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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Brian R. McAuliffe, Leanna Belluz, Marc Belzile
Terrestrial winds play an important role in affecting the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Of increasing importance is the effect of the unsteady turbulence structure of these winds and their influence on the process of optimizing aerodynamic performance to reduce fuel consumption. In an effort to predict better the aerodynamic performance of heavy-duty vehicles and various drag reduction technologies, a study was undertaken to measure the turbulent wind characteristics experienced by heavy-duty vehicles on the road. To measure the winds experienced on the road, a sport utility vehicle (SUV) was outfitted with an array of four fast-response pressure probes that could be arranged in vertical or horizontal rake configurations that provided measurements up to 4.0 m from the ground and spanning a width of 2.4 m. To characterize the influence of the proximity of the vehicle on the pressure signals of the probes, the SUV and its measurements system was calibrated in a large wind tunnel. On-road measurements of the turbulence intensities, turbulence length scales, wind spectra, and spatial correlations were performed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Youhanna William, Walid Oraby, Sameh Metwally
When driving a vehicle on the road, the driver has to compensate continuously for small directional deviations from the desired course due to disturbances such as crosswinds and road irregularities leading to unintended path deviation. With higher and larger side area such as buses and trucks, the influence of crosswind on the vehicle lateral dynamics behavior is much higher and the vehicle becomes more sensitive to side wind excitations. The study presents a practical theoretical method to judge the aerodynamic response of buses in the early design steps based on both aerodynamic and design parameters. A constant longitudinal velocity 2-DOF vehicle lateral dynamics model is used to investigate a bus lateral response under nine different wind gusts excitations. An accurate validated 3-D CFD simulation model of the bus shape results is integrated with carefully chosen design parameters data of a real bus chassis and body to obtain vehicle lateral dynamic response to the prescribed excitations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Colin Britcher, Wael Mokhtar, Stephen Way
Commercial vehicle design, as well as associated aerodynamic test procedures, acknowledge the fact that many of these vehicles will operate in strong crosswind conditions for a significant fraction of their operational life. For example, the SAE "wind averaged" drag coefficient develops a weighted average CD based on operation at representative speeds in representative winds from arbitrary directions. Wind tunnel testing at a representative road speed over a range of yaw angles of +-15° is sufficient to populate the SAE equation. However, wind tunnel tests of commercial vehicles are often compromised due to the physical size of the model or other factors, leading to various concerns. An on-road crosswind develops a deep atmospheric boundary layer profile. The vehicle's road speed results in the relative velocity field at the vehicle being strongly curved. A curved flow field is practically impossible to generate in a wind tunnel with a substantial mean velocity, although some yacht sail testing is carried out at in curved flow facilities at much lower velocities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
William Bradford Bartow, Andres C. Moreyra, Alexis lefebvre, Gecheng Zha, Trevor Hirst, Gregory H. Woyczynski
This paper experimentally investigates the detailed flow field of base drag reduction method using passive jet boat-tail (JBT) with 3D PIV measurement in wind tunnel testing. JBT is a new method recently developed by Zha et al to reduce vehicle base drag using passive jet instead of a solid botatail. It has the advantage of no blockage in the base area, which is important for vehicle loading/unloading and is necessary for vehicle rear view mirrors that can not permit any visibility blockage. The wind tunnel experiment indicates that the JBT significantly reduces the wake width and depth(Fig. 1), and thus the base drag. The unsteady wake flaps up and down and left and right. The hypothesis is that the wake flapping transfers the energy to the coherent structures caused by the jet, and then further energizes the base flow region with base pressure increased. The wake profile area at 1.5 length downstream is reduced by about 40%.The 3D PIV measurement found that the jet creates a large circumferential gradient of the flow field, which enhances the entrainment and energy transfer.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jouke Van der Krieke, Gandert Van Raemdonck
Improving aerodynamic quality, i.e. reducing drag, of semi-trailers will contribute largely to reduce the fuel consumption and the emissions of harmful gases of heavy duty vehicles. In the recent past WABCO developed an aerodynamically shaped skirt, called SideWing, for a European tractor semi-trailer configuration. This solution proved its efficiency during wind tunnel experiments, dedicated track testing and operational testing on public roads. In the Netherlands one is allowed to drive with a longer vehicle combination having a length of 25m, instead of 16.5m for the standard length. This longer combination has a tractor, a semi-trailer and a drawbar trailer. The semi-trailer is equipped with SideWings, while the drawbar trailer has regular skirts. Together with the fleet operator a test was conducted during operational activities to determine the fuel savings of the SideWings with the skirts on this particular vehicle combination. This fuel saving test was conducted with only one vehicle for a total period of fifteen months.
WIP Standard
2014-05-08
This specification covers two types of refined hydrocarbon compounds in the form of liquids. This product has been used typically as a vehicle for the suspension of magnetic particles used in magnetic particle inspection procedures, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-25
This specification covers one type of fluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a mixed, ready to use suspension in an odorless, inspection oil vehicle and packaged in aerosol cans. This product has been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet, fluorescent magnetic particle inspection system as defined in AMS2640 or ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-02-06
This specification details requirements and procedures for the detection of defects in aircraft and engine components during maintenance and overhaul operations.
Standard
2013-12-13
This specification establishes the requirements for etch inspection of bare high strength low alloy steel parts having tensile strength of 180 ksi (1241 MPa) and higher and of carburized parts to detect overheating caused by abusive machining or grinding in the heat treated condition, and to detect localized discontinuous carburization. This process is not applicable to surface hardened steels produced by nitriding or carbonitriding. This process may remove 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch (2.5 to 12.7 micrometers) from the surface of the part.
WIP Standard
2013-10-18
This specification covers nonfluorescent, magnetic particles having black, red, gray, or other color, as specified, supplied in the form of dry powders. This product is used typically as an inspection medium in a dry magnetic particle inspection process in accordance with ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-18
This specification covers fluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a mixed, ready to use suspension in an odorless inspection oil vehicle. These particles have been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet method, magnetic inspection system as defined in ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-18
This specification covers fluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a dry powder. These particles have been used typically as the inspection medium in wet, fluorescent magnetic particle inspection system as defined in ASTM E 1444 using either an oil or conditioned-water vehicle, but usage is not limited to such application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-18
This specification covers nonfluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a mixed, ready-to-use suspension in an odorless inspection oil vehicle. These products have been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet magnetic particle inspection system in accordance with ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-18
This specification covers nonfluorescent magnetic particles in the form of a mixed, ready to use suspension in an odorless oil vehicle and packaged in aerosol cans. These particles have been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet magnetic particle inspection system in accordance with ASTM E 1444, but usage is not limited to such application.
WIP Standard
2013-10-18
This specification covers nonfluorescent, magnetic particles in the form of dry powders intended to be suspended in oil or conditioned water vehicle for use in the wet method, magnetic particle inspection. These particles have been used typically as the inspection medium in a wet magnetic particle inspection system in accordance with ASTM E 1444, using either an oil or a conditioned water vehicle, but usage is not limited to such application.
Standard
2013-10-17
This specification establishes the classification, technical requirements, tests, and test procedures for the qualification, approval, and quality verification of all materials used in the liquid penetrant methods of inspection with the exception of those excluded in the application section.
Standard
2013-10-04
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the requirements for the types of glass to be utilized in the fabrication of cover glasses and lighting wedges used in aerospace instruments. It defines the maximum extent of physical defects and recommends standard methods of inspection and evaluation. Definitions of terminology used in this document are covered in 2.2.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Muralidhar Suryanarayan Bhat
This paper deals with setting of Inspection parameters for selected automotive transmission parts in various bench tests. This paper we are discuss about critical dimension's measured for particular type of test. It is not possible to measure all the dimensions of a component for doing a particular test. This is due to time constraints set by program delivery deadlines. From above statement it can be deduced that it is almost impossible to measure all dimensions of a component. A bench level test may consist of two major tests. They are maximum load test and gear shift durability test. The maximum load test deals with gear box durability test and torque carrying capacity of gearbox. Parameters to be measured for some of above parts will be identified. More importantly it will also identify see reasons for that parameter to be measured.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Gad N. Abenhaim, S. Antoine Tahan, Alain Desrochers, Jean-Francois Lalonde
Aerospace panels are commonly restrained on complex inspection fixture jigs during the measurement process. Forces used to restrain the part are also monitored because of the part functional requirements. Given the difficulties in measuring these types of parts, this paper reviews the available fixtureless inspection methods with a focus on the challenges of their implementation and their aptitude to be used to estimate the part profile and the necessary restraining forces of an aerospace panel. To perform this investigation, finite element analysis is used to predict the constrained shape of four (4) simulated free state aerospace panel, with two different type of boundary condition, in five scenarios. From those analyses, the importance and limits of current finite element boundary setting method embedded in fixtureless inspection methods for nonrigid parts are highlighted.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Moulay A. Akhloufi, Benjamin Verney
3D digitalization and modeling is very popular in industrial applications such as metrology, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and tridimensional object inspection. The 3D captured data can be used for the inspection of object surfaces. However, hidden defects cannot be detected with this technology. In order to get this kind of information, NDT/E (Non-Destructive Testing/Examination) approaches are used (ultrasounds, infrared imaging, etc.). These two types of information are very important in aerospace products inspection (e.g. composite materials). The two modalities (3D Vision and NDT) are still used separately. In this work, we present a new multi-modal fusion framework for combining these two data types. The fusion scheme works on 3D image data and temporal thermal images in order to obtain a hybrid model for simultaneously inspecting the 3D surface and the hidden sub-surface defects. The proposed system permits an augmented visualization of structural non visible defects in a three-dimensional space.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Christophe Bescond, Roy Wong, Patrick Desrosiers
Non Destructive Inspection (NDI) of large Out of Autoclave Cure primary monolithic and sandwich Composite structures is challenging due to high requirement for flaw detection and characterization among porosity, delamination, disbond, foreign material, crushed core, dry fiber. Large scale NDI inspection with semi-automated and automated system is presented for flaw detection/characterization and porosity assessment methodology is described with results for high porosity level assessment in monolithic and sandwich structures.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Joshua Smith, Duncan Kochhar-Lindgren
Precision hole inspection is often required for automated aircraft assembly. Direct contact measurement has been proven reliable and accurate for over 20 years in production applications. At the core of the hole measurement process tool are high precision optical encoders for measurement of diameter and countersink depth. Mechanical contact within the hole is via standard 2-point split ball tips, and diametric data is collected rapidly and continuously enabling the system to profile the inner surface at 0 and 90 degrees. Hole profile, countersink depth, and grip length data are collected in 6 seconds. Parallel to the active process, auto-calibration is performed to minimize environmental factors such as thermal expansion. Tip assemblies are selected and changed automatically. Optional features include concave countersink and panel position measurement.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Christian Meiners
For decades optical camera systems have been used by Broetje-Automation to locate pilot holes and find product orientation on NC-controlled positioner systems. Measurement tolerance requirements were and are in the range of +/− 0.2 mm. Recent developments enhance the sensor technology function from pure hole detection to new features like Fastener Head Height Measurement and Countersink Diameter Measurement. While head height measurement has to go 3D by enhancing the planar sensors to head protrusion measurement, the Countersink measuring tolerances are much smaller than “simple” hole detection, in fact require more than a magnitude tighter tolerances. This paper will present how Broetje-Automation solved the issue of a 20 plus fold accuracy increase, the 3D capability of the one eyed camera and all accompanied by a more robust evaluation software.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jorge Bardina
This paper features a set of advanced technologies for autonomy and intelligence in advanced inspection systems of facility operations. These technologies offer a significant contribution to set a path to establish a system and an operating environment with autonomy and intelligence for inspection, monitoring and safety via gas and ambient sensors, video mining and speech recognition commands on unmanned ground vehicles and other platforms to support operational activities in the Cryogenics Test bed and other facilities and vehicles. These advanced technologies are in current development and progress and their functions and operations require guidance and formulation in conjunction with the development team(s) toward the system architecture.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 721

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