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Viewing 181 to 210 of 5814
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0685
Devin Furse, SeKil Park, Lee Foster, Simon Kim
Abstract An innovative system has been developed to remotely monitor and record customer usage patterns of the Hyundai Genesis HVAC system in real time by smartphone. The data monitored includes dozens of HVAC-related parameters, including driver and passenger set temperature, blower setting, mode and intake position, internal software parameters, etc. This information and understanding of real-world usage of American customers enables design and test engineers to better satisfy customer demands for automatic temperature control performance. This study identifies areas in need of improvement Preliminary findings of this study suggest that auto mode usage is highest in mild temperatures and lowest in hot soaking conditions. In hot soak conditions (above 35C cabin temperature), the majority of American customers manually control the temperature and blower speed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0275
Dennis A. Attwood
Abstract In its simplest form, an interlock is a device, installed in a vehicle, that monitors the safety of the vehicle and its occupants, decides whether the vehicle or its occupants are in danger and warns the occupants, or influences the operation of the vehicle. The first interlocks were designed to detect alcohol intoxicated drivers. Three categories of performance interlocks can be identified: Type I interlocks sense physiological parameters of the driver (e.g. alcohol content of alveolar air) determine the driver's level of intoxication and, after comparing this level with a criterion level (e.g. the legal limit for driving), decide whether or not the vehicle should be operated. Type II interlocks measure the behaviour of the driver with cockpit-mounted equipment (e.g. eye movement monitors) or on driving-related tasks and compare this behaviour with established norms.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0236
Maki Kawakoshi, Takanobu Kaneko, Toru Nameki
Abstract Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0450
Tobias Karlsson, Magdalena Lindman, Jordanka Kovaceva, Bo Svanberg, Henrik Wiberg, Lotta Jakobsson
Abstract Different types of driver workload are suggested to impact driving performance. Operating a vehicle in a situation where the driver feel uneasy is one example of driver workload. In this study, passenger car driving data collected with Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data acquisition equipment was analyzed, aiming to identify situations corresponding to a high driver's subjective rating of ‘unease’. Data from an experimental study with subjects driving a passenger car in normal traffic was used. Situations were rated by the subjects according to experienced ‘unease’, and the Controller Area Network (CAN) data from the vehicle was used to describe the driving conditions and identify driving patterns corresponding to the situations rated as ‘uneasy’. These driving patterns were matched with the data in a NDS database and the method was validated using video data. Two data mining approaches were applied.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0448
Richard Young
This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0446
Richard Young
A key aim of research into cell phone tasks is to obtain an unbiased estimate of their relative risk (RR) for crashes. This paper re-examines five RR estimates of cell phone conversation in automobiles. The Toronto and Australian studies estimated an RR near 4, but used subjective estimates of driving and crash times. The OnStar, 100-Car, and a recent naturalistic study used objective measures of driving and crash times and estimated an RR near 1, not 4 - a major discrepancy. Analysis of data from GPS trip studies shows that people were in the car only 20% of the time on any given prior day at the same clock time they were in the car on a later day. Hence, the Toronto estimate of driving time during control windows must be reduced from 10 to 2 min.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0452
Helen S. Loeb, Thomas Seacrist, Catherine McDonald, Flaura Winston
Abstract Driving simulators provide a safe, highly reproducible environment in which to assess driver behavior. Nevertheless, data reduction to standardized metrics can be time-consuming and cumbersome. Further, the validity of the results is challenged by inconsistent definitions of metrics, precluding comparison across studies and integration of data. No established tool has yet been made available and kept current for the systematic reduction of literature-derived safety metrics. The long term goal of this work is to develop DriveLab, a set of widely applicable routines for reducing simulator data to expert-approved metrics. Since Matlab™ is so widely used in the research community, it was chosen as a suitable environment. This paper aims to serve as a case study of data reduction techniques and programming choices that were made for simulator analysis of a specific research project, the Simulated Driving Assessment.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0276
Adeel Yusuf, John Avery
Abstract The framework for the connected HMI with respect to the configuration and computation of personalization data is presented. The connectivity medium of the future car would be based on either an embedded internet connection through the mobile data services, Bluetooth based data connection based on the user smartphone, Wi-Fi based connection using a wireless network connection or an optimized hybrid approach based on the availability of the connectivity medium or the preference of the user. It is assumed that the car cannot remain directly-connected at all times and the computational requirements of the advanced personalization application cannot be optimized using the inbuilt HMI hardware in the vehicle alone. Our algorithm is based on the concept of Constant Data Availability (CODA) distributed file system and the Distributed Application Processing framework (DAPF).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0272
Amardeep Sathyanarayana, Seyed Omid Sadjadi, John H. L. Hansen
Towards developing of advanced driver specific active/passive safety systems it is important to be able to continuously evaluate driving performance variations. These variations are best captured when evaluated against similar driving patterns or maneuvers. Hence, accurate maneuver recognition in the preliminary stage is vital for the evaluation of driving performance. Rather than using simulated or fixed test track data, it is important to collect and analyze on-road real-traffic naturalistic driving data to account for all possible driving variations in different maneuvers. Towards this, massive free style naturalistic driving data corpora are being collected. Human transcription of these massive corpora is not only a tedious task, but also subjective and hence prone to errors/inconsistencies which can be due to multiple transcribers as well as lack of enough training/instructions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0447
Renaud Deborne, Skárlet Khouri Silva, Andras Kemeny
Abstract By the action on the steering wheel, the driver has the capability to control the trajectory of its vehicle. Nevertheless, the steering wheel has also the role of information provider to the driver. In particular, the torque level at the steering wheel informs the driver about the interaction between the vehicle and the road. This information flow is natural due to the mechanical chain between the road and the steering wheel. Many studies have shown that steering wheel torque feedback is crucial to ensure the control of the vehicle. In the context of uncoupled steering (steer-by-wire vehicle or driving simulators), the torque rendering on the steering wheel is a major challenge. In addition, of the trajectory control, the quality of this torque is a key for the immersion of drivers in virtual environment such as in driving simulators. The torque-rendering loop is composed of different steps.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0389
Hongjie Ma, Hui Xie, Shuangxi Chen, Ying Yan, DengGao Huang
Abstract Approximately 50% energy is consumed during the acceleration of a city bus. Fuel consumption during acceleration is significantly affected by driving behavior. In this study, 13 characteristic parameters were selected to describe driving style based on analysis of how driving influences fuel consumption during acceleration. The 100,000 km real-world vehicle running data of six drivers on three city buses in a particular bus line in Tianjin, China were sampled using a vehicle-on-line data logger. Based on the selected characteristic parameters and collected driving data, an evaluation model of the fuel consumption level of a driver was established by adopting the method of decision tree C4.5. For two-level classification, the model has over 85% prediction accuracy. The model also has the advantages of having a few training samples and strong generalization. As an example of the model application, the fuel-saving potential of a driver under optimal operations was analyzed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1903
Thomas Juergen Boehme, Tobias Sehnke, Matthias Schultalbers, Torsten Jeinsch
Abstract In this paper an energy management is proposed which is optimal to certain driving scenarios which can be clustered into freeway, rural and urban situations. This strategy is non-predictive but uses information about the current driving situation provided by modern navigation systems to identify the current road type. Based on this information a set of simplified optimal control problems are solved offline via an indirect shooting algorithm. By relaxation of the problem formulation, the solutions of these optimal control problems can be stored into easily implementable maps. The energy management control is then determined from these maps during vehicle operation using the current road type, the vehicle speed and the required wheel-torque. The strategy is implemented in a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and validated on a near mass-production vehicle. The proposed methodology has shown fuel savings on a real world drive cycle.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0444
Yinghao Huang, Wenduo Wang, Chen Fang, Yi Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar
A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0879
Jan-Mou Li, David Smith
Abstract Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0881
Mitsuru Enomoto, Michiko Kakinuma, Nobuhito Kato, Haruo Ishikawa, Yuichiro Hirose
Abstract Design work for truck suspension systems requires multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameters that cannot be solved in a simple way. This paper proposes a process-based systematization concept for ride comfort design using a set-based design method. A truck was modeled with a minimum of 13 degrees of freedom, and suspension performance under various vehicle speeds, road surface conditions, and load amounts was calculated. The range of design parameters for the suspension, the range of performance requirements, and the optimal values within these ranges were defined based on the knowledge and know-how of experienced design engineers. The final design of the suspension was installed in a prototype truck and evaluated. The performance of the truck satisfied all the objectives and the effectiveness of the set-based design approach was confirmed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0875
Mark William Arndt
Abstract The current certification requirements under CFR 49, Part 567 state that GVWR of a motor vehicle shall not be less than the sum of the unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo weight and 150 pounds times the number of designated seating positions. Actual occupant weight distributions versus certified weight per occupant seat causes a potential conflict between a vehicle's in-use weights versus its certified GVWR. Population weight distributions were developed based upon The Center for Disease Control's (CDC) publication of 2007 - 2010 anthropometric reference data and publically available weights of a special population from high school football teams. For five buses from small (18-seat) to large (55-seat), key parameters were measured.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0877
Prasad Kumbhar, Ning Li, Peijun Xu, James Yang
In vehicle driving environment, the driver is subjected to the vibrations in horizontal, vertical, and fore-aft directions. The human body is very much sensitive to whole body vibration and this vibration transmission to the body depends upon various factors including road irregularities, vehicle suspension, vehicle dynamics, tires, seat design and the human body's properties. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters which include spring stiffness and damping of seat suspension and cushion. In this paper, an optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameters for seat suspension, and cushion based on minimizing occupant's body fatigue (occupant body absorbed power). A 14-degree of freedom (DOF) multibody biodynamic human model in 2D is selected from literature to assess three types of seat arrangements.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0695
Mingyu Wang, Debashis Ghosh, Edward Wolfe, Kuo-huey Chen, Jeffrey Bozeman
Abstract Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems are designed to cool the entire cabin to provide passenger comfort. Localized cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by creating a micro climate around the passenger. Such a system also easily adapts to the number of passengers in the car and enables zonal control. The net impact of the localized cooling is that equivalent comfort can be achieved at reduced HVAC energy consumption rate. The present paper reports on a vehicle implementation of localized cooling using Thermoelectric Devices and the resulting energy saving.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0078
Rama Subbu, Baskar Anthony Samy, Piyush mani Sharma
Abstract Fierce competition in India's motorcycle industry has led to constant product innovation among manufacturers. This has resulted in the reduction of the lifecycle of the vehicle and has driven the manufacturers to alter the product design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continued to challenge motorcycle designers is ride comfort in vertical and longitudinal direction. An essential tool in the motorcycle development process is the ability to quantify and grade the ride comfort behavior. This is performed either through subjective or objective tests. Subjective tests have the disadvantage that numerous factors influence test drivers' opinion while objective measures have the advantage of repeatability.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0686
Mingyu Wang, Edward Wolfe, Debashis Ghosh, Jeffrey Bozeman, Kuo-huey Chen, Taeyoung Han, Hui Zhang, Edward Arens
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems condition the entire cabin to a comfortable range of temperature and humidity regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. The A/C system is designed to have enough capacity to provide comfort for transient periods when cooling down a soaked car. Similarly for heating, the entire cabin is typically warmed up to achieve comfort. Localized heating and cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by forming a micro climate around the passenger. This is more energy efficient since the system only needs to cool the person instead of the entire cabin space and cabin thermal mass. It also provides accelerated comfort for the passenger during the cooling down periods of soaked cars. Additionally, the system adapts to the number of passengers in the car, so as to not purposely condition areas that are not occupied.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0086
Masashi Tsushima, Eiichi Kitahara, Taichi Shiiba, Takumi Motosugi
The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0148
Ibrahim A. Badiru
The automotive industry is one of the most competitive enterprises in the world. Customers face an ever-expanding number of entries in each market segment vying for their business. Sales price, brand image, marketing, etc. all play a role in purchase decisions, but the factor distinguishing products that consistently perform in the market place is the ability to satisfy the customer. Steering character plays a critical role in the customer driving experience and can be one of the most heavily debated topics during a new vehicle program. The proliferation of EPS steering systems now allows engineers to calibrate steering feel to almost any desired specification. This raises a key question: What subjective & objective characteristics satisfy customers in a particular market segment?
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0463
Clive D'Souza
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0460
Chuqi Su, Zhengzhong Chu
Driving comfort is one of the most important indexes for automobile comfort. Driving posture comfort is closely related to the drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In present research, a new method is proposed to identify the most comfortable driving posture based on studying the relation between drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In order to truly reflect a driving situation, the accurate human driving model of 50 percent of the size of Chinese male is established according to the human body database of RAMSIS firstly. Biomechanical model based on accurate human driving model is also developed to analyze and obtain dynamic equations of human driving model by employing Kane method. The joint torque-angle curves of drivers' upper and lower limbs during holding wheel or pedal operation can be obtained through dynamic simulation in the MATLAB. Through curve-fitting analysis, the minimum joint torque of a driver' limb and the optimal joint angel can be found.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1980
Vincent Laurent, Christophe Then, Gerhard Silber
Comfort is a main factor in customer's decision when buying a car. The seat plays a very important role, as it is the interface between occupant and vehicle. Pressure distribution is today's most common approach to characterize seat comfort, but it shows limitations. Analysis of human inter-tissue stress tends to be relevant for an objective comfort assessment. This paper presents the construction and validation of a CAE human model, based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans and in-vivo tests data. Correlation between objective criteria and subjective evaluation will be investigated, comfort performance of a real seat will be predicted.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0484
Bryan Randles, Daniel Voss, Isaac Ikram, Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher, Thomas Szabo
Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle. This study was undertaken to analyze the kinematic response of various vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions while idling, with the transmissions in drive and the brake pedals disengaged. An array of sedans, SUV's and pickup trucks were tested under 3 roadway conditions (flat, medium slope and high slope). The vehicle responses are reported and mathematical relationships were developed to model the idle velocity profiles for flat and sloped roadway surfaces.
2014-03-31
Standard
J2972_201403
This Information Report contains a definition of road vehicle hands-free operation. This definition applies to driver inputs to a wireless communications device used for person-to-person wireless communications while driving. This report applies to both original equipment manufacturers’ and aftermarket devices. The definition does not apply to outputs, e.g., visual or haptic feedback, from a communication system or device, regardless of the modality of human-machine interface. It also does not apply to parallel or redundant manual control operating modes.
2014-03-25
Article
The company is continuing to develop foundation tools for future autonomous driving by advancing the fundamentals of sensing, planning, and then acting to guide vehicle response. Mimicking a human-like response is requiring new algorithm and systems engineering that better exploits existing sensors.
2014-03-24
Technical Paper
2014-01-2006
Peerapat Phondeenana, Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanya Klongnaivai, Nuksit Noomwongs, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Driver behavior is one of the most important factors in safe mobility. In general, various driver maneuvers can be determined from acceleration of the vehicle. Physically, the acceleration and brake can be detected with longitudinal acceleration while turning and lane change can be detected with lateral acceleration. Normally, IMU (inertia measurement unit) has been designated to get these data. However, the IMU is not convenience to install in the vehicles especially as aftermarket parts. Nowadays, navigation system technologies have been much improved, both on availability and accuracy with combination of multiple navigation satellite systems. Normally, it's called Multi-GNSS (multiple global navigation satellite system). In particular, the satellite navigation systems available in this work are GPS, GLONASS, and QZSS. With decimeter precision and the update rate scale up to 10-Hz, the GNSS can be a viable alternative for driver behavior detection.
2014-03-21
Magazine
Downsizing: the heat is off Ian Adcock discovers why a material developed in the nuclear industry could prove a real boon for OEMs as they look to downsize engines. Lightweight champions Could an alloy with the strength of steel, but as light as aluminium, prove to be a game changer for the automotive industry? Ian Adcock investigates. Road fatalities: eliminating the human factor In a new series on vehicle safety, Ian Adcock looks at the need for more driver intervention systems.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 5814

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