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2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure the SAE J2732 (2008) seat-dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated seat-dimension extraction process in the system consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, seatback and cushion angles, (2) identify centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1434
Salvatore Trapanese, Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti
The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car, in the early stages of design process, is still an open issue. Modern instruments like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomics parameters for car drivers through the use of detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car-interiors and by the multi-body approach for evaluating movements and interactions. Nevertheless, it is not enough because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to parameters that are very difficult to be evaluated in the early stage of design and need “hard-prototypes” that, often, are too expensive to be realized. In the latest 30 years, several researchers tried to develop methods to objectivize the comfort performance but most of them are based on questionnaires, marketing researches, physiological and biomechanical analyses, and need devices or interactions that modify the perceived comfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Automation of automobile can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and developed in every countries. Automated driving is introducing according to automated levels from 0 to 5 (0:no automation, 1:driver assistance, 2:partial automation, 3:conditional automation, 4:high automation, 5:full automation). Currently, feasible automation level is considered to be Level 2 or 3, and take-over from automated system to human manual driving is needed when the automated system overs at these levels. In this situation, required time for take-over is an important issue. This study focus on describing driving simulator experimental results of required time for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead when automated driving on the high way and issues take-over request to the driver. The subject driver is under the following driver situations : hands-on or hands-off to the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
The theory of neuroplasticity posits that the brain continues to change as we age. Thus, cognitive or brain training has been offered as a way for seniors to remain cognitively engaged. Recent research has found substantial reductions in crash rates for seniors who underwent particular brain training protocols; however, specific behaviors or performance metrics which may have contributed to these findings were not examined. The current study is the first to document detailed measures of driver behavior that could support an improvement in driving safety following cognitive training. Fifty-five volunteers participated in one of two cognitive training programs (or were part of a control group). One training program was a commercially available computer-based approach. The other was a novel in-vehicle approach developed by Toyota engineers which employed an implicit learning paradigm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
The objective of this research was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Drivers with improper seat position selection may affect their capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, brake pedal, clutch pedal, and gear selector lever as well as impact one’s safety during a crash event. Because of the stature changes that are associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of a gender and age terms. The hypothesized terms would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1433
Gregory Schaupp, Julia Seeanner, Casey Jenkins, Joseph Manganelli, Sarah Hennessy, Constance Truesdail, Lindsay Swift, Paul Venhovens, Johnell Brooks
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users who drive from their driver’s seat and not from their wheelchair. The goal of this study was to identify typical ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of wheelchair users transferring into and out of the driver’s seat. While motion databases exist for the ingress and egress of able-bodied drivers, this study provides insight on drivers with physical disabilities. Twenty-five YouTube videos of wheelchair users who transferred into and out of their own sedans were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging motorcyclists’ use of technologies (i.e., texting, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older motorcyclists (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study sought to provide an overview of the types of technologies that motorcyclists use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, and motorcyclist demographics by surveying a convenience sample of typical motorcyclists in the United States. The sample included 91 riders (78 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (mean= 50.5, SD= 10.8). Surveyed motorcyclists answered questions about riding experience and training, technologies they use while riding, ease and frequency of use of those technologies, issues with the technologies, as well as riding behaviors and habits.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The paper is focused on both the the subjective and the objective ride comfort of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride confort was performed. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective drivers' feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 36 younger drivers (25-50, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 36 middle-aged drivers (25-50 years, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90 years, mean =77). The LDW included yellow "advisory" visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red "imminent" when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver's forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
In china there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. Driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied in this paper. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis. The results show that driver brake parameters under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist obey log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Seating comfort is associated with the various factors and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters such as cushion, spring stiffness, and damping of seat suspension. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept which use double-wall 3D air mat in cushion along with foam cushion. The air-mats base fabrics are interlinked with numerous spacer threads to make a 3D structure. An optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameter for cushion (particularly for double-wall 3D air mat) based on minimizing occupant’s body discomfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1432
Alexander Siefert
A particular challenge in the development of passenger cars is within prognosis of the vibration comfort. The range of requirements is broad as the excitation varies between cobblestones up to California roads. A further demand is the driver expectation which is different for a pickup or for a sports car. There exist several approaches for assessing the vibrations of occupants while driving. On the one side the comfort is evaluated by integral quantities as the SEAT value taking into account a weighting based on the human body sensitivity. Another approach is the dimension of perception, developed by BMW, which is similar to psychoacoustics as the frequency range is separated with respect to appearing vibration phenomena. In the centre of all activities is the seat transmissibility in the frequency range, describing the relation between the input at the seat slides and the output at the interface of human body and trim.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1438
Alexander Siefert
You plan on buying a new car? You have searched the internet, set a financial limit and are now heading towards your preferred dealer - and take a seat in the car of your choice! This first impression of seating comfort and package design is a decision making criteria when selecting a new car. All OEMs are aware of this and quite a lot of companies use the „passenger comfort“ issue to stand out from their competitors. But how can we objectively evaluate passenger comfort? This complex criterion is dominated by a mixture of several aspects as posture, pressure distribution, internal tissue loads or handling of steering wheel or gear shift. A method to evaluate are hardware tests with human subjects, who are sensitive to all of these aspects. But the reproducibility of subjective tests for comparing design variants is a questionable issue and the costs for each test cycle using new prototypes are very high.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1536
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
The vehicle crash pulse severity is a measure of how severely the vehicle crash pulse has an effect on the occupant injury. The objective of this research is to evaluate the assessability of vehicle crash pulse severity in frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests. In this study, the existing metrics derived from vehicle crash pulse in the frontal impact are reviewed and categorized into 4 groups in the way of how occupant responses are considered. Then the severity of vehicle crash pulses of the frontal NCAP tests was evaluated by existing metrics. A total of 60 frontal NCAP test data collected from the MY 2012 vehicle test program are analyzed. The linear regression analyses and sled test simulations are conducted to identify their correlation to other metrics and dummy injuries. The results show that some of existing metrics are able to assess crash pulse severity in frontal NCAP tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1436
K. Han Kim, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Automotive seats are commonly described by one-dimensional measurements, including those documented in SAE J2732. However, 1-D measurements provide minimal information on seat shape. A 3-D scanner may provide high-resolution details, but due to inconsistent vertex and polygon compositions, indexing and comparing geometries across different seats are extremely difficult. The goal of this work was to develop a statistical framework to analyze and model the surface shapes of seats by using similar techniques that have been used for modeling human body shapes. The 3-D contour of twelve driver seats of sedans and pickup trucks were scanned and aligned, and 332 landmarks were identified using a semi-automatic process. A template mesh of 18,306 vertices was morphed to match the scan at the landmark positions, and the remaining nodes were automatically adjusted to match the scanned surface. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the resulting homologous meshes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1147
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu, Xiaojuan Zhao, Xiaohua Wu, Yongtong Zhang
To improve the comprehensive performance of vehicles equipped with stepped automatic transmission (SAT), the optimization of gearshift schedule should take into account various performance such as power performance, fuel economy, etc. In addition, the SATs would become more acceptable if the optimized gearshift schedule could also be individualized to reflect the driver’s expectation on vehicle performance to a reasonable extent. For the purpose of ensuring the comprehensive performance and improving the individual-ability of vehicles equipped with SAT, a linear weighted method has been proposed to construct the a performance evaluation function, which applies different weights to represent driver’s expectation on performance by using these weights to multiply the normalized value of each sub-performance index.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1419
Helen S. Loeb, Sam chamberlain, Yi-Ching Lee
Motor vehicles crashes are the leading cause of injury and death of US teens. Driving simulators offer a way to safely expose drivers to specific events in a controlled and repeatable manner. They empower researchers by enabling them to compare different groups and driving behaviors and assess the cognitive and attention skills that are essential to safe driving. Classically, assessment of eye glances and gaze duration relies largely on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. In addition, the synchronization of eye tracker and simulator data is essential to a valid analysis of the eye glances patterns in relation to the driving scenario. To better understand and quantify eye glances in relation to a driving scene, Eyesync was developed as a synchronization bridge between an eye tracker and a driving simulator. It allows the real time synchronization and logging of eye tracking and simulator data. The design of the software is presented in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin
Autonomous vehicles can offer increased productivity by freeing occupants from the responsibility of driving. This enables all passengers to safely perform tasks such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet. However, studies show that the incidence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles is expected to increase compared to human driven vehicles.[1] Motion sickness is believed to be caused by head motion between 0.1 Hz and 0.5 Hz that is uncorrelated with visual anticipatory cues. This head motion may be induced by movement in the vertical and lateral directions caused by an uneven road surface or steering/acceleration inputs of the vehicle. Because passengers in such vehicles are more disconnected from road events they cannot anticipate how their bodies are going to move. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are also more prone to shift focus from the road to other activities compared to conventionally driven vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1445
Jonathan Dobres, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Bobbie Seppelt, Linda Angell
Driving behaviors change over the lifespan, and some of these changes influence how a driver allocates visual attention. The present study examined the allocation of glances during single-task (just driving) and dual-task highway driving (concurrently tuning the radio using either visual-manual or auditory-vocal controls). Results indicate that older drivers maintained significantly longer single glance durations across tasks compared to younger drivers. Compared to just driving, visual-manual radio tuning was associated with longer single glance durations for both age groups. Off-road glances were subcategorized as glances to the instrument cluster and mirrors (“situationally-relevant”), “center stack”, and “other”. During baseline driving, older drivers spent more time glancing to situationally-relevant targets. During both radio tuning task periods, in both age groups, the majority of glances were made to the center stack (the radio display).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Recently, head up displays (HUD) have become a common visual feedback device of advanced technologies as the HUD can display feedback to the driver in a highly visible area. However, a reflection to front windshield is often caused by the outline (mikiri line) of the HUD unit on the dash board when the dash board is in direct sun light. The reflection can lead to driver annoyance on an asphalt road as well as dark view in front of windshield. In certain conditions of the front view, location and thickness, and contrast of the outlines were considered as factors impacting annoyance. These factors were considered to contribute to the visibility of stripe pattern (a contrast sensitivity function). In addition, since the reflection of the outlines can be enhanced by bright sunlight coming to the dash board, the present study considered high illuminance on the dash board as an environmental factor. This additional factor was not considered in the past study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1412
Takeshi Hamaguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Shigeyuki Kimura, Terumasa Endo
In general, driver workload can be measured with questionnaires or other subjective methods for human-centered design. Many researchers have studied how subjective ratings of workload have good correspondence to physiological and/or behavioral, psychological measures. On the other hand, a model of driver behavior can be more informative because it allows researchers to estimate how drivers actually control the vehicle. Behavioral measures can be used to understand the interaction between a driver’s perception of information and his/her choice of action. Previously, pedal control was used for identifying specific individual habits or evaluating acceptability for a wide variety of driving assistance systems. Pedal behavior has not been modeled to estimate driver workload.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI). Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1542
Shaosong Li, jiafei niu, Ren Sheng, Zhixin Yu, Shunhang Zheng, Yongfa Tu
Road feeling is the reaction force of steering wheel felt by the driver when the driver steers and this force contains the motion and force of vehicle and ties. Good road feeling is indispensable feedback information for the driver. The decrease in the strength of road feeling can make the driver feel that the on-center area is too large. Meanwhile the steering torque reacted by steering wheel cannot truly reflect the steering reaction torque, which is the so-called “poor linearity of steering force” and “fuzzy of road feeling” in subjective evaluation. With motor and reduction mechanism applied to Electric Power Steering (short for EPS) system of automobile, the frictional loss torque of steering system is increased. The friction compensation control based on the sign function or stature function of the angular velocity of motor is added to the electric power steering system to reduce the frictional loss torque of steering system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
In southern states (e.g., Arizona) typically people drive their vehicles in summer by running vehicle’s air conditioning systems in recirculation modes only. Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation in recirculation mode. The concentration of carbon dioxide starts increasing in the cabin. The CO2 that is inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant’s health. ASHRAE Standard 62 specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over the ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Current global average ambient concentration level of CO2 as of March 2015 is approximately 401 ppm. Hence, if the CO2 concentration exceeds approximately 1100 ppm inside of a home or a vehicle cabin, then we must introduce outside air into the home or vehicle cabin to reduce the CO2 concentration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1435
Amber Hall, Michael Kolich
Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system applications. The physiological responses and comfort obtained from human subjects are compared to seat surface temperatures & quality data verbatim responses of the seats.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1546
Dongpil Lee, Kyongsu Yi, Bongchoon Jang, Sehyun Chang, Byungrim Lee
This paper describes a reference steering feel tracking algorithm for Electric-Power-Steering (EPS) system. Development of the EPS system with intended steering feel has been time-consuming procedure, because the feedforward map-based method has been applied to the conventional EPS system. However, in this study, a three-dimensional reference steering feel surface, which is determined from current vehicle states, is proposed. In order to track the proposed reference steering feel surface, sliding mode approach is applied to second-order steering dynamics model considering a coulomb friction model. An adaptive technique is utilized for robustness against uncertainties. In order to validate the proposed EPS control algorithm, hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) has been conducted with respect to various steering tests (Weave, Transition, Flick, and Return-ability). It is shown that the reference steering feel is realized well by the proposed EPS control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Changes in physiological and operational behavior following lane departure warnings are explored in current production automotive systems. Different implementations employing auditory and haptic lane departure warning alerts were recorded in highway driving conditions from the factory installed lane departure warning systems. The lane departure warning events took place during single task driving periods as well as dual task driving. Dual task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s production interface to perform a secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks. Driver physiology and behavior were recorded and analyzed for pre-event and post-event conditions. To normalize between vehicles, percentage changes between pre-event and post-event measures were calculated.
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