ignition cable used in road vehicle engine ignition systems.
This SAE Standard specifies the general requirements and test methods for nonshielded high-tension ignition cable assemblies.
To provide standard terminology and definitions with regard to ignition systems for spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Abstract Dash panel is the most important path of structure-borne and air-borne interior noise for engine-driven vehicles. Reinforcements, which are added to dash panel, are mainly designed in order to suppress the structure-borne noise contribution from the dash panel. However, the effects of dash reinforcements do not seem clear in the viewpoint of air-borne noise. In this paper, the insulation performance of a dash structure with spot-welded reinforcements is studied through several STL (Sound Transmission Loss) tests and STL simulations. The results of this study could be utilized for increasing the sound insulation performance of vehicle body structure.
Abstract Strategies for weight reduction have driven the noise treatment advanced developments with a great success considering the already mastered weight decreases observed in the last years in the automotive industry. This is typically the case for all soft trims parts. In the early 2010's a typical european B-segment car soft trims weights indeed 30 to 40% less than in the early 2000's years. The main driver behind such a gap has been to combine insulation and absorption properties on a single part while increasing the number of layers. This product-process evolution was conducted using a significant improvement in the simulation capacities. In that sense, several studies presenting very good correlation results between Transmission Loss measurements and finite elements simulations on dashboard or floor insulators were presented. One may consider that those kinds of parts have already achieved a considerable improvement in performance.