The standard would include requirements for HSI management [planning, execution, coordination (internal and external) documentation, administration and quality control], including collaboration among HSI domains, coordination between HSI and other disciplines to optimize total system performance, optimize human performance, and minimize personnel-driven risks and customer ownership costs.
General criteria are presented as guidelines for: control device location, resistance, and actuation of hand and foot controls by the machine's operator. The criteria are based upon physical limitations as defined by human factors engineering principles. This SAE Recommended Practice applies to upright seated operators of Road Building and Maintenance, and Specialized Mining Machinery categories of off-road, self-propelled work machines as identified in SAE J1116. The criteria presented should apply to most situations. Each situation, however, must be evaluated as to its own function and its relationship to other functions to achieve the desired operation action in normal and emergency situations with high probability. The values for control displacement and resistance apply only to what is required to achieve the desired performance of the function being controlled for the 5th through the 95th percentile person as defined in ISO 3411.
ERRATUM: Removing Biases from Crash Odds Ratio Estimates of Secondary Tasks: A New Analysis of the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study Data
Advances for off-highway engine design As manufacturers continue to drive out cost and meet a worldwide patchwork of regulatory frameworks, the tools for developing those engines are advancing. From showcase prototypes to advanced analytical techniques, suppliers are helping the cause. Military vehicles battle for autonomy at lower cost Engineers are adding sensors, more powerful micros and faster networks as they automate tasks and pave the way to autonomy. Heavy duty lightweighting Optimization of tractor-trailer systems and component design helps to reduce overall vehicle mass, a key strategy in improving fuel economy and meeting upcoming Phase 2 GHG regulations. Navistar's SuperTruck II explores composites, WiFi to cut weight Methane state of mind New Holland ramps up its focus on alternative fuels, showcasing a methane-powered concept tractor that trims emissions, operating costs.
Abstract Vehicle automation is a fundamental approach to reduce traffic accidents and driver workload. However, there is a notable risk of pushing human drivers out of the control loop before automation technology fully matures. Cooperative driving (or vehicle co-piloting) is a novel paradigm which is defined as the vehicle being jointly navigated by a human driver and an automatic controller through shared control technology. Indirect shared control is an emerging shared control method, which is able to realize cooperative driving through input complementation instead of haptic guidance. In this paper we first establish an indirect shared control method, in which the driver’s commanded input and the controller’s desired input are balanced with a weighted summation. Thereafter, we propose a predictive model to capture driver adaptation and trust in indirect shared control.
A review of icing materials that would be educational to a designer of a UAV ice protection system is provided. Additionally, the differences between unmanned and manned ice protection systems are explored along with a discussion on how these differences can be addressed.
This SAE Standard applies to mobile construction-type lifting cranes utilizing rope-supported, conventional and luffing type lattice boom crane structures.
Abstract Passenger boarding is always part of the critical path of the aircraft turnaround: both efficient boarding and online prediction of the boarding progress are essential for a reliable turnaround progress. However, the boarding progress is mainly controlled by the passenger behavior. A fundamental scientific approach for aircraft boarding enables the consideration of individual passenger behaviors and operational constraints in order to develop a sustainable concept for enabling a prediction of the boarding progress. A reliable microscopic simulation approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the individual movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. The simulation covers a broad range of behaviors and boarding strategies as well as the integration of new technologies and procedures.
This recommended practice applies to mobile construction type cranes with cantilevered, telescopic booms when used in lifting crane service.
This standard covers oxygen masks and breathing valves used with both panel mounted and mask mounted demand and pressure-demand oxygen regulators. Mask mounted oxygen regulators are covered under other standards, but when the mask mounted regulator incorporates an integral exhalation valve, the performance of this valve shall meet the requirements of this standard.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test protocols with performance requirements for Camera Monitor Systems to replace existing statutorily required inside and outside rear-view mirrors for US market road vehicles. This practice expands specific technical content while retaining harmonization with the FMVSS 111 Rear Visibility standard, and other international standards. This is accomplished by defining required roadway fields of view as specific fields of view (FOV) displayed inside the vehicle. Specific testing protocols and/or specifications are added to enhance ease of use using straightforward language and any specifications are intended to be independent of different camera and display technologies unless otherwise explicitly stated.
The information in this document is intended to apply to commercial jet transport category airplanes that incorporate plastic (polycarbonate or acrylic) lenses on exterior light assemblies, or are being considered for such an application as opposed to glass lens designs. Exterior lighting applications include position light assemblies, anticollision light asemblies, and landing light assemblies. However, much of the material provided herein is general in nature and is directly applicable to many aircraft categories including, but not limited to, helicopters, general aviation aircraft, and military aircraft.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides minimum standards and environmental design requirement recommendations for lighting and control in galley areas. It also addresses electrical shock hazard in galley areas. The use of "shall" in this document expresses provisions that are binding. Non-mandatory provisions use the term "should."
This document presents minimum criteria for the design and installation of LED assemblies in aircraft. The use of "shall" in this specification expresses provisions that are binding. Nonmandatory provisions use the term "should."
Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Compatible Light SourcesNight Vision Goggle (NVG) Compatible Light Sources
This ARP covers three common light sources, incandescent, electroluminescent and light emitting diode that, when NVG filtered, can be used to illuminate NVG compatible aerospace crew stations. It is recognized that many other different light sources can also be used for this purpose. Also see 2.1.1 for other SAE documents that cover particular applications within the crew station environment. This ARP sets forth recommendations for the design of NVG compatible lighting, utilizing these light sources, that will meet the requirements of MIL-L-85762 Lighting, Aircraft, Interior, Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) Compatible. This also includes the replacement document MIL-STD-3009: Lighting, Aircraft, Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) Compatible. Although this ARP concentrates on lamp light sources for illumination, the information contained within this ARP may be directly applied to incandescent, electroluminescent and light emitting diode information display devices.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum performance standards for new equipment anticollision light systems.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to stationary usage of mobile construction-type cranes, crawler or rubber-tire mounted, on outriggers or on tires, when used for lifting crane, clamshell, dragline, magnet, pile driver, or similar service.
This SAE Information Report applies to wire rope supported, latticed crane boom systems mounted on mobile construction type cranes for lift crane service. The purpose of this document is to establish criteria for the analytical evaluation of the basic structural competence of wire rope supported latticed crane boom systems. The criteria and procedures specified include the evaluation of elastic stability for the overall boom system and individual members of the system.
This SAE Standard applies to cranes which are equipped to adjust the boom angle by hoisting and lowering means through rope reeving. The purpose of this standard is to define the function and to stipulate the requirements of an automatic device to prevent raising a variable angle boom above its highest specified angle.
This document is intended to be used for laser systems mounted on aircraft and intended for use in the navigable airspace. This does not include lasers onboard aircraft where the beam is contained within an enclosure so that the beam cannot enter into airspace, nor does it include lasers from satellites and spacecraft in outer space. It may be used in conjunction with: AS4970, ARP5535, ARP5572, ARP5293, and the ANSI Z136 laser safety standards.
This document sets forth several acceptable methods of laser beam divergence measurement techniques.
This SAE Standard provides seat dimensions and adjustments for the design of operator's seat.
This document presents minimum criteria for the design and installation of LED passenger reading light assemblies in commercial aircraft. The use of “shall” in this specification expresses provisions that are binding. Non-mandatory provisions use the term “should.”
This document defines key terms and concepts for relating effects of driver distraction on driving performance, physiological indicators, subjective assessments, or combinations thereof to effects of driver distraction on crash involvement. These concepts are intended to contribute to methodologies for assessing driver distraction metrics in terms of their reliability, repeatability, bias, and predictive or descriptive validity and distraction evaluation procedures in terms of their real-world representativeness. The actual specification of such a methodology is outside the scope of the present document. While the focus is on driver distraction evaluation for technology evaluations and driver activities, the concepts described herein may be applicable also to other forms of driving performance evaluation. The intended users of the document are practitioners in the industry, academia and other organizations with an interest in driving performance assessment and road safety.
This document defines the minimum degree of purity and maximum levels of certain deleterious impurities allowable for aviator's breathing oxygen at the point of manufacture or generation. It covers gaseous, liquid, and chemically generated oxygen, and oxygen supplied by in situ concentration and in situ electrolysis. Different limits are established for oxygen from different sources, in recognition of differences in the ways the oxygen is stored, dispensed, and utilized, taking into account the safety of the user. These limits are not intended to specifically reflect upon the relative capabilities or merits of various technologies. Procurement documents may specify more stringent limits, where required for specific applications. Medical oxygen is not covered by this standard. In the United States, medical oxygen is a prescription drug.
Electric Vehicle Detectability: a Methods-Based Approach to Assess Artificial Noise Impact on the Ability of Pedestrians to Safely Detect Approaching Electric Vehicles
Abstract Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency
Abstract Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Abstract Urbanisation has led to an increased need for mobility in public transportation. Sensing the unfolding worrisome scenario, many countries have taken up different mass rapid transit solutions to alleviate the problem and restore the free flowing traffic. BRT should have been the logical choice particularly considering the lower capital costs involved and faster implementation. Comprehensibly the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in term of quality and comfort to the passengers. Level of vibration and noise is an important indicator to evaluate vehicle's ride comfort. The challenges are to design the high powered Powertrain and Air Conditioning system nonetheless low interior noise, vibration and harshness correspondents to personal cars. This paper is an invention of, development work done in interior noise refinement of a bus. A prototype bus manufactured to meet all the requirement of BRT - premium segment urban bus.
Abstract In today's urban environment inhabitants are permanently exposed to elevated noise levels, which are dominated by traffic noise. The process of electrification of vehicles might change the traffic noise in city centers. The aim of this work was to determine the pedestrian reaction, the warning effect and the annoyance of more realistic traffic situations. For this purpose both combustion and electric vehicle noise situations and mixed scenarios of both concepts were generated. The differences in the perceived annoyance and warning effect were investigated with perception studies.
Abstract Excitement, image and emotion are key attributes for cars, particularly those with higher power ratings. Engine sound has traditionally acted as the car’s voice, conveying these attributes to the driver and passengers along with the brand image. Engine sound also underpins the dynamic driving experience by giving instant feedback about how a car is operating, enhancing the connection between driver and vehicle. For decades, the automotive industry has engineered engine sound to achieve these benefits, thereby defining the ‘language’ of car sound. Electric vehicles deliver strong and responsive performance but naturally lack the acoustic feedback that internal combustion engines provide. While this gives advantages in terms of comfort and environmental noise, the benefits of engine sound are lost. Carefully controlled acoustic feedback inside the car’s cabin brings tangible and valuable benefits both for the dynamic driving experience and to convey the brand image.