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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1208
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1732
Payodh Dwivedi
Abstract The conventional hybrid engine faces one major problem i.e. high cost of production. Although hybrid engines, in many sense proved to be highly efficient and environmental friendly, but high cost of production makes them less feasible and limits their applications. This problem is overcome by a new design in which instead of having Internal Combustion(IC) engine and electric motor separately, these two are incorporated under same housing. This involves a different working mechanism of electric motor which is as described below- This mechanism is applied to a normal engine which has two or more than two cylinders in any configuration or orientation. Taking example of In-line four cylinder engines as it is most widely used. In this the two cylinders work on conventional internal combustion mechanism, but the other two cylinders are electric cylinder and works on electricity.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0621
Sanjin Saric, Andreas Ennemoser, Branislav Basara, Heinz Petutschnig, Christoph Irrenfried, Helfried Steiner, Günter Brenn
Abstract Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0738
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion is an advanced combustion technique, which has the potential to be operated by alternative fuels such as alcohols. PCCI combustion emits lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and results thermal efficiency similar to conventional compression ignition (CI) engines. Due to extremely high heat release rate (HRR), PCCI combustion cannot be used at higher engine loads, which make it difficult to be employed in production grade engines. This study focused on development of an advanced combustion engine, which can operate in both combustion modes such as CI combustion as well as PCCI combustion mode. This Hybrid combustion system was controlled by an open engine control unit (ECU), which varied the fuel injection parameters for mode switching between CI and PCCI combustion modes.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0031
Paul W. Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger
The release of the “Regulation No. 168/2013” for the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel motorcycles and quadricycles of the European Union started a new challenge for the motorcycle industry. One goal of the European Union is to achieve emission parity between passenger cars (EURO 6) and motorcycles (EURO 5) in 2020. The hybridization of motorcycle powertrains is one way to achieve these strict legislation limits. In the automotive sector, hybridization is well investigated and has already shown improvements of fuel consumption, efficiency and emission behavior. Equally, motorcycle applications have a high potential to improve efficiency and to meet customer needs as fun to drive as well. This paper describes a methodical approach to analyze conventional motorcycles regarding the energy and power demand for different driving cycles and driving conditions. Therefore, a dynamic or forward vehicle simulation within MATLAB Simulink is used.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0015
Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Michael Zisser, Paul Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt
Abstract The hybrid-electric drivetrain permits a multitude of new control strategies like brake energy recuperation, engine start-stop operation, shifting of engine working point, as well as in some situations pure electric driving. Overall this typically allows a reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of carbon dioxide emissions. During the development process of the vehicle various drivetrain configurations have to be considered and compared. This includes decisions regarding the topology - like the position of the electrical machine in the drivetrain (e.g. at the gearbox input or output shaft), as well as the selection of the needed components based on their parameters (nominal power, energy content of the battery, efficiency etc.). To compare the chosen variants, typically the calculated fuel consumption for a given driving cycle is used.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0016
Maryam Sadeghi Reineh, Faryar Jabbari
Abstract This papers aims at using anti-windup augmentation to an existing high performance controller to increase the range of net-power that can be obtained from a solid oxide fuel cell. The power drawn by the fan/blower is kept limited by a software/controller enforced bound that acts similar to a saturation bound. Anti-windup augmentation is then used to ensure stability and recovery of performance. The be-havior of the controller, particularly the effects of the anti-windup loops on the second actuator (cathode inlet temperature), is then investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0923
Martin Schneider, Bernd Danckert
Abstract Since the new “Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships” of the International Maritime Organization (IMO; MARPOL Annex VI Tier III) became effective, new technologies in marine applications are needed to fulfill the exhaust-gas limits. The reduction rate of the permissible emissions in the emission control areas (ECA) is about 75 % from Tier II to Tier III. To meet these limits, it is necessary to take additional measures, such as installing a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system. Because harbors are specifically in focus regarding the air quality, a hybrid propulsion system (Diesel-electric) and Exhaust Aftertreatment (EAT) to reduce the emissions and the lifecycle costs by reducing the fuel consumption were planned back in 2012. With the goal in mind of decreasing all relevant emissions, the described compact EAT consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Particulate Matter (PM) removal and a SCR-catalyst.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1222
Shu Asami, Takao Watanabe, Satoshi Tominaga, Akira Murakami
Abstract This paper describes the slip ring system for a new hybrid system using an electromagnetic torque converter or an electromagnetic coupling. The slip ring system, which enables electric power transmission between a winding rotor and an inverter fixed on a case, is a key component for establishing a new highly efficient hybrid system. Reducing the wear of the brushes in the slip ring system is a major topic of this research. To achieve this objective, brush wear characteristics were investigated using test-piece experiments that simulated the hybrid system environment. By clarifying these characteristics, the structure of a slip ring system for reducing brush wear was identified and a wear prediction method was constructed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0667
Kookjin Hwang, Iljoong Hwang, Hwangbok Lee, Hyunil Park, Hoyeon Choi, Kwanwoo Lee, Wootae Kim, Heungchul Kim, Bonghoon Han, Jongsub Lee, Bosung Shin, Dongsuk Chae
Abstract Hyundai/Kia Motor Company will introduce new Kappa 1.6L GDI engine dedicated for hybrid vehicles, starting production for Korean market in the early 2016. It has achieved the challenging level of 40% maximum thermal efficiency as a gasoline engine. Even though it has the highest fuel efficiency, it can generate sufficient power to provide vehicle's dynamic driving performance. The new Kappa 1.6L GDI engine has been developed focusing on the fuel efficiency. To maximize fuel efficiency, compact combustion chamber is designed with 1.35 stroke-bore ratio. And other key technologies such as Atkinson cycle with high compression ratio, cooled EGR system with high energy ignition coil and high tumble intake ports are applied. The knock has been suppressed significantly to improve fuel efficiency by split cooling system with two thermostats and block insert, the piston cooling jet and the sodium-filled exhaust valve.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1180
Trevor Crain, Thomas Gorgia, R. Jesse Alley
Abstract EcoCAR is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors, and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. In the last competition series, EcoCAR 2, fifteen university teams from across North America were challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. This paper examines the results of the EcoCAR 2 competition’s emissions and energy consumption (E&EC) on-road test results for several prototype plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The official results for each vehicle are presented along with brief descriptions of the hybrid architectures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1182
Andrej Ivanco, Balan Mariappan Selvaraj, Kawshik Murali, Arjun Narayanan, Avik Sarkar, Aviral Singh, Akshay Soni, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Craig Payne
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1159
Amanullah Khan, Timothy Grewe, Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Alan Holmes, Richard Balsley
Abstract This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1062
Ramachandran Ragupathy, K. Pothiraj, C. Chendil, T. Kumar Prasad, Prasanna Vasudevan
Abstract Hybrid powertrains generally involve adding an electric propulsion system to an existing internal combustion engine powertrain. Due to their reduced emissions, no reliance on public infrastructure and acceptable cost of ownership, hybrids are seen as a feasible intermediate step to deliver clean and affordable transportation for the masses. Such systems are immensely complex due to the number of interplaying systems and advanced control strategies used to deliver optimum performance under widely varying loads. Resonant torsional impacts arise out of the interactions due to rotational speed variations providing impulses at specific frequencies to the spinning inertias connected by members of finite stiffness. The effects, depending on the magnitude and duration of the impacts range from unacceptably harsh vibrations to catastrophic component failure.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1243
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Mattia Venditti
Abstract An unsupervised machine-learning technique, aimed at the identification of the optimal rule-based control strategy, has been developed for parallel hybrid electric vehicles that feature a torque-coupling (TC) device, a speed-coupling (SC) device or a dual-mode system, which is able to realize both actions. The approach is based on the preliminary identification of the optimal control strategy, which is carried out by means of a benchmark optimizer, based on the deterministic dynamic programming technique, for different driving scenarios. The optimization is carried out by selecting the optimal values of the control variables (i.e., transmission gear and power flow) in order to minimize fuel consumption, while taking into account several constraints in terms of NOx emissions, battery state of charge and battery life consumption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1241
Denggao Huang, Hui Xie, Shuo Xiong, Tielong Shen, Sun Qiang, Ruichang Zhang
Abstract The fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric city bus (PHEV) is deeply affected by driving cycle and travel distance. To improve the adaption of energy management strategy, the equivalent coefficient of fuel is the key parameter that needs to be pre-optimized based on the predicted driving cycle. An iterative learning method was proposed and implemented in order to get the best equivalent coefficient based on the predicted driving cycle and battery capacity. In the iterative learning method, the energy model and kinematics model of the bus were built. The ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy) method was applied to obtain the best fuel economy with the given equivalent coefficient. The driving paths and running time of city buses were relatively fixed comparing with other vehicles, and their driving cycle can be predicted by route content. The proposed optimized strategy was applied on the factory sets of plug-in hybrid electric city bus.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1238
Paul Karoshi, Karin Tieber, Christopher Kneissl, Georg Peneder, Harald Kraus, Martin Hofstetter, Jurgen Fabian, Martin Ackerl
Abstract In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), the operation strategy strongly influences the available system power, as well as local exhaust emissions. Predictive operation strategies rely on knowledge of future traction-force demands. This predicted information can be used to balance the battery’s state of charge or the engine’s thermal system in their legal operation limits and can reduce peak loads. Assuming the air and rolling drag-coefficient to be constant, the desired vehicle velocity, vehicle-mass and longitudinal driving resistances determine the vehicle’s traction-force demand. In this paper, a novel methodology, combining a history-based prediction algorithm for estimating future traction-force demands with the parameter identification of road grade angle and vehicle mass, is proposed. It is solely based on a route-history database and internal vehicle data, available on its on-board communication and measuring systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1237
Vaheed Nezhadali, Lars Eriksson
Abstract To investigate the optimal controls of a diesel-electric powertrain during a torque controlled gearshift, a powertrain model is developed. A validated diesel-electric model is used as the power source and the transmission dynamics are described by different sets of differential equations during torque phase, synchronization phase and inertia phase of the gearshift. Using the developed model, multi-phase optimal control problems are formulated and solved. The trade-off between gearshift duration and driveline oscillations are calculated and efficient gearshift transients for a diesel-electric and pure diesel powertrain are then compared and analyzed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1649
Jose Velazquez Alcantar, Farhad Assadian
Abstract Optimizing/maximizing regen braking in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is one of the key features for increasing fuel economy. However, it is known [1] that maximizing regen braking by braking the rear axle on a low friction surface results in compromising vehicle stability even in a vehicle which is equipped with an ESP (Enhanced Stability Program). In this paper, we develop a strategy to maximize regen braking without compromising vehicle stability. A yaw rate stability control system is designed for a hybrid electric vehicle with electric rear axle drive (ERAD) and a “hang on” center coupling device which can couple the front and rear axles for AWD capabilities. Nonlinear models of the ERAD drivetrain and vehicle are presented using bond graphs while a high fidelity model of the center coupling device is used for simulation.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0768
Frank M. Washko, Rodeo A. Winchell
There has been a recent resurgence in interest in “free piston” engine designs, particularly for small engine applications. This has been driven primarily by the demand for higher efficiency, flex-fuel capability, and also electrical demand in hybrid-electric applications. In free piston engines, expansion gasses are used to send energy directly to electrical or hydraulic power systems, rather than through a crankshaft. In many instances, the designs use opposed pistons to contribute the momentum of one piston to the upwards stroke of the opposing piston. This paper will review the details and benefits of the early free piston designs and some current designs, including our own hydraulic hybrid engine designs. The paper will then turn to a future free piston engine application that is in development.
2015-07-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9108
Arash Mehdizadeh Gavgani, Timothy Bingham, Aldo Sorniotti, John Doherty, Carlo Cavallino, Marco Fracchia
Abstract This paper discusses the torque-fill capability of a novel hybrid electric drivetrain for a high-performance passenger car, originally equipped with a dual-clutch transmission system, driven by an internal combustion engine. The paper presents the simulation models of the two drivetrains, including examples of experimental validation during upshifts. An important functionality of the electric motor drive within the novel drivetrain is to provide torque-fill during gearshifts when the vehicle is engine-driven. A gearshift performance indicator is introduced in the paper, and the two drivetrain layouts are assessed in terms of gearshift quality performance for a range of maneuvers.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2349
Jiantie Zhen, David Copley, Niranjan Londhe, Scott Fredrickson
Abstract Structure-borne inputs to hybrid FEA/SEA models could have significant effects on the model prediction accuracy. The purpose of this work was to obtain the structure-borne noise (SBN) inputs using a simplified transfer path analysis (TPA) and identify the significance of the structure-borne and airborne contributions to the spectator sound power of an engine with enclosure for future modeling references. Force inputs to the enclosure from the engine were obtained and used as inputs to a hybrid engine enclosure model for sound prediction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0586
Shugang Jiang, Dharshan Medonza, James Kitchen
Abstract Ever increasing requirements for vehicle performance, fuel economy and emissions have been driving the development and adoption of various types of hybrid powertrains. There are many different configurations of hybrid powertrains, which may include such components as engine, generator and inverter, battery pack, ultracapacitor, traction motor and inverter, transmission, and various control units. A hardware-in-the loop (HiL) testing solution that is flexible enough to accommodate different types of hybrid powertrain configurations and run a range of test scenarios is needed to support on-going development activities in this field. This paper describes the design and implementation of such a HiL testing system. The system is centered on a high performance, real-time controller that runs powertrain, driveline, vehicle, and driver models.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0120
Sohan Sontakke, Pankaj Kumar
Abstract The Performance of Electric Hybrid Transmission system is controlled by Electronic control unit (ECU). ECU Casing, which packages Printed circuit board (PCB) with components soldered on both sides, have to protect the PCB and components from Thermal Damage Dust and Water ingress Vibrations in the vehicle Air-Pressure fluctuations Paper enlightens Product development Architecture of ECU Casing explaining all Phases of product cultivation from processing of inputs till validation of the product. Requirement Analysis being first phase, analyses all PCB requirements, mechanical requirements related to product certification. Architecture Conceptualization being second phase, analyses layout optimization, Material Category, Manufacturing Category, Production Process, Material Grade. Design being third phase, analyses all aspects of Engineering Design, Manufacturing Design, and Feasibility Design.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2903
Nobunori Okui, Tetsuya Niikuni
Abstract Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are researched and expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the future. In the national new-car sales in 2012 of Japan, the total sales of hybrid vehicles kept 26.5% share. In the field of passenger cars, this share was 29.7%. And, this share rose about four times compared to that of 2008 [1]. Also, small delivery hybrid trucks are increased in the commercial vehicle class. Fuel economy of hybrid trucks in the catalog specifications is relatively better than that of the diesel tracks which have no hybrid systems. Nevertheless, hybrid trucks' users report that advantages of fuel economy of hybrid trucks at the real traffic driving conditions are small.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2901
Albert Albers, Kevin Matros, Matthias Behrendt, Johannes Henschel, Heidelinde Holzer, Wolfram Bohne
The requirement of the start of the internal combustion engine (ICE) not only at vehicle standstill is new for full hybrid electric vehicles in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, the customer will not accept any deterioration with respect to dynamics and comfort. ICE-starting-systems and -strategies have to be designed to meet those demands. Within this research, a method was developed which allows a reproducible maneuver-based analysis of ICE-starts. In the first step, a maneuver catalogue including a customer-oriented maneuver program with appropriate analysis criteria was defined. Afterwards, the maneuvers were implemented and verified in a special test bench environment. Based on the method, two sample hybrid vehicles were benchmarked according to the maneuver catalogue. The benchmarking results demonstrate important dependencies between the criteria-based assessment of ICE-starts and the embedded ICE-starting-system and -strategy.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2893
Stefan Geng, Thomas Schulte
Hybrid electric powertrains are developed for reducing the fuel consumption and consequently the emission of carbon dioxide. The fuel consumption of those systems depends significantly on the topology of the powertrain and the applied control strategy. For testing and improving the control strategy in terms of the overall system efficiency, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation can be applied. In order to operate the corresponding electronic control units in a virtual environment, it emulates the behavior of the actuator and sensor signals by a real-time simulation of the powertrain. Developing those powertrain models is a time-consuming task, due to high dynamics and high switching frequencies of the electrical subsystem and due to the large diversity of powertrain configurations.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2889
Gerhard Kokalj, Patrick Schatz, Christoph Zach
Abstract The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term “hybrid vehicle” can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a large amount of vehicles that call themselves “hybrid”. This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2325
Michael Franke, Shirish Bhide, Jack Liang, Michael Neitz, Thomas Hamm
Abstract Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2326
Zhiming Gao, Charles Finney, Charles Daw, Tim J. LaClair, David Smith
Two hybrid powertrain configurations, including parallel and series hybrids, were simulated for fuel economy, component energy loss, and emissions control in Class 8 trucks over both city and highway driving conditions. A comprehensive set of component models describing engine fuel consumption, emissions control, battery energy, and accessory power demand interactions was developed and integrated with the simulated hybrid trucks to identify heavy-duty (HD) hybrid technology barriers. The results show that series hybrid is absolutely negative for fuel-economy improvement of long-haul trucks due to an efficiency penalty associated with the dual-step conversions of energy (i.e. mechanical to electric to mechanical).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1208

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