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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1363
James F. Krier, Paul Weindorf
Modern automotive cockpit design trends have increased the number of displays and the locations and manner in how they are packaged. One theme in particular is the packaging of the displays in novel locations that may be marginal in terms of dynamic stability during road load vibrations. Examples of this include mirror or deployable displays that adjust their position in the vehicle. The image of the display may be partially or fully blurred during vibration events which can produce a poor HMI experience. This paper will present the results of a HMI study that that evaluated the readability of different sizes and contrast ratios of TFT color display graphics via jury evaluation during varying vibration acceleration and frequency levels in a controlled lab environment. The result of this study was identification of minimum natural frequencies and maximum acceleration levels for the display mounting structure as a function of display graphics size and contrast ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1366
Jeffrey Muttart, Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Suway, Michael Kuzel, Timothy Maloney, Wayne Biever, Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, David Cavanaugh, T.J. Harms
More than half all pedestrian fatalities occur at night. To address this problem, in the 1950s through 1970s Blackwell conducted considerable research that showed that a way to account for the limitations related to drivers’ expectancies at night would be to limit a driver’s time to view the forward roadway. The reduced information during the limited exposure time became a surrogate for the limited information available to on-road drivers at night. With the release of the SHRP-2 naturalistic database, we are able to see how drivers responded to in-road obstacles at night such as animals, bicyclists, pedestrians, and tree limbs. Using the naturalistic response data as a baseline, safe closed road recognition methodology was developed. The closed road study built upon the early nighttime recognition work by Blackwell, the observers were allowed to view the forward roadway for 1 or ¼ second.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0408
Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov
Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1390
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Matthew P. Reed
Seat fit is characterized as the spatial relationship between the seat and the sitter’s anthropometric dimensions. Seat surface pressure distribution is one of the best available quantitative measures of the interaction between occupant and seat interface. The relationship between areas of contact or pressure and seat fit has not been well established. The objective of this study is to model seat pressure distribution as a function of the dimensions of the seat and the sitter’s body. A laboratory study was conducted using 12 production driver seats from passenger cars and light trucks. Thirty-eight men and women sat in each seat in a driving mockup. Seat surface pressure distribution was measured on the seatback and cushion. Standard anthropometric dimensions were recorded for each participant and standardized dimensions based on SAE J2732 were acquired for each test seat.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1386
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Tetsuya Hara, Doua Vang
In recent decades, innovations in both direct interface (e.g. touchscreen based systems) and indirect interface (e.g. remote controller based systems) have successfully entered consumer markets. These solutions became major channels of infotainment function interaction. However, the popularity of new Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMIs) also comes with growing concerns for driver distraction. It is not a trivial quest to design a system that can make functions accessible to drivers as well as maintain drivers’ ability to cope with the complex driving task. To understand driver distraction, eye behavior has been studied extensively with a focus on off-road glances. Several standards and guidelines are based on off-road glance-related measures. An alternative approach is to consider both on-road and off-road glances. This can be done using an algorithm such as Kircher and Ahlstrom’s (2009) AttenD algorithm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores. A customer clinic was conducted on a steering wheel/instrument cluster and a center display screen, to see the difference in SUS scores of participants with “Free Exploration”, “Guided Exploration” , “No exploration” and “Repeated task Exploration” in a between subject design study. All four test methods were analyzed for their impact on SUS score, task success rates and adjective rating.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1367
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Jeffrey Muttart
Evaluating luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Currently, a common way to determine the actual luminance of an object is to locate the object on the subject roadway, at a substantially similar position, orientation and illuminance level and then measure the object with a luminance meter. This process can be extremely time consuming and could possibly require the roadway to be closed for safety purposes. Alternatively, the luminance can be calculated by measuring the reflectance of the subject surface and measuring the illuminance incident to the surface. After measuring the reflectance, it can then be used with any known illuminance to calculate the luminance of the object. This allows for an equivalently accurate measurement of luminance that is easier and quicker to make and could result in safer scene and vehicle inspections.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies showed that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to traffic light changes. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Accurate and consistent measurement of consumer preferences is critical to world-class automotive product development. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on translating customer emotions into firm, repeatable metrics. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales discussing their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research and discuss the use of rating scale specific to vehicle ergonomics. It will also analyze the correlation of the seven-point adjective rating scale to other usability metrics of in – vehicle interfaces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Regulation and certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and type approval. Self-certification requirements, currently used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations, must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements, currently used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations, can be more general relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of a 3rd party is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1362
James Marr, William Neale, tomas owens, Steven Beier
In 2016, Virtual Reality equipment became both affordable and available to the public market in the form of the Oculus (tm) and Vive (tm). This equipment includes a headset and earphone system that create a fully immersive environment for the user, and provides added abilities over traditional visualization tools like 2-D animation. These abilities include choosing where one looks, and for how long, and a spatial and depth perception, and auditory experience that traditional 2 D visualization cannot achieve without the headgear. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of this equipment in several driving and pedestrian simulation environments for both daytime and nighttime scenarios. As part of the study, the VR environment was compared to photographs, videos, and 2D visualizations of each of the scenarios to evaluate the level of realism achieved by the VR equipment. This was done through feedback from participants and through quantitative comparison of imagery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1388
S. M. Akbar Berry, Michael Kolich, Johnathan Line, Waguih ElMaraghy PhD
Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and in discussion for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements is also presented and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0409
Divyanshu Joshi, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
It is recognized that there is a dearth of studies that provide a comprehensive understanding of vehicle-occupant system dynamics for various road conditions, sitting occupancies and vehicle velocities. In the current work, an in-house-developed 50 degree-of-freedom (DOF) multi-occupant vehicle model is employed to obtain the vehicle and occupant biodynamic responses for various cases of vehicle velocities and road roughness. The model is solved using Matlab scripts and library functions. Random road profiles of Classes A, B, C and D are generated based on PSDs (Power Spectral Densities) of spatial and angular frequencies given in the manual ISO 8608. A study is then performed on vehicle and occupant dynamic responses for various combinations of sitting occupancies, velocities and road profiles. The results obtained underscore the need for considering sitting occupancies in addition to velocity and road profile for assessment of ride comfort for a vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0406
Jindong Ren, Xiaoming Du, Tao Liu, Honghao Liu, Meng Hua, Qun Liu
This paper presented an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For the simulation of the body-seat interaction and the calculation of the interface pressure, in addition to body dimensions and material characteristics, an important aspect was the posture and position of the driver body with respect to the seat. The correct simulation results could be acquired only by realistic setting of the body posture, by introducing posture prediction models. To ensure accommodation of the results to the target population, usually several individuals were simulated, whose body anthropometries covered the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques were adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance between O-ring function and ease of assembly. Often times the assembly insertion force rises to the point of unacceptable manufacturing ergonomic practice. Designs are released into production with these high insertion forces while manufacturing operators struggle to assemble parts leaving opportunity for potential operator injury. Several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase optimizing functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly search their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
In recent years, a camera monitor system which displays car-mounted camera pictures to in-vehicle displays is being developed. For a future vehicle cockpit, a field of view (FOV) support system with plural displays is assumed, which includes not only a meter and a center display, but also an HUD and the camera monitor system. As a consequence, an area occupied with displays in a driver’s FOV increases. In this situation, coexistence of “easiness in seeing” to tell a driver about dangers early and “annoying reduction” to avoid the driver’s perception drops is needed for in-vehicle displays. In order to meet this requirement, questionnaires (psychological indicator) have been conventionally used. However, here are two difficulties. One is that two items (“easiness in seeing” and “annoying”) are contrary, and the other is that the relation between a result of questionnaires and driver’s security is uncertain.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1302
Hyung In Yun, Jae Kyu Lee, Jae Hong Choi, MyoungKwon Je, Junhyuk Kim
A sliding door is one of the car door systems, which is generally applied to the van-type vehicles. Compared with typical swing door systems, a sliding door gives a comfort to the passengers when they get in or out the car. With an increasing number of the family-scale activities, there followed a huge demand on the van-type cars, which caused growing interests in the convenience technology of the sliding door system. A typical sliding door system has negative effects on the vehicle interior package and the manual operating effort. Since the door should move backward without touching the side outer panel, the trajectory of the center rail should be a curve. The curve-shaped center rail infiltrates not only the passenger shoulder room, but also the opening flange curve, which results in the interior package loss.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1564
Minh-Tri Nguyen, Jürgen Pitz, Werner Krantz, Jens Neubeck, Jochen Wiedemann
In addition to the analysis of human driving behavior or the development of new advanced driver assistance systems, the high simulation quality of today’s driving simulators enables investigations of selected topics pertaining to driving dynamics. With high reproducibility and fast variant generation subjective evaluation process leads to a better system understanding in the early development stages. With the opportunity of a realistic whole-vehicle simulation provided by the Stuttgart Driving Simulator fundamental analysis of the human’s thresholds of perception are carried out. The thresholds give general information about the perception of characteristic stimuli pertinent to driving dynamics, which are caused by road unevenness or bumps and transferred over the vehicle body to the occupants. Furthermore, objective data are generated to support the correlation of subjective evaluation and objective data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1393
Xuguang Wang
A new experimental seat was designed to investigate sitting biomechanics. Previous literature suggested links between sitting discomfort and shear forces, however, research on this topic is limited. The evaluation of sitting discomfort derived from past research has been primarily associated with seat pressure distribution. The key innovative feature of the experimental seat is not only pressure distribution evaluation but shear forces as well. The seat pan of the experimental seat compromises of a matrix of 52 cylinders, each equipped with a tri-axial force sensor, enabling us to measure both normal and shear forces. The position of each cylinder is also adjustable permitting a uniform pressure distribution underneath the soft tissue of the buttocks and thighs. Backrest, armrests, seat pan and flooring are highly adjustable and equipped with forces sensors to measure contact forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development life cycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 sub-samples of different sample sizes. The percentage of sub-samples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a sub-sample size of thirty five, 95% of the sub-samples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1395
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Bum Il Shim
Seat cushions considered as one of the important factors influence the seating comfort. In the automotive seat cushions, flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used due to the cushioning performance. Automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This study introduces an automotive seat that uses air-mat in the seat cushion along with polyurethane foam. The air-mat can be adjusted with its internal air pressure. The objective of this paper is to examine air-mat seat pressure level on seating comfort. Vibration experiments have been performed on the BSR simulator with random vibration. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure vibration at the foot and hip. All measured vibration were about the vertical direction (z-axis). The whole-body vibration exposure parameter (weighted root-mean-square (RMS), vibration dose value (VDV), transmissibility (SEAT value)) calculated as per ISO 2631-1 standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0059
Barbaros Serter, Christian Beul, Manuela Lang, Wiebke Schmidt
Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. From basic cruise control to complex automated systems, there is a wide range of technology on the road and more highly automated systems are being rigorously tested that are soon going to be available to consumers. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1373
Takuya Mori, Akihiko Yagyu
At SAE level 3 driving automation, the driver does not need to monitor the system and the driving environment at all times. Thus, the driver will be out of the loop and can engage in non-driving tasks. When the limitations to the automated system are reached, it requests the driver to take-over the driving tasks. However, the driver cannot take-over the driving task from the automated system immediately because they have been out of the loop with no situation awareness, and cannot decide the required driving maneuvers quickly enough. As the automated system cannot check directly whether the driver has regained situation awareness, it cannot determine whether it is safe to hand over the driving task to the driver. It is therefore important for the automated system to detect maneuvers that show dynamic decision-making on the part of the driver. We used a driving simulator to investigate the driver’s performance when taking-over the driving task from the automated system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0432
Bing Zhu, Zhipeng Liu, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC)is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisite is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC based on a dynamics driver model. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and different types of driver behavior data were collected under the typical test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the dynamics driver model, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behavior. Finally, the proposed identification strategy was verified by the driver-in-the-loop simulator.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1384
Richard Young
This proof-of-concept demonstrates a new method to predict the relative crash risk in naturalistic driving that is caused (or prevented) by the effects on attention of visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving in a track experiment. The method required five steps. (1) Estimate valid relative crash/near-crash risks of visual-manual secondary tasks measured during naturalistic driving. These data were taken from a prior SAE publication of unbiased estimates of the relative crash/near-crash risks of secondary tasks in the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. (2) Calculate the “physical demand” and “cognitive demand” scores for visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving on a track.
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