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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Vignesh T. Shekar, Sreedhar Reddy
Bus and coach drivers spend considerably more time in the vehicle, compared to an average personal car user. However, when it comes to comfort levels, the personal cars, even the inexpensive hatchbacks score much higher than a standard bus. This is because the amount of ergonomic design considerations that go into designing a car’s driver’s workspace is much more than that of the buses. Even when it comes to the standards, cars and vans that fall under M1 category of vehicles have detailed recommendations and standards for individual systems and assembly layout. This is not the case for M3 category of vehicles that is buses. To understand this lacuna, the existing standards and recommendations pertaining directly or remotely to bus driver workspace were studied. It was understood, beyond certain elementary recommendations, there were very few standards available exclusively for buses. In some cases, bus manufacturers are forced to adopt standards pertaining to cars and vans for their buses.
WIP Standard
2014-07-30
This document applies to both Original Equipment Manufacturer and aftermarket route-guidance and navigation system functions for passenger vehicles. It establishes two alternative procedures, a static method and an interrupted vision method, for determining which navigation and route guidance functions should be accessible to the driver while the vehicle is in motion. These methods apply only to the presentation of visual information and the use of manual control inputs to accomplish a navigation or route guidance task. The document does not apply to visual monitoring tasks which do not require a manual control input, such as route following. Voice-activated controls or passenger operation of controls are also excluded. There are currently no compelling data that would support the extension of this document to in-vehicle systems other than navigation systems.
Standard
2014-07-11
This document specifies that black is the only color that can be used for the insulator at the bottom of the base of T-1 and T-1 ¾ Flanged Base lamps.
Standard
2014-07-11
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general overview of oxygen systems for general aviation use. Included are a brief review of the factors and effects of hypoxia, system descriptions, and mission explanations for system or component selection, and techniques for safe handling of oxygen distribution systems.
Standard
2014-07-01
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed. This is actually a more accurate term to describe the subject of this paper, but NBC has become more widely used in the aircraft industry.
WIP Standard
2014-06-30
This SAE Recommended Practice describes how to position and posture the H-point design tool (HPD) described in Appendix B, and how to establish the seating reference point (SgRP), design H-point travel path, and other key reference points that are used in the design and specification of both driver and passenger seat positions. This practice also provides a method for determining the length of the seat track for a driver seat that adjusts fore/aft. The seat track length is based on a desired level of driver accommodation, assuming a U.S. population containing an equal number of male and female drivers. The procedure can be used to establish driver seat track accommodation for new vehicle designs or to evaluate accommodation in existing vehicles. A general method for determining driver seat track length for any driver population (male and female stature distribution) at any selected accommodation percentile and gender mix is given in Appendix A. Application of this document is limited to Class A Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, and Light Trucks) as defined in SAE J1100.
WIP Standard
2014-06-27
This document provides dimension definitions that facilitate geometric quantification and evaluation of seats. This document has been designed for use in CAD, however, many dimensions require establishing HPM position and attitude. Refer to the appropriate document for these procedures. These dimensions are package independent in that they do not require use of the HPM-ll supplemental thigh/leg/shoe. Three types of seat geometry reference points and measurements have been developed. 1. Simple reference points and measurements not related to H-point 2. H-point dependent reference points and measurement that utilize the seat characterization capabilities of the HPM to quantify seat measurements 3. Cross sectional seat trim outlines For convenience and simplicity, many terms associated with H-point devices use human body parts in their name. However, they should not be construed as measures that indicate interaction with any or all occupants concerning accommodation, human capabilities, or comfort.
WIP Standard
2014-06-27
This recommended practice describes boundaries of hand control locations that can be reached by a percentage of different driver populations in passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, and light trucks (Class A vehicles). This practice is not applicable to heavy trucks (Class B vehicles).
Standard
2014-06-26
This SAE Standard covers the relative position and direction of motion of controls which influence the movement of the machine and the operating direction only of equipment controls. There is no intention to eliminate or restrict the use of combination controls, automatic controls, or special operating controls. Purpose This document is intended as a guide for designing uniform operator controls for graders. Graders are defined in SAE J/ISO 6165.
Standard
2014-06-24
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) applies to performance and testing of solid chemical oxygen generators which produce oxygen at essentiall ambient pressure for use aboard aircraft whose cabin pressure altitude does not exceed 40,000 ft (about 12,200 m). Portable chemical oxygen devices are covered by AS1303.
WIP Standard
2014-06-23
This ARP covers the system design, human interface considerations, and hardware performance recommendations and requirements for touch interactive electronic display systems installed in the cockpit/flight deck for use by pilots. System design and human interface considerations include: identification of functions that could use and benefit from touch interactions, the pilot and cockpit/flight deck environment characteristics that impact usability, and specific pilot interface characteristics such as touch mode, single and multi touch applications, feedback, latency, potential human error, and basic usability. Also addressed are workload, fatigue, and transition from hard to soft control considerations. Hardware issues cover performance aspects of touch screens installed on cockpit/flight deck displays. This ARP is intended to cover Part 23 and 25 category airplanes as well as Part 27 and 29 rotorcraft.
Standard
2014-06-20
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
WIP Standard
2014-06-16
This recommended practice is a source of information for body and trim engineers and represents existing technology in the field of on-highway vehicle seating systems. It provides a more uniform system of nomenclature, definitions of functional requirements, and testing methods of various material components of motor vehicle seating systems.
WIP Standard
2014-06-09
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
Standard
2014-05-29
The scope of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to discuss factors affecting visibility of aircraft navigation and anticollision lights, enabling those concerned with their use to have a better technical understanding of such factors, and to aid in exercising appropriate judgment in the many possible flight eventualities.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group. To verify the results of that study, we attempted a new analytical method that uses the number of stop sign violations, which are considered to occur with the same probability among age groups, as an indicator of driving frequency in place of accidents in which a driver is hit from behind (rear-end collisions).
WIP Standard
2014-05-08
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) will provide general guidelines and procedures for servicing and maintaining oxygen systems. Such methods and procedures may be applied to gaseous, liquid, chemical and portable oxygen systems. These guidelines and recommendations will be provided to engineering and maintenance personnel for airlines, modification centers and third party maintenance contractors, to be used while performing maintenance on oxygen systems and components.
Standard
2014-04-14
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
Standard
2014-04-14
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes design guidance and photometric values for adequate cargo compartment and cargo access lighting systems for ground handling. The adoption of a standard set of illuminance values, found appropriate for the performance of the task in specified areas should expedite ground handling.
Standard
2014-04-03
This SAE Aerospace Recommend Practice (ARP) is intended to identify both safety related best practices and unique design considerations of metal halides High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps and power supplies in aircraft applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This document provides guidance for in-flight rest facilities provided for use by cabin crew on commercial transport aircraft.. This document is applicable to dedicated cabin crew rest facilities. Passenger seats used to provide “cabin crew rest facilities” are not within the scope of this document.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Recommended Practice presents the general uses, limitations on use, and appearance of the safety alert symbol.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Juergen Boehme, Tobias Sehnke, Matthias Schultalbers, Torsten Jeinsch
Abstract In this paper an energy management is proposed which is optimal to certain driving scenarios which can be clustered into freeway, rural and urban situations. This strategy is non-predictive but uses information about the current driving situation provided by modern navigation systems to identify the current road type. Based on this information a set of simplified optimal control problems are solved offline via an indirect shooting algorithm. By relaxation of the problem formulation, the solutions of these optimal control problems can be stored into easily implementable maps. The energy management control is then determined from these maps during vehicle operation using the current road type, the vehicle speed and the required wheel-torque. The strategy is implemented in a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and validated on a near mass-production vehicle. The proposed methodology has shown fuel savings on a real world drive cycle. Additionally, robustness aspects have been considered in a MATLAB/Simulink based simulation environment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jan-Mou Li, David Smith
Abstract Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers. Speed variation while cruising can be explained by the empirical model and therefore facilitating a better estimation of performance in vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mark William Arndt
Abstract The current certification requirements under CFR 49, Part 567 state that GVWR of a motor vehicle shall not be less than the sum of the unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo weight and 150 pounds times the number of designated seating positions. Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weights versus its certified GVWR. Population weight distributions were developed based upon The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) publication of 2007 - 2010 anthropometric reference data and publically available weights of a special population from high school football teams. For five buses from small (18-seat) to large (55-seat), key parameters were measured. The weight distributions and bus parametric data were combined in a probabilistic analysis to explore the probability that passengers and rated cargo would result in weight distributions that exceeded tire load capability, Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR), or Gross vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mingyu Wang, Debashis Ghosh, Edward Wolfe, Kuo-huey Chen, Jeffrey Bozeman
Abstract Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems are designed to cool the entire cabin to provide passenger comfort. Localized cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by creating a micro climate around the passenger. Such a system also easily adapts to the number of passengers in the car and enables zonal control. The net impact of the localized cooling is that equivalent comfort can be achieved at reduced HVAC energy consumption rate. The present paper reports on a vehicle implementation of localized cooling using Thermoelectric Devices and the resulting energy saving.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xingyu Liang, Kang Sun, Yuesen Wang, Gequn Shu, Lin Tang, Lei Ling, Xu Wang
Abstract Like outside scenery, the car interior noise and road condition will affect the driver's mental state when driving. In order to explore the influence of external visual and auditory factors on the driver's mood in the driving process based on research of traffic soundscape, this paper has selected four backbone roads of Tianjin city (China) to test and drive a gasoline passenger vehicle at different speeds. Near Acoustic Holographic was used to scan interior acoustic field distribution, while the tracking shot of the driver's location was recorded by a Sony camera. People with different characteristics were invited to watch the video and completed a self-designed survey questionnaire. The external factors affecting the driver's mood were explored by analyzing all these data. After the investigation, we found that the sound field distribution inside the car could be affected directly and significantly by the opening and closing the car window when driving; in the case of keeping the window closed, the acoustic characteristics of the car cabin was relatively stable; and the visual impact factor of the driver's mood is mainly related to the traffic congestion degree and the construction quality of road surface, whereas the road appearance and aesthetics, which people usually concern about have very little influence.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill. The study included an inexperienced group (n=21): 16-17 year olds with 90 days or fewer of provisional licensure, and an experienced group (n=17): 25-50 year olds with at least 5 years of PA licensure, at least 100 miles driven per week and no self-reported collisions in the previous 3 years.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Takahiro Adachi, Takashi Yonekawa, Yoshitaka Fuwamoto, Shoji Ito, Katsuhiko Iwazaki, Sueharu Nagiri
Abstract The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified. This paper describes how the eye movement of the driver was used to measure the positional deviation between the gaze of the driver and images caused by unnecessary VOR.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4144

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