Uncertainty quantification The technique is a must for next-generation simulation tools. Oil-pump sizing Researchers from Hinduja Tech investigate options for low friction and power consumption. The future of Indian commercial aviation The growth in traffic that airport modernization has supported has also made a significant contribution to the local and national economies, while the improved infrastructure has been positive for the perception of India in the global market. Driving EVs toward lower cost The race ison to reduce battery and electric-drive systems cost while improving efficiency. Powering on Rolls-Royce's Chief Engineer discusses new technologies that inspire current R&D design and evaluation work as part of its strategic roadmap for future big commercial programs. HMIs extend beyond the cab Telematic functions are being integrated into multi-function user interfaces.
The Task Force covers human factors issues involving the integration of automated driving systems into the vehicle, focusing on issues that affect driver performance and experience through the driver-vehicle-interface (DVI). The Task Force will address the associated human factors issues within Levels 2 through Level 4 as defined by SAE J3016.
Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines Operator Enclosure Environment Part 6: Determination of Effect of Solar Heating
SAE J3078/6 specifies a test method for simulating solar heating in the laboratory and measuring the radiant heat energy from a natural or simulated source. It is applicable to Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines as defined in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390.
SAE Jxxxx provides principles and a process for developing icons for use in electronic displays related to Off Road Work Machines as stated defined in SAE J 1116. Following the process insures that icons are derived from ISO registered graphical symbols or ISO compliant non-registered graphical symbols.
Performance Standard for Cabin Crew Portable Protective Breathing Equipment for Use During Aircraft Emergencies
This aerospace standard (AS) defines the requirements of portable protective breathing equipment for use during smoke/fire conditions on board an aircraft.
Abstract Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by drivers' behaviors. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers' economic efficiency, considering driving conditions. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated. The driving pattern score could be calculated with these weights.
Abstract In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location.
Abstract The emerging trends in commercial vehicle technology have increased the necessity for critical attribute engineering refinements. Drivability is emerging as one of the most significant attributes in the automotive sector. The degree of smoothness in a vehicle's response to the driver's input is termed as drivability. This attribute has to be rigorously refined in order to achieve brand specific vehicle characteristics, which will ensure a thorough product differentiation. In order to calibrate for a positive drivability feel, a methodology for evaluation of drivability is a prerequisite. The scope of this paper is aimed at describing the methodology for subjective and objective evaluation of drivability attributes in commercial vehicles. Drivability is a highly subjectively perceived attribute, therefore a subjective assessment technique to assess drivability attributes and sub-attributes are essential.
Abstract Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers, since most of the standard ISO weave test units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
This standard provides performance and test requirements for operator restraint systems provided for off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to pelvic restraint systems (Type 1) for off-road, self-propelled work machines fitted with ROPS and commonly used in construction, earthmoving, forestry, and mining as referred to in SAE J1040 and industrial machines fitted with ROPS as referred to in SAE J1042.
The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive synopsis of regulations applicable to aircraft oxygen systems. The context of physiological requirements, international regulations, operational requirements and airworthiness standards is shown to understand the role of aircraft oxygen systems and to demonstrate under which circumstances is needed on aircraft. With regards to National Aviation Regulations States are committed to the Convention on International Aviation (Chicago Convention). The majority of states have adopted, with some deviations, FAA and EASA systems including operational and airworthiness requirements. Accordingly the extent of this document is primarily focused on FAA/EASA requirements.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to both Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and aftermarket ITS message-generating systems for passenger vehicles and heavy trucks. The recommended practice describes the method for prioritizing ITS in-vehicle messages and/or displayed information based on a defined set of criteria. Each criterion has a fixed number of levels that are used to rate/rank a given message or information item to determine its prioritization value. The prioritization value is used to determine the priority in which simultaneous, or overlapping, in-vehicle messages are presented to the driver.
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
Abstract The efficiency of the glass cockpit paradigm has faded away with the densification of the aeronautical environment. Today's problem lies with “non-defective aircraft” monitored by “perfectly trained crews” still involved in fatal accidents. One explanation is, at crew level, that we have reached a system complexity that, while acceptable in normal conditions, is hardly compatible with human cognitive abilities in degraded conditions. The current mitigation of such risk still relies on the enforcement through intensive training of an ability to manage extremely rare (off-normal) situations. These are explained by the potential combination of failures of highly complex systems with variable environment & with variable humans.
Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - thermodynamic characteristics of working fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms; and 2F - properties of heat transfer fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR 1168/9: 2A-Properties of the natural environment; 2B-Properties of gases; 2C-Properties of liquids and 2D- Properties of solids.
This Information Report provides recommendations for alphanumeric messages that are supplied to the vehicle by external (e.g., RDS, satellite radio) or internal (e.g., infotainment system) sources while the vehicle is in-motion. Information/design recommendations contained in this report apply to OEM (embedded) and aftermarket systems. Ergonomic issues with regard to display characteristics (e.g., viewing angle, brightness, contrast, font design, etc.) should review ISO 15008.
The purpose of this AIR is to compile in one definitive source, commonly accepted calibration, acceptance criteria and procedures for simulation of Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions within icing wind tunnels. Facilities that meet the criteria for either some or all of the recognized conditions will have known SLD icing simulation capability.
This document presents minimum criteria for the design and installation of LED assemblies in aircraft. The use of “shall” in this specification expresses provisions that are binding. Non-mandatory provisions use the term “should.”
This Recommended Practice, Operational Definitions of Driving Performance Measures and Statistics, provides functional definitions of and guidance for performance measures and statistics concerned with driving on roadways. As a consequence, measurements and statistics will be calculated and reported in a consistent manner in SAE and ISO standards, journal articles proceedings papers, technical reports, and presentations so that the procedures and results can be more readily compared. Only measures and statistics pertaining to driver/vehicle responses that affect the lateral and longitudinal positioning of a road vehicle are currently provided in this document. Measures and statistics covering other aspects of driving performance may be included in future editions. For eye glance-related measures and statistics, see SAE J2396 (Society of Automotive Engineers, 2007) and ISO 15007-1 (International Standards Organization, 2002).
This document applies to both Original Equipment Manufacturer and aftermarket route-guidance and navigation system functions for passenger vehicles. It establishes two alternative procedures, a static method and an interrupted vision method, for determining which navigation and route guidance functions should be accessible to the driver while the vehicle is in motion. These methods apply only to the presentation of visual information and the use of manual control inputs to accomplish a navigation or route guidance task. The document does not apply to visual monitoring tasks which do not require a manual control input, such as route following. Voice-activated controls or passenger operation of controls are also excluded. There are currently no compelling data that would support the extension of this document to in-vehicle systems other than navigation systems.
The test procedure included in this document are used to determine a benchmark SgRP for Class A vehicles where design intent information is unknown.
This document provides the rationale used by the Navigation Function Accessibility Subcommittee (the Subcommittee) for the development and content of a SAE J2364 Recommended Practice: Navigation and Route Guidance Function Accessibility While Driving. It provides both the reasoning for the overall recommended practice as well as each of its elements.
Abstract In-vehicle noise is composed of a variety of tonal (frequency-related) components and the tonal components play an important role in the improvement of interior vehicle sound quality. Much research has been focused on the suppression of sound pressure level and achieved certain positive effects. However, in some operating conditions, customers still perceive the tonal components and complain about the vehicle quality even the sound pressure level is relatively low. Therefore, a better understanding of how tonal components are perceived is necessary for automotive designers. To do so, psychoacoustics results about human hearing mechanism to tonal components are comprehensively summed in this study: human hearing response to pure tone, two tones and multiple tones. Then, well-controlled testing stimuli were generated and subjective annoyance testing was conducted. The results show agreement with former researchers' findings.
Abstract Modern automotive seats require improvements in their design, safety, comfort including sitting and riding comfort. Among those, seat comfort is known to be difficult to evaluate because the comfort is a human feeling. As an approach to evaluate the human comfort in an objective manner, an objective measure is proposed for seat riding comfort evaluation under low frequency vibratory conditions which represents typical roll and pitch motions of driving motor vehicles. The related feeling due to this low frequency vehicle motion is termed ‘hold feeling’ because the seated body may tend to deviate from the defined seating position under such vehicle motion input. Dynamic pressure measurements have been conducted in the frequency range up to 1.0 Hz to monitor the interface pressure change behavior of the seat-subject body.
Abstract Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) refinement is one of the important parameters in modern vehicle development. In city traffic conditions, idling is an engine operating condition where a driver focuses attention more to his/her vehicle. Tactile vibration & noise levels inside the cab play an important role in all vehicles, especially those powered by diesel engines where combustion pressures are higher. They lead to discomfort & fatigue of passengers of even a low cost vehicle. Now its idle NVH is influenced mainly by vibration-isolation provided by power-train (PT) mounting design, This paper describes steps taken to improve the idle vibrations at a driver seat of a small commercial vehicle (SCV) with a 2-cylinder diesel engine of 800 cc through redesign of PT-mounting along with fine tuning of idle speed of the engine. A resonance was avoided between the first firing order at idling and PT rigid-body mode in pitching.
Abstract An important trend among vehicle NVH engineers is the production of attractive engine acceleration sound quality for the enhancement of a vehicle's image and performance. In addition, customers have increasing interest and enjoyment in customizing their cars to reflect their personal taste and preferences. The PESS (Personalized Engine Sound System) has been developed for making a unique and individually customizable vehicle concept. The system allows the customers an opportunity to create a variety of engine sounds in a single vehicle using active sound design technology. In this system, three different engine sound concepts are pre-defined, Dynamic, Sporty, and Extreme. Each of the engine sounds can then be adjusted with parameters that determine the timbre, such as main order, rumble, and high order. In addition, the pedal position during acceleration has also been used as a parameter to further personalize the experience.
Abstract Subjects who are well aware of what to judge commonly yield more consistent results in laboratory listening tests. This awareness may be raised by explicit instructions and training. However, too explicit instructions or use of only trained subjects may direct experiment results in an undesired way. An alternative is to give fairly open instructions to untrained subjects, but give the subjects a chance to get familiar with the product and context by, for example, riding a representative car under representative driving conditions before entering the laboratory. In this study, sound quality assessments of interior sounds of cars made by two groups were compared. In one group subjects were exposed to the same driving conditions that were later assessed in a laboratory listening test by taking them on a ride in one of the cars to be assessed, just before entering the laboratory. In the other group subjects made the laboratory assessments without prior car riding.
Abstract Speech communication from the front seat to the rear seat in a passenger vehicle can be difficult. This is particularly true in a vehicle with an acoustically absorptive interior. Speech Transmission Index (STI) measurements can quantify the speech intelligibility, but they require specialized signal processing. The STI calculations can be simplified if it is assumed that reverberation and echoes play an insignificant role in an automobile. A simplification of a STI measurement is described that uses a stationary reference speech signal from a talker mannequin in the driver's seat to create a signal at the rear passenger positions. On-road noise measurements are used for the noise level and the calculated signal to noise ratio is used to calculate a simplified STI value that tracks closely to a full implementation of the STI method for sedans.
The scope of this document is a technology-neutral approach to speech input and audible output system guidelines applicable for OEM and aftermarket systems in light vehicles. These may be stand-alone interfaces or the speech aspects of multi-modal interfaces. This document does not apply to speech input and audible output systems used to interact with automation or automated driving systems in vehicles that are equipped with such systems while they are in use (ref. J3016:JAN2014).