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Viewing 1 to 30 of 426
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0395
Xin Xie, Danielle Zeng, Boyang Zhang, Junrui Li, Liping Yan, Lianxiang Yang
Vehicle front panel is an interior part which have a major impact on the consumers’ experience of the vehicles. To keep a good appearance during long time aging period, most of the front panel is designed as a rough surface. Some types of surface defects on the rough surface can only be observed under the exposure of certain angled sun light. This brings great difficulties in finding surface defects on the production line. This paper introduces a novel polarized laser light based surface quality inspection method for the rough surfaces on the vehicle front panel. By using the novel surface quality inspection system, the surface defects can be detected real-timely even without the exposure under certain angled sun light. The optical fundamentals, theory derivation, experiment setup and testing result are shown in detail in this paper.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2123
Matthias Busch, Benedikt Faupel
Abstract The integration of omega stringers to panels made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) by adhesive bonding, which is achieved by baking in an autoclave, must be subject to high quality standards. Failures such as porosity, voids or inclusion must be detected safely to guaranty the functionality of the component. Therefore, an inspection system is required to verify these bonds and detect different kinds of defects. In this contribution, the advantages of a robotic inspection system, which will be achieved through continuous testing, will be introduced. The testing method is the active thermography. The active thermography has major advantages compared with other non-destructive testing methods. Compared to testing with ultrasonic there is no coupling medium necessary, thus testing will be significantly enhanced.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2145
Ryan Haldimann
Abstract Inspection of fasteners prior to installation is critical to the quality of aerospace parts. Fasteners must be inspected for length/grip and diameter at a minimum. Inspecting the fasteners mechanically just prior to insertion can cause additional cycle time loss if inspection cannot be performed at the same time as other operations. To decrease fastener inspection times and to ensure fastener cartridges contain the expected fastener a system was devised to measure the fastener as it travels down the fastener feed tube. This process could be adapted to inspection of fasteners being fed to the process head of a running machine eliminating the mechanical inspection requirement and thus decreasing cycle time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0419
Whitney Poling, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Anil Sachdev, Xiaohua Hu, Arun Devaraj, Fadi Abu-Farha
Abstract The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2608
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid
Abstract In many existing AFP cells manual inspection of composite plies accounts for a large percentage of production time. Next generation AFP cells can require an even greater inspection burden. The industry is rapidly developing technologies to reduce inspection time and to replace manual inspection with automated solutions. Electroimpact is delivering a solution that integrates multiple technologies to combat inspection challenges. The approach integrates laser projectors, cameras, and laser profilometers in a comprehensive user interface that greatly reduces the burden on inspectors and decreases overall run time. This paper discusses the implementation of each technology and the user interface that ties the data together and presents it to the inspector.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2499
Perla Maiolino, Richard A. J. Woolley, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract The assembly and manufacture of aerospace structures, in particular legacy products, relies in many cases on the skill, or rather the craftsmanship, of a human operator. Compounded by low volume rates, the implementation of a fully automated production facility may not be cost effective. A more efficient solution may be a mixture of both manual and automated operations but herein lies an issue of human error when stepping through the build from a manual operation to an automated one. Hence the requirement for an advanced automated assembly system to contain functionality for inline structural quality checking. Machine vision, used most extensively in manufacturing, is an obvious choice, but existing solutions tend to be application specific with a closed software development architecture.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Abstract Polymer seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing demands for these components regarding e.g. pressure, tighter tolerances or new refrigerants come more stringent requirements for ensuring surface properties according to the specification for the specific application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of defects, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2448
Muralidhar Suryanarayan Bhat
This paper deals with setting of Inspection parameters for selected automotive transmission parts in various bench tests. This paper we are discuss about critical dimension's measured for particular type of test. It is not possible to measure all the dimensions of a component for doing a particular test. This is due to time constraints set by program delivery deadlines. From above statement it can be deduced that it is almost impossible to measure all dimensions of a component. A bench level test may consist of two major tests. They are maximum load test and gear shift durability test. The maximum load test deals with gear box durability test and torque carrying capacity of gearbox. Parameters to be measured for some of above parts will be identified. More importantly it will also identify see reasons for that parameter to be measured.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2147
Joshua Smith, Duncan Kochhar-Lindgren
Precision hole inspection is often required for automated aircraft assembly. Direct contact measurement has been proven reliable and accurate for over 20 years in production applications. At the core of the hole measurement process tool are high precision optical encoders for measurement of diameter and countersink depth. Mechanical contact within the hole is via standard 2-point split ball tips, and diametric data is collected rapidly and continuously enabling the system to profile the inner surface at 0 and 90 degrees. Hole profile, countersink depth, and grip length data are collected in 6 seconds. Parallel to the active process, auto-calibration is performed to minimize environmental factors such as thermal expansion. Tip assemblies are selected and changed automatically. Optional features include concave countersink and panel position measurement.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2171
Moulay A. Akhloufi, Benjamin Verney
3D digitalization and modeling is very popular in industrial applications such as metrology, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and tridimensional object inspection. The 3D captured data can be used for the inspection of object surfaces. However, hidden defects cannot be detected with this technology. In order to get this kind of information, NDT/E (Non-Destructive Testing/Examination) approaches are used (ultrasounds, infrared imaging, etc.). These two types of information are very important in aerospace products inspection (e.g. composite materials). The two modalities (3D Vision and NDT) are still used separately. In this work, we present a new multi-modal fusion framework for combining these two data types. The fusion scheme works on 3D image data and temporal thermal images in order to obtain a hybrid model for simultaneously inspecting the 3D surface and the hidden sub-surface defects.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2172
Gad N. Abenhaim, S. Antoine Tahan, Alain Desrochers, Jean-Francois Lalonde
Aerospace panels are commonly restrained on complex inspection fixture jigs during the measurement process. Forces used to restrain the part are also monitored because of the part functional requirements. Given the difficulties in measuring these types of parts, this paper reviews the available fixtureless inspection methods with a focus on the challenges of their implementation and their aptitude to be used to estimate the part profile and the necessary restraining forces of an aerospace panel. To perform this investigation, finite element analysis is used to predict the constrained shape of four (4) simulated free state aerospace panel, with two different type of boundary condition, in five scenarios. From those analyses, the importance and limits of current finite element boundary setting method embedded in fixtureless inspection methods for nonrigid parts are highlighted.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2213
Christophe Bescond, Roy Wong, Patrick Desrosiers
Non Destructive Inspection (NDI) of large Out of Autoclave Cure primary monolithic and sandwich Composite structures is challenging due to high requirement for flaw detection and characterization among porosity, delamination, disbond, foreign material, crushed core, dry fiber. Large scale NDI inspection with semi-automated and automated system is presented for flaw detection/characterization and porosity assessment methodology is described with results for high porosity level assessment in monolithic and sandwich structures.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2148
Christian Meiners
For decades optical camera systems have been used by Broetje-Automation to locate pilot holes and find product orientation on NC-controlled positioner systems. Measurement tolerance requirements were and are in the range of +/− 0.2 mm. Recent developments enhance the sensor technology function from pure hole detection to new features like Fastener Head Height Measurement and Countersink Diameter Measurement. While head height measurement has to go 3D by enhancing the planar sensors to head protrusion measurement, the Countersink measuring tolerances are much smaller than “simple” hole detection, in fact require more than a magnitude tighter tolerances. This paper will present how Broetje-Automation solved the issue of a 20 plus fold accuracy increase, the 3D capability of the one eyed camera and all accompanied by a more robust evaluation software.
2013-09-17
Journal Article
2013-01-2092
Jorge Bardina
This paper features a set of advanced technologies for autonomy and intelligence in advanced inspection systems of facility operations. These technologies offer a significant contribution to set a path to establish a system and an operating environment with autonomy and intelligence for inspection, monitoring and safety via gas and ambient sensors, video mining and speech recognition commands on unmanned ground vehicles and other platforms to support operational activities in the Cryogenics Test bed and other facilities and vehicles. These advanced technologies are in current development and progress and their functions and operations require guidance and formulation in conjunction with the development team(s) toward the system architecture.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1886
Todd Rudberg, Joshua Cemenska
Incorporation of laser projectors in AFP machine cell controller reduces ply boundary inspection time, on-part course identification and part probing.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2750
Athanasios Lois, Nikolaos Bertos, Athanasios Ziliaskopoylos
The process of checking inspection points on combat aircraft after a mission, is critical for their operational readiness. Manufacturers include specific inspection procedures in their maintenance handbooks. These procedures consist of detailed instructions for each check, the minimum time required to complete each check as well as a suggested sequence. However, it has been observed, that technical crews can complete inspection in less time than suggested by the manual, without violation of the time prescribed for each inspection point. In this work we will try to apply routing algorithms, to improve the total inspection time, by finding the optimal inspection sequence. This will be achieved without violating any constraint set by the manufacturer, except for the small reduction of the service time on some points. The algorithms we will use is the algorithmic set usually applied for the well-known PDPTW (pickup and delivery problem with time windows).
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0098
Marcin Rychter
The paper presents main legal rules introducing the digital tachograh system main requirments which must be fulfilled by producers of digital tachographs in order to get the type approval, possibility of future requirements of digital tachograph, main functions of digital tachograph, characteristics of participant of digital tachograpfs system and their tools of the identification, acting and setting of authorize workshops in Poland and Europe Union, accessible methods of check and calibration of digital tachographs and their description, based on Commission Regulation (EC) No 1360/2002 of 13 June 2002, replacing the Annex 1B and Polish law. These paper also presents current level of implementation of digital tachograph system in Europe in light of introduction of digital tachograph second generation.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0073
P. K. Gopinath, Arthur Devadawson, R. Radhakrishnan, M. Nandakumar
Modern manufacturing demands zero defects of extremely low defect rates, often measured in parts per million. Customer awareness regarding product quality has caused inspection process to become an important factor in manufacturing industries. Stated, simply, the inspection process is a careful search for non-conformities in an item. The two functions that are center to all inspection tasks are visual search and decision making. Innovative ways of identifying defects in most effective manner is the most important criteria in visual inspection method. Visual Inspection is commonly defined as “the examination of a material, component, or product for condition of non-conformance using lights and eyes”. The quality of the visual inspection are primarily affected by Quality of the detector The lighting condition Lighting condition play an important role in visual inspection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0383
Alan Kastengren, Christopher Powell, Kamel Fezzaa, Zunping Liu, Seoksu Moon, Xusheng Zhang, Jian Gao, F. Tilocco
While the use of injection strategies utilizing multiple injection events for each engine cycle has become common, there are relatively few studies of the spray structure of split injection events. Optical spray measurements are particularly difficult for split injection events with a short dwell time between injections, since droplets from the first injection will obscure the end of the first and the start of the second injection. The current study uses x-ray radiography to examine the near-nozzle spray structure of split injection events with a short dwell time between the injection events. In addition, x-ray phase-enhanced imaging is used to measure the injector needle lift vs. time for split injections with various dwell timings. Near the minimum dwell time needed to create two separate injection events, the spray behavior is quite sensitive to the dwell time.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0472
Oliver Scholz, Rolf Behrendt, Thomas Wenzel, Thomas Stocker, Jörg Müller
The inspection of steel welds is a requirement in many safety critical applications, with X-rays offering an excellent visual aid in quality monitoring of such parts. In order to penetrate the steel and the weld, high energy X-rays are usually required though, depending on the material's thickness and the length of material the X-ray beams must traverse. The high beam energies can seriously degrade the X-ray detectors' life expectancy and image quality, so in order to ensure consistent image quality traditional X-ray film has been used, in spite of its drawbacks regarding the ecological impact of the chemical process and the significant efforts involved if archives of the welds must be maintained. This paper presents an alternative solution to the traditional photochemical archival approach using a custom X-ray detector developed specifically for the inspection of welded seams.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3130
Brett L. Hopkins, Peter J. Dickin
The main challenge for aerospace manufacturers today is to develop the ability to produce high-quality products on a consistent basis as quickly as possible and at the lowest-possible cost. At the same time, rising material prices are making the cost of scrap higher than ever so making it more important to minimise waste. Proper inspection and quality control methods are no longer a luxury; they are an essential part of every manufacturing operation that wants to grow and be successful. However, simply bolting on some quality control procedures to the existing manufacturing processes is not enough. Inspection must be fully-integrated with manufacturing for the investment to really produce significant improvements.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2094
Hsiu-Ying Hwang, Yu-Chang Lee
A noticeable noise and vibration occurred when the Mass Rapid Train turned on a rail with a large turning angle. A study was performed to investigate the source of the noise and vibration, to find the root causes, and to discuss the corrective actions to improve the issue. The investigation indicates the noise occurs between the slewing ring bearing and the friction sets. The slewing ring bearing is located between the body and chassis systems. It provides a relative rotation between the body and chassis. The friction sets provide friction forces to prevent abrupt movements and to help to stabilize the relative motions between the body and chassis systems. The study shows under certain contact conditions unsmooth turning would occur and cause the noise and vibration. A corrective action was suggested to improve the condition.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0289
Jan A. Zandhuis, Charles E. A. Finney, Todd J. Toops, William P. Partridge, C. Stuart Daw, Thomas Fox
We describe novel results of ongoing research at 3DX-RAY Ltd and Oak Ridge National Laboratory using new, commercially available, nondestructive x-ray techniques to make engineering measurements of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Nondestructive x-ray imaging and data-analysis techniques were developed to detect and visualize the small density changes corresponding to the addition of substances such as soot and ash to DPF monoliths. The usefulness of this technique was explored through the analysis of field-aged samples, accelerated-aged samples, and the synthetic addition of ash and soot to clean DPF samples. We demonstrate the ability to visualize and measure flaws in substrates and quantify the distribution of ash and soot within the DPF. We also show that the technology is sensitive enough for evaluations of soot and ash distribution and thermal damage without removing the DPF from its metal casing.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0421
James Thomas, Jonathan Mohan, Stephen Kendrish, Robert M. Fix
Demands on loaded, rotating components, e.g., bearings, shafts & gears continue to escalate. Modern manufacturing strategies require improvements in traditional measurements and process control tools. Traditionally residual stress examination in bearings was accomplished with depth profiles obtained using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical layer removal. More recently Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) has proven itself in the evaluation of microstructure as well as surface residual stress in ferromagnetic materials. Traditional BN analysis parameters have been used for fixed measurement depths, usually near the surface. This study is an examination on a set of as-hardened and ground bearing rings manufactured with variations in processing. The Barkhausen signal was analyzed to yield information about a range of depths. XRD & BNA depth profiles were gathered and they correlate well. This allows a calibration of the BN signal to the residual stress.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0212
O. Scholz, P. Schmitt, M. Kube, R. Behrendt, N. Uhlmann
The results of automatic X-ray inspection of cast parts rely heavily on the quality of the imaging components. Flat panel detectors suffer from a number of flaws, the most serious being long-term stability and image quality. This paper presents a new X-ray detector design which can increase defect detection quality, cost efficiency and long term stability of an industrial automatic X-ray inspection system.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0867
Takanari Yamamoto, Tetsuya Yamaguchi
A hardening depth evaluation technique using eddy current has been developed, which can be applied to a mass production line for destructive (cutting) inspections. Using this technique, changes in the hardness of the induction-hardened structure can be detected based on the changes in magnetic permeability. This technique reduces the thermal effect and improves measurement accuracy through a multi-frequency exciting method and a difference method algorithm.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0749
Mario Trapp, Soeren Kemmann, Ralf Kalmar, Christian Denger
Software has rapidly gained importance as a driver for innovation in automobiles. Since many safety-related automotive systems make intensive use of software, the upcoming ISO 26262 poses several requirements addressing software development, including safety analyses for software. For software, however, safety analysis techniques are seldom applied in practice. It is unclear how to apply them and in many cases even their usefulness in general is questioned. This article illustrates why software safety analyses are indispensable, how they can be efficiently applied to complex systems, and how they relate to existing software quality assurance techniques and system safety analyses.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1027
Tobias Carsten Müller, Olaf Krieger, Andreas Breuer, Klaus Lange, Thomas Form
As the complexity of current automobiles increases, new and innovative diagnostic methods for car maintenance and diagnostic inspection are greatly needed. This paper introduces a new diagnostic approach, which learns from previous repair cases with the help of neural networks in order to assist future diagnostic inspections. Practical experiments have shown that this approach is able to provide promising results even with the data that is already available today.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0012
Christine S. Sloane
This paper is a review of the technical rationale for performance tests to qualify new hydrogen storage systems to assure safety throughout service life. SAE J2579 is used as an example of performance-based requirements. This paper is intended to broaden understanding of requirements for testing compressed gas storage that are under development at SAE and ISO.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 426