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Viewing 211 to 240 of 5880
2014-04-10
Article
With the large commercial van market continuing to grow, Mercedes-Benz continues to improve its Sprinter van to keep it the “best” in a crowded field.
2014-04-10
Article
The system uses specific Sport Mode algorithms with modules from the high-speed CAN data bus, including those for adaptive cruise control, forward facing camera, all-wheel drive, shift-by-wire, electric power steering, transmission, and powertrain.
2014-04-10
Article
Dangers from malware, including ransom demands, must be pro-actively avoided as industry and owners enter era of connected cars. For all their conveniences, telematics could pose ugly series of risks that will require new approaches to prevent, explains Cisco Systems scientist to SAE Congress attendees. Vulnerabilities are in many areas, including the OBD system.
2014-04-05
Article
According to Lord's Andrew J. Winzenz, companies wanting to compete in the industrial market must expand their expertise beyond components to system-level design.
2014-04-03
Article
A new occupant-protection technology from TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. has the passenger-seat airbag deploying from the headliner instead of the dashboard. It is being launched on the Citroën C4 Cactus.
2014-04-03
Standard
ARP5647A
This SAE Aerospace Recommend Practice (ARP) is intended to identify both safety related best practices and unique design considerations of metal halides High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps and power supplies in aircraft applications.
2014-04-03
WIP Standard
ARP6503
This document provides guidance for in-flight rest facilities provided for use by cabin crew on commercial transport aircraft.. This document is applicable to dedicated cabin crew rest facilities. Passenger seats used to provide “cabin crew rest facilities” are not within the scope of this document.
2014-04-02
WIP Standard
J284
This SAE Recommended Practice presents the general uses, limitations on use, and appearance of the safety alert symbol.
2014-04-01
Article
All new vehicles under 10,000 lb will be required to have rearview camera technology under a final rule issued March 28 by NHTSA (U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). The rule applies to vehicles ranging from passenger cars to trucks and buses (any vehicle under 10,000 lb) built on or after May 1, 2018.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0695
Mingyu Wang, Debashis Ghosh, Edward Wolfe, Kuo-huey Chen, Jeffrey Bozeman
Abstract Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems are designed to cool the entire cabin to provide passenger comfort. Localized cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by creating a micro climate around the passenger. Such a system also easily adapts to the number of passengers in the car and enables zonal control. The net impact of the localized cooling is that equivalent comfort can be achieved at reduced HVAC energy consumption rate. The present paper reports on a vehicle implementation of localized cooling using Thermoelectric Devices and the resulting energy saving.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0685
Devin Furse, SeKil Park, Lee Foster, Simon Kim
Abstract An innovative system has been developed to remotely monitor and record customer usage patterns of the Hyundai Genesis HVAC system in real time by smartphone. The data monitored includes dozens of HVAC-related parameters, including driver and passenger set temperature, blower setting, mode and intake position, internal software parameters, etc. This information and understanding of real-world usage of American customers enables design and test engineers to better satisfy customer demands for automatic temperature control performance. This study identifies areas in need of improvement Preliminary findings of this study suggest that auto mode usage is highest in mild temperatures and lowest in hot soaking conditions. In hot soak conditions (above 35C cabin temperature), the majority of American customers manually control the temperature and blower speed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1903
Thomas Juergen Boehme, Tobias Sehnke, Matthias Schultalbers, Torsten Jeinsch
Abstract In this paper an energy management is proposed which is optimal to certain driving scenarios which can be clustered into freeway, rural and urban situations. This strategy is non-predictive but uses information about the current driving situation provided by modern navigation systems to identify the current road type. Based on this information a set of simplified optimal control problems are solved offline via an indirect shooting algorithm. By relaxation of the problem formulation, the solutions of these optimal control problems can be stored into easily implementable maps. The energy management control is then determined from these maps during vehicle operation using the current road type, the vehicle speed and the required wheel-torque. The strategy is implemented in a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and validated on a near mass-production vehicle. The proposed methodology has shown fuel savings on a real world drive cycle.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0892
Eric Frank, Peter Jacobsen
Abstract As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0879
Jan-Mou Li, David Smith
Abstract Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0875
Mark William Arndt
Abstract The current certification requirements under CFR 49, Part 567 state that GVWR of a motor vehicle shall not be less than the sum of the unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo weight and 150 pounds times the number of designated seating positions. Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weights versus its certified GVWR. Population weight distributions were developed based upon The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) publication of 2007 - 2010 anthropometric reference data and publically available weights of a special population from high school football teams. For five buses from small (18-seat) to large (55-seat), key parameters were measured.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0877
Prasad Kumbhar, Ning Li, Peijun Xu, James Yang
In vehicle driving environment, the driver is subjected to the vibrations in horizontal, vertical, and fore-aft directions. The human body is very much sensitive to whole body vibration and this vibration transmission to the body depends upon various factors including road irregularities, vehicle suspension, vehicle dynamics, tires, seat design and the human body's properties. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters which include spring stiffness and damping of seat suspension and cushion. In this paper, an optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameters for seat suspension, and cushion based on minimizing occupant's body fatigue (occupant body absorbed power). A 14-degree of freedom (DOF) multibody biodynamic human model in 2D is selected from literature to assess three types of seat arrangements.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0078
Rama Subbu, Baskar Anthony Samy, Piyush mani Sharma
Abstract Fierce competition in India's motorcycle industry has led to constant product innovation among manufacturers. This has resulted in the reduction of the lifecycle of the vehicle and has driven the manufacturers to alter the product design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continued to challenge motorcycle designers is ride comfort in vertical and longitudinal direction. An essential tool in the motorcycle development process is the ability to quantify and grade the ride comfort behavior. This is performed either through subjective or objective tests. Subjective tests have the disadvantage that numerous factors influence test drivers' opinion while objective measures have the advantage of repeatability.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0182
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0183
Sooncheol Park, Wonwook Jung, Chunwoo Shin, Jaewung Jung
Abstract Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0258
Vasantharaj G
Abstract Human Machine Interface technologies in automotive systems are taking a giant leap forward with integrated multi-modal, multi-touch and multi-zone systems. This evolution enables the HMI system to provide state-of-the-art graphics effects, speech assistance, touch and gesture enabled interfaces, augmented reality, web and mobile integration alongside other advanced concepts, providing excellent user experience, least driver distraction and ease of use. Modern premium car manufacturers are introducing such user experience in their in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) systems to make their IVI on par with the trend setting mobile smart phone user experience. Apart from the technologies involved in multimodal behaviour, the HMI system includes frameworks, standards and sub systems that enable appreciable amount of autonomy while interfacing with the underlying IVI sub system layers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0389
Hongjie Ma, Hui Xie, Shuangxi Chen, Ying Yan, DengGao Huang
Abstract Approximately 50% energy is consumed during the acceleration of a city bus. Fuel consumption during acceleration is significantly affected by driving behavior. In this study, 13 characteristic parameters were selected to describe driving style based on analysis of how driving influences fuel consumption during acceleration. The 100,000 km real-world vehicle running data of six drivers on three city buses in a particular bus line in Tianjin, China were sampled using a vehicle-on-line data logger. Based on the selected characteristic parameters and collected driving data, an evaluation model of the fuel consumption level of a driver was established by adopting the method of decision tree C4.5. For two-level classification, the model has over 85% prediction accuracy. The model also has the advantages of having a few training samples and strong generalization. As an example of the model application, the fuel-saving potential of a driver under optimal operations was analyzed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0434
Nicholas P. Skinner, John D. Bullough
Abstract Rear automotive lighting systems employing dynamic features such as sweeping or flashing are not commonly used on vehicles in North America, in part because they are not clearly addressed in vehicle lighting regulations. Nor is there abundant evidence suggesting they have a substantial role to play in driver safety. The results of a human factors investigation of the potential impacts of dynamic rear lighting systems on driver responses are summarized and discussed in the context of safety, visual effectiveness and the present regulatory context.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0439
Xingyu Liang, Kang Sun, Yuesen Wang, Gequn Shu, Lin Tang, Lei Ling, Xu Wang
Abstract Like outside scenery, the car interior noise and road condition will affect the driver's mental state when driving. In order to explore the influence of external visual and auditory factors on the driver's mood in the driving process based on research of traffic soundscape, this paper has selected four backbone roads of Tianjin city (China) to test and drive a gasoline passenger vehicle at different speeds. Near Acoustic Holographic was used to scan interior acoustic field distribution, while the tracking shot of the driver's location was recorded by a Sony camera. People with different characteristics were invited to watch the video and completed a self-designed survey questionnaire. The external factors affecting the driver's mood were explored by analyzing all these data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0443
Michael Tschirhart, Kathleen Ku
Abstract The vehicle environment is known to be a demanding context for efficiently displaying information to the driver. Research in typography reveals some factors that influence reading performance measures, but there is limited research on the influence of typographic design elements in a driver-vehicle interface on user performance with a simulated driver task. Participants in these studies completed a set of vehicle infotainment tasks that involved a text-based item search in a custom-designed interface that employed a family of Helvetica Neue fonts, in a static environment and a driving simulator environment. Analysis of the data from the two studies reveals a modest but statistically significant effect of font on certain driving-related task performance measures. In both studies, fonts with intermediate values of character width and line thickness were associated with the best performance on a simulated driving task.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0441
Takahiro Adachi, Takashi Yonekawa, Yoshitaka Fuwamoto, Shoji Ito, Katsuhiko Iwazaki, Sueharu Nagiri
Abstract The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0488
Peter Kempf
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0452
Helen S. Loeb, Thomas Seacrist, Catherine McDonald, Flaura Winston
Abstract Driving simulators provide a safe, highly reproducible environment in which to assess driver behavior. Nevertheless, data reduction to standardized metrics can be time-consuming and cumbersome. Further, the validity of the results is challenged by inconsistent definitions of metrics, precluding comparison across studies and integration of data. No established tool has yet been made available and kept current for the systematic reduction of literature-derived safety metrics. The long term goal of this work is to develop DriveLab, a set of widely applicable routines for reducing simulator data to expert-approved metrics. Since Matlab™ is so widely used in the research community, it was chosen as a suitable environment. This paper aims to serve as a case study of data reduction techniques and programming choices that were made for simulator analysis of a specific research project, the Simulated Driving Assessment.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0450
Tobias Karlsson, Magdalena Lindman, Jordanka Kovaceva, Bo Svanberg, Henrik Wiberg, Lotta Jakobsson
Abstract Different types of driver workload are suggested to impact driving performance. Operating a vehicle in a situation where the driver feel uneasy is one example of driver workload. In this study, passenger car driving data collected with Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data acquisition equipment was analyzed, aiming to identify situations corresponding to a high driver's subjective rating of ‘unease’. Data from an experimental study with subjects driving a passenger car in normal traffic was used. Situations were rated by the subjects according to experienced ‘unease’, and the Controller Area Network (CAN) data from the vehicle was used to describe the driving conditions and identify driving patterns corresponding to the situations rated as ‘uneasy’. These driving patterns were matched with the data in a NDS database and the method was validated using video data. Two data mining approaches were applied.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0447
Renaud Deborne, Skárlet Khouri Silva, Andras Kemeny
Abstract By the action on the steering wheel, the driver has the capability to control the trajectory of its vehicle. Nevertheless, the steering wheel has also the role of information provider to the driver. In particular, the torque level at the steering wheel informs the driver about the interaction between the vehicle and the road. This information flow is natural due to the mechanical chain between the road and the steering wheel. Many studies have shown that steering wheel torque feedback is crucial to ensure the control of the vehicle. In the context of uncoupled steering (steer-by-wire vehicle or driving simulators), the torque rendering on the steering wheel is a major challenge. In addition, of the trajectory control, the quality of this torque is a key for the immersion of drivers in virtual environment such as in driving simulators. The torque-rendering loop is composed of different steps.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0445
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill.
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