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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1120
Siddhartha Singh, Sudha Ramaswamy
Driving comfort is very important selling factor in today’s automobile market. Manual Transmission Clutch systems has to balance between driving control given to the driver and driver comfort.If ergonomics of ABC pedals are not taken care, driving stress will increase. The increase in engine torque because of change in technologies like turbocharging and pressure injection has also increased the release load for actuating clutch which in turn increases pedal load. There are many assistance mechanisms integrated with pedal to reduce the load like over-center spring, double torsion spring, each with its own limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study revises the odds ratios (ORs) of secondary tasks estimated by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. An independent and objective re-counting and re-analysis of all secondary tasks observed in the 100-Car databases removed misclassification errors and epidemiological biases. The corrected estimates of secondary task crude OR and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) for crashes and near-crashes vs. a random baseline were substantially lower for almost every secondary task, compared to the VTTI estimates previously reported. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by employing secondary task counts from a matched baseline from a later VTTI 100-Car analysis. This matched baseline caused most OR estimates to decline even further.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0256
Changbo Fu, Paul (Tim) Freeman, John R. Wagner
Abstract: **Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0259
Tyler Zellmer, Julio Rodriguez, John R. Wagner, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon
Abstract According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was µ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called "Target Zone", defined by a Driver Rating of µ± 1σ.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0281
Yang Zheng, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
In order to address vehicular and occupant safety, it is beneficial to understand how drivers drive as well as identify any variations in their driving performance. In-vehicle signal processing plays an increasingly important role in driving behavior and traffic modeling. A driver’s control actions directly impact the vehicle dynamic performance. Meanwhile, in-vehicle signals such as the steering wheel angle, vehicle speed and other signals from multiple sensors typically included in the CAN-Bus can be used to reflect the driver’s intention. Maneuvers, influenced by the driver’s choice and traffic/road conditions, are important in understanding variations in driving performance and to help rebuild the intended route. With access to continuous real-time in-vehicles signals, a suitable framing strategy should be adopted for maneuver recognition. One classical approach is to use fixed time frames to partition incoming data for time series analysis of maneuvers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the "sleep hormone" is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum affect the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photo-biology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photo-biology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge Jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng Jiang, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Chang
An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customer into engineering languages. In other wards, transfer the wants of the customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire sample for customer wants is processed, combining KANO model with QFD, to calculate the importance of customers wants. Simultaneously, the attribute of the property is distinguished. Due to the information gained is uncertain and questionnaire sample size might be small, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced to solve the correlation of the wants of customers and the technical characteristics. Then, TRIZ and QFD are combined to get invention principles of conflicting technical characteristics. Finally, the evaluation information of expert language is analyzed by the free mixed-language approach to obtain the final importance weights of technical characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1394
Alessandro Naddeo, Marco Apicella, Davide Galluzzi
General comfort may be defined as the “level of well-being” perceived by humans in a working environment. The state-of-the-art about evaluation of comfort/discomfort shows the need for an objective method to evaluate the “effect in the internal body” and “perceived effects” in main systems of comfort perception. Some medical studies show that each human joint has its own natural Rest Posture (RP); in this Rest Posture human muscles are completely relaxed or at minimum strain level: when it happens the geometrical configuration corresponds to the natural position of resting Arms/Legs/Neck etc.. From this starting point, authors developed and build, through a wide experimental campaign, the postural-comfort curves for each DOF of human upper limbs joints; the obtained comfort curves are regular and don’t show any kind of discontinuity. A software named Ca-Man has been developed in order to analyze a general posture and calculate a postural comfort index for the entire upper body.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop Parameswaraiah
Glare is subjective and can cause either disability or discomfort to eyes. A recent report from NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) shows that 22,487 deaths occurred in the year 2012. FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) shows that 10,480 deaths occur at night time. This accounts to 48% fatalities during night time. Thus glare during driving, especially at night time is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper consists of two promising technologies that can help in reducing glare. The system level design comprises of vision based identification of glare source. And a device placed between the driver and source is controlled for its transmittance. By changing the transparency locally the glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1392
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Heeran Lee, Yu Kyung Shin, Chang Hee Jang, Soon Hyun Hwang
Driving postures is essential for evaluation of a driver workspace and also for improved seat design comfort. Data on occupant posture and body dimensions is gathered widely using portable coordinate measurement equipment, optical motion capture equipment, infrared depth sensor, and posture monitoring system. Nowadays, a number of 3D scanners are available on the market, which mainly used to enable anthropometry in an entirely new way. This study captures the comfortable driving postures for Koreans using 3D scanning measuring techniques. Subjects consisted of twenty healthy individuals (10 males and 10 females) ranging in age from 20 to 40 years and were carefully selected to include in three different weight groups (> 59 kg, 60 ~ 79 kg and < 80 kg). Driving postures were captured using a handheld portable 3D scanner (model: Artec LTM). A total of 18 land markers were attached (car seat: 9 markers; subject: 9 markers).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0979
Chih Feng Lee, Per Öberg
This paper investigates classifications of road type and driving style based on on-board diagnostic data, which is commonly accessible in modern vehicles. The outcomes of these classifications can be utilized in, for example, supporting the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for enhancing safety and drivability, and online adaptation of engine controller for improving performance and fuel consumption. Furthermore, the classifications offer valuable information for fleet operators to consider when making decision on procurement plans, maintenance schedules and assisting fleet drivers in choosing suitable vehicles. To this end, a velocity-based road type classification method is evaluated on measurements collected from real driving conditions and compared to an open-sourced map. To produce representative results, two most commonly adopted driving style classification methods, i.e. acceleration and jerk-based methods are evaluated and compared on the same set of measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1396
Xiangjie Meng, Xin Tao, Wenjun Wang, Chaofei Zhang, Bo Cheng, Bo Wang, Chengpeng Zhou, Xiaoping Jin, Chao Zeng, John Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen
: Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to be a causative factor associated with low back pain; however, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. It is hypothesized that vibration causes vibration in the muscles at resonant frequencies, leading to increased muscle activity and muscle fatigue during prolonged driving. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1161
Lei Feng, Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
This paper studies predictive control method for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy under aggressive driving. Aggressive driving not only causes car crashes but also greatly impacts the overall efficiency of HEVs. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV under aggressive driving scenarios. A dedicated stochastic model predictive control method is developed and it adopts Markov chain to predict driver’s acceleration pedal and brake pedal inputs in the future based on past information. The power output from the engine and motor will be adjusted to match driver’s power request at the end of the prediction window while avoiding transient peaks of engine power output.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1417
Jeffrey Muttart
An analysis was performed utilizing the results from seven emergency steering studies and four routine lane change studies. Closed course and naturalistic research were included. These studies showed that in a routine lane change, Drivers reached peak lateral acceleration approximately one-second after steering after which lateral acceleration decreases linearly. These results were consistent with those from forward and backing acceleration research published elsewhere. Though, when drivers steered in response to an emergency situation, again, peak lateral acceleration occurred near one-second after steering onset, but average lateral acceleration decreased non-linearly. This non-linear decrease between onset of steering and completion of the maneuver was indicative of counter-steering, or reduced subsequent steering (straightening). The results show that the average lateral acceleration could be modeled with a power function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1357
James A. Crowley
In the area of Human Factors and Usability research a desired output of many studies is identification of what value a specific Design Parameter should be set at to minimize customer dissatisfaction. A Customer Loss Function is a simple way to graphically display the probability customers will be dissatisfied at different levels of a given design parameter, due to a given failure mode. Many design parameters however, have two distinct but related Failure Modes (customer disatisfiers), typically representing two ends of the parameter (i.e. too much/too little; too hot/too cold; too fast/too slow). Each of these Failure modes is represented by its own unique Customer Loss Function. This paper will introduce a technique to combine these two One-Sided Loss Functions into a comprehensive Two-Sided Loss Function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1588
Ibrahim A. Badiru, Michael W. Neal
The goal of this paper is to discuss the steps for an engineering organization to understand and execute customer optimized handling characteristics for routine driving maneuvers. Vehicle handling character plays a critical role in the overall customer driving experience. The automotive industry has standardized a wide array of objective tests and metrics to quantify handling performance. At major OEM’s, a new vehicle program begins with the development of objective targets based on competitive benchmarking, market trends, and past experience. As the program progresses from the concept stage to final production calibrations, development progressively relies more heavily on the subjective judgment of trained experts to establish handling characteristics that may please the customer. This process is time-tested and has been successful in producing a broad range of vehicles from numerous manufacturers that are both safe and meet the expectations of the buying public.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0659
Yan Bai, Xiao Ren, Rui Fu
Driver model has been developed since 1950s and quite a lot of attention has been attracted on this aspect. Today there is a body of knowledge regarding driver mathematics model. Since driving behavior is highly complex, involving psychology and physiology factors, it is not easy to use a simple driver model to represent all characteristic features comprehensively, according to the usage of driver model, some assumptions are necessarily proposed in order to tackle the specific problem easily. The Optimal Preview Acceleration Driver Model was put forward based on the Preview-Following Theory proposed by Prof. Guo’s in 1983, it assumes that driving behavior or control is estimated by minimization the error between the prescribed path and vehicle actual path in order to optimize the vehicle performance during preview time. This driver model is quite simple, but easy to understand, and accurate for even great curvature path following.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1407
Toshiya Hirose, Dai Kitabayashi, Hidenobu Kubota
1. Purpose of this study The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have proposed roadmaps for the development of autonomous systems. These roadmaps define levels of autonomy in the development of a completely autonomous system of a vehicle. Although current autonomous systems control a vehicle in an ordinary situation, the driver needs to control the vehicle in the case of an emergency when the system reaches its functional limitation. Therefore, the driver must monitor the driving of the autonomous system. These systems are at level 3 in the NHTSA and SAE roadmaps. However, for such systems, if the driver is in a state of low alertness such as when drowsy, then he/she cannot control the vehicle with an appropriate action when the system changes from autonomous driving to manual driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
In the framework of large scale project interactIVe co-funded by the European Commission Ford has developed an active safety system for the supported and autonomous avoidance of rear end collisions by intervention of braking and steering systems. This paper focuses on the assessment of threat perceived by drivers in collision avoidance situation. The decision making related to the initiation of the interventions by driver is crucial to understand how much threat is the driver can hold. The study has helped to understand how driver feels a threat arising from environment. It is a step towards autonomous driving where the system interventions have to be initiated as early as possible in order to avoid the collision and avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations. In parallel the reaction has to be delayed long enough until it is likely that the driver will no longer intervene or respectively he is no longer able to intervene. For this reason an experiment is conducted with 26 subjects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1465
Sho Nikaido, Shota Wada, Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose
1. Background and purpose There are various contributing factors to accidents of bicycles, it is considered that cyclists often do not observe the traffic regulation that requires cyclists to stop before a stop line at an intersection. As a countermeasure to this type of accident, cycling assist systems that activate a warning system for cyclists have been researched and developed. This assist system warns the cyclist about the danger of a collision. Such an assist system needs to provide a warning with appropriate timing. It is necessary to clarify cycling characteristics in developing a countermeasure for traffic accidents at an intersection without signals. The findings of this study can be used for the future construction of an assist system that will encourage cyclists to observe traffic regulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
C Sreelakshmi, Krishnan Kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency regions in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require many sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time; which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and neglect the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in the scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The studies on human psycho visual system hypothesize similar behavior in human perception. The proposed method aims to model the similar behavior in computer vision with the concept of visual saliency. Saliency in still images is computed by color, frequency and positional difference. A region is salient, if its color or pattern is unique. The color difference between the regions in Lab Space highlights the visual difference.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprising of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0418
Vijitashwa Pandey, Megan Conrad
This paper develops a design paradigm for universal products. Universal design is term used for designing products and systems that are equally accessible to people with and without disabilities. Two common challenges for research in this area are that (1) There is a continuum of disabilities making it hard to optimize product features, and (2) There is no effective benchmark for evaluating such products. To exacerbate these issues, data regarding customer disabilities and their preferences is hard to come by. We propose a copula based approach for modeling market coverage of a portfolio of universal products. The multiattribute preference of customers to purchase a product is modeled as Frank’s Archimedean Copula. The inputs from various disparate sources can be collected and incorporated into a optimal decision system.
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