Abstract Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
Abstract Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS) technologies have been introduced as the automotive industry moves towards autonomous driving. One ADAS technology with the potential for substantial safety benefits is forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM), which is designed to warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, potentiate driver braking responses, and apply the vehicle's brakes autonomously. Although the proliferation of FCWM technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how these systems affect a driver's overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear. Exponent conducted a closed-course evaluation of drivers' reactions to an imminent forward collision event while driving an FCWM-equipped vehicle, either with or without a secondary task administered through a hands-free cell phone.
Analyzing and Predicting Heterogeneous Customer Preferences in China's Auto Market Using Choice Modeling and Network Analysis
Abstract As the world's largest auto producer and consumer, China is both the most promising and complex market given the country's rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. After a comprehensive data exploration, a customer-level mixed logit model is built to shed light on fast-growing vehicle segments in the Chinese auto market. By combining the data of vehicle purchase, consideration, and past choice, cross-shopping behaviors and brand influence are explicitly modeled in addition to the impact of customer demographics, usage behaviors, and attributes of vehicles.
Influence of Age, Secondary Tasks and Other Factors on Drivers' Swerving Responses before Crash or Near-Crash Events
Abstract Controlled studies identified several factors that influence drivers' swerving when responding to in an emergency situation. Specifically, driver age, time-to-contact, amplitude of the steering action (steer within lane or swerving into the next lane), distraction, fatigue, natural lighting and available buffer space were identified as factors that influence steering behaviors. The goal of the current research was to identify the extent to which each factor changed swerving performances of drivers who were faced with a crash or near crash. Results from crashes and near crashes were obtained from the InSight (SHRP-2) naturalistic driving study. The results from the controlled studies and the results from the naturalistic driving research were consistent in many ways. Drivers engaged in a visual-manual secondary task were much younger than were the drivers who had no distracting secondary task.
1. SCOPE 1.1 Minimum criteria are provided for steps, stairways, ladders, walkways, platforms, handrails, handholds, guardrails, and entrance openings which permit ingress to and egress from operator, inspection, maintenance or service platforms on off-road work machines parked in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 1.2 This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to off-road self-propelled work machines used in specialized mining machinery categories as defined in SAE J1116. 1.3 The minimum criteria are based on one unladen person using the access system at any one time. 1.4 Purpose This document establishes criteria for access systems primarily to aid in minimizing accidents and injury to personnel getting on, off, or moving about while servicing or preparing to operate off-road machines.
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Deep thinking about deep space NASA is mining the rich fields of knowledge and creativity in the minds of university students to improve living and working conditions in space. Rise of the underdogs Problem-plagued effort last year spurs Baja SAE team from VIT University of India to overhaul itself and its car. Materials, data-aq packages among choices touted in Collegiate Cup contest Central Michigan's Baja team, which did some impressive materials analyses, takes home the SAE Mid-Michigan Section's trophy as part of that professional group's Engineers Week activities. Toyota looks for more from college students than high GPA "Those that participate in an SAE related-activity display passion for the automotive industry, and these candidates are ideal for our organization."
This document describes the design and assembly force guidelines for conventional shipping caps, torque caps, and body plugs. All possible design and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to to this document, such as use of an “off-the-shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
The move into active safety systems is increasing the need for high-reliability software. AdaCore, a tool supplier that’s used in many aerospace applications, is responding to this demand with tools that can be used by the automotive industry.
Rain, wind, and visibility can influence driving safety and impact the bottom line for on- and off-highway fleets.
This document describes the assessment methods and physical requirements associated with the manual handling of carts and dollies, specific to material handling systems. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an "off-the shelf" design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department. Force guidelines were primarily developed referencing the push/pull psychophysical Snook data contained in A Guide to Manual Materials Handling (second edition) by Mital, Nicholson and Ayoub (NY: Taylor & Francis, 1997). The force guidelines accommodate 75% of female capabilities and 99% of male capabilities. Factors that were included in the established guideline include: push / pull distances, vertical hand height, horizontal hand height, frequency and wheel / castor alignment and load rating. These factors were used to develop a conservative force guideline.
This document describes the design, assessment methods and physical requirements associated with material handling systems. This would include, but not limited to manual dollies, small lot systems and kitting. All possible designs and applications could not be anticipated in creating these guidelines. Where there are questions of adherence to this document, such as use of an “off-the shelf” design, always consult the responsible Ergonomics Department.
Abstract The need for a voice recognition system in the automotive industry is growing day by day. In our current voice recognition system, Hyundai's ‘Blue-Link’ and KIA's ‘UVO’ are developed with Microsoft which is a global software company. The system launched domestic market recently. Since usage of voice recognition system are increasing, research and development of Voice Recognition system also increase very fast. Research is mostly focus on increase recognition rate of speech. However there is no research of interior layout considering voice recognition usability. So in this research, we discover interior design factors for maximizing voice recognition usability.
Abstract This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
Developed in partnership with IBM and location cloud company HERE, Continental’s latest evolution of its eHorizon software uses digital mapping and cloud-based data analytics to give drivers real-time information on dynamic events such as weather, accidents, and traffic jams.
Volvo’s 2015 XC90 features RACam, claimed to be the world’s first integrated radar and vision data-fusion system, designed to enable a broad array of active-safety capabilities.
Conventional CT scanners cannot accommodate long or bulky aircraft components.
This specification covers a general-purpose disinfectant in the form of a concentrated liquid.
In coming years, the industry will see the same downward cost curves in lidar that occurred with radar. The result could be the first mass-produced car with lidar.
This document applies to safety observers or spotters involved with the use of outdoor laser systems. It may be used in conjunction with SAE Aerospace Standard (AS4970) “Human Factors Considerations for Outdoor Laser Operations in the Navigable Airspace.” Additional control measures may be applicable and are listed in ANSI Z136.6.
Its new platform has fully independent suspension and two four-wheel-drive systems. The Select-Terrain system included with 4WD has an rock-climbing mode added for off-road enhanced Trailhawk.
A smart phone serves as the illustrative connection between distracted driving and autonomously driven vehicles.
Purpose of this standard is to provide qualification requirements of an Full Face Quick Donning Mask Assembly with regards to function and performance under conditions of aircraft environments. Function and performance requirements shall take into account varying modes of use and handling during aircraft operation. It shall be demonstrated that subcomponents of the assembly ,like regulator or microphone are harmonized to comply with the overall requirements of this standard.
The scope of this document is to provide those recommended practices considered essential for all air carrier first officer initial training programs. The recommended practices contained within this document are intended primarily for the guidance of passenger and cargo air carriers, and training providers. This document is also intended to guide those responsible for rule making and the provision of oversight of organizations involved in air carrier first officer initial training programs. Any professional pilot training organization may benefit from a review of the recommendations contained in this document.
The system can anticipate, by up to five seconds, the likelihood of a vehicle ahead "cutting-in" and endangering another.
The scope of this document is to provide recommended practices for the development and implementation of collegiate or flight school first officer initial training programs. These recommendations are directed toward formal, advanced, and structured training programs.
The purpose of this document is to provide certain basic considerations and design criteria for installation of LED landing, runway turnoff, and taxiing light systems for night operation. Criteria for recognition lights are also included.
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space . With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
Investigation of Effect of Change in Engine Characteristics and Transfer Path on Passenger Cabin Noise Contributed by Transmission
Abstract Noise generated in the driveline is mainly transferred inside the passenger cabin through air (air borne noise) and through the vehicle body structure, engine mounts, cables etc. Source of the noise generation in the vehicle is mainly through the engine fluctuation (engine combustion excitations). Any change in the engine characteristics results in the change in passenger cabin noise. Also, influence of the vehicle body structure due to change in material properties also affects the NVH performance. This technical paper explains the effect of change in engine characteristics as well as change in the transfer path (material property) on the NVH performance of the gearbox and subsequently the NVH performance of vehicle.
Behaviour of Car Drivers in Accidents used to Estimate the Benefit of Car Antilock Brake System on Indian Highways
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 . Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India . In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).