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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kasiraja Thangapandian, Kumaran Bharatheedasan, Binoy Melatt Vythakkatt
With ongoing integration of various systems in the Vehicle, the usage of display unit is increasing day-by day. The necessity to access data, stored on a remote system, via a human machine interface (HMI) is growing and also the need for developing a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in an efficient manner. The customer/user request to view or browse the system via display is becoming more complex and it is very annoying for the customer/user to wait for a system reaction on his input to the local system for a longer time. With the above limitations we would need to develop the GUI for quick turnaround with high quality. In this paper we are about to discuss on the Model View Controller (MVC) architecture, platform based approach, modular approach based on Core - Server for GUI development, auto code generation, behavioral model simulation, reusable packages and various tools that are used in development of GUI. The selection process of GUI tools is now turning to be vital during the development phase.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Amardeep Sathyanarayana, Seyed Omid Sadjadi, John H. L. Hansen
Towards developing of advanced driver specific active/passive safety systems it is important to be able to continuously evaluate driving performance variations. These variations are best captured when evaluated against similar driving patterns or maneuvers. Hence, accurate maneuver recognition in the preliminary stage is vital for the evaluation of driving performance. Rather than using simulated or fixed test track data, it is important to collect and analyze on-road real-traffic naturalistic driving data to account for all possible driving variations in different maneuvers. Towards this, massive free style naturalistic driving data corpora are being collected. Human transcription of these massive corpora is not only a tedious task, but also subjective and hence prone to errors/inconsistencies which can be due to multiple transcribers as well as lack of enough training/instructions. These human transcription errors can potentially hinder the development of algorithms for advanced safety systems, and lead to performance degradations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yinghao Huang, Wenduo Wang, Chen Fang, Yi Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar
A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes. Correlation analyses of car-following data are ongoing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michael Flannagan, Mitsuhiro Uchida, John Michael Sullivan, Mary Lynn Buonarosa
This study was designed to investigate how the spectral power distribution (SPD) of LED headlamps (including correlated color temperature, CCT) affects both objective driving performance and subjective responses of drivers. The results of this study are not intended to be the only considerations used in choosing SPD, but rather to be used along with results on how SPD affects other considerations, including visibility and glare. Twenty-five subjects each drove 5 different headlamps on each of 5 experimental vehicles. Subjects included both males and females, in older (64 to 85) and younger (20 to 32) groups. The 5 headlamps included current tungsten-halogen (TH) and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, along with three experimental LED lamps, with CCTs of approximately 4500, 5500, and 6500 K. Driving was done at night on public roads, over a 21.5-km route that was selected to include a variety of road types. Vehicle instrumentation was used to derive the measures of objective driving performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Renaud Deborne, Skárlet Khouri Silva, Andras Kemeny
Abstract By the action on the steering wheel, the driver has the capability to control the trajectory of its vehicle. Nevertheless, the steering wheel has also the role of information provider to the driver. In particular, the torque level at the steering wheel informs the driver about the interaction between the vehicle and the road. This information flow is natural due to the mechanical chain between the road and the steering wheel. Many studies have shown that steering wheel torque feedback is crucial to ensure the control of the vehicle. In the context of uncoupled steering (steer-by-wire vehicle or driving simulators), the torque rendering on the steering wheel is a major challenge. In addition, of the trajectory control, the quality of this torque is a key for the immersion of drivers in virtual environment such as in driving simulators. The torque-rendering loop is composed of different steps. At first, a vehicle dynamics model computes the torque level at the steering wheel regarding the vehicle state (steering wheel position, vehicle speed, etc.).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti, Orlando Ippolito
Abstract General comfort may be defined as the “level of well-being” perceived by humans in a working environment. The state-of-the-art about evaluation of comfort/discomfort shows the need for an objective method to evaluate the “effect in the internal body” and “perceived effects” in main systems of comfort perception. In the early phases of automotive design, the seating and dashboard command can be virtually prototyped, and, using Digital Human Modeling (DHM) software, several kinds of interactions can me modeled to evaluate the ergonomics and comfort of designed solutions. Several studies demonstrated that DHM approaches are favorable in virtual reachability and usability tests as well as in macro-ergonomics evaluations, but they appear insufficient in terms of evaluating comfort. Comfort level is extremely difficult to detect and measure; in fact, it is affected by individual perceptions and always depends on the biomechanical, physiological, and psychological state of the tester during task execution.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ibrahim A. Badiru
The automotive industry is one of the most competitive enterprises in the world. Customers face an ever-expanding number of entries in each market segment vying for their business. Sales price, brand image, marketing, etc. all play a role in purchase decisions, but the factor distinguishing products that consistently perform in the market place is the ability to satisfy the customer. Steering character plays a critical role in the customer driving experience and can be one of the most heavily debated topics during a new vehicle program. The proliferation of EPS steering systems now allows engineers to calibrate steering feel to almost any desired specification. This raises a key question: What subjective & objective characteristics satisfy customers in a particular market segment? Answering this question requires continued research to develop objective metrics correlated to subjective steering attributes and increased understanding of customer preferences for objective performance parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Clive D'Souza
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time. To ensure safe, efficient and equitable access to the diverse spectrum of transit riders, transit system design needs approaches that transcend existing minimum federal accessibility design standards.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Dong-Hoon Lee, Heeran Lee, Dong Gyun Kim
Abstract Seating comfort is one of the most important indicators of the performance of automotive seats. The objective and subjective evaluation of seating comfort plays an important role in the development of seating systems. Objective methods are primarily based on evaluating the influence of vibrations on the driver's seat and assessing the seat pressure ratio. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the comfort of two car seats (sedan and compact) by comparing a subjective technique with an objective technique like body pressure ratio for a sample of 12 subjects. The results show that the pressure ratio for IT (ischial tuberosity) and L4/L5 were significantly greater for the seat of a compact car than the seat of a sedan car. The subjective comfort was significantly greater for the seat of the sedan car and females than the seat of the compact car and males, respectively. The combination of valid objective measures with subjective ratings of comfort and discomfort may give information of use to seat designers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chuqi Su, Zhengzhong Chu
Driving comfort is one of the most important indexes for automobile comfort. Driving posture comfort is closely related to the drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In present research, a new method is proposed to identify the most comfortable driving posture based on studying the relation between drivers' joint angles and joint torques. In order to truly reflect a driving situation, the accurate human driving model of 50 percent of the size of Chinese male is established according to the human body database of RAMSIS firstly. Biomechanical model based on accurate human driving model is also developed to analyze and obtain dynamic equations of human driving model by employing Kane method. The joint torque-angle curves of drivers' upper and lower limbs during holding wheel or pedal operation can be obtained through dynamic simulation in the MATLAB. Through curve-fitting analysis, the minimum joint torque of a driver' limb and the optimal joint angel can be found. As an important reference, these parameters can be used to optimize driving seat structure and offer an important support for the optimization of cab package.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Scott Allen Ziolek
Abstract Seat comfort is an important factor in the development of a vehicle; however, comfort can be measured in many ways. Many aspects of the experimental design such as the duration of the drive test, the questions asked, and the make-up of the test subjects are known to influence comfort results. This paper provides the background methodology and results of a Seat comfort study aimed at assessing long-term driving seat comfort.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Brian Pinkelman
Abstract Experience tells us that one can develop a technically comfortable seat where the seat fits and supports the occupant. The pressure distribution is optimized and the seat and packaging are such that a good posture is attainable by many. The dynamic characteristics of the seat and the vehicle are technically good. Despite all this the customer is not satisfied. Despite it being a technically comfortable seat, it does meet the customers' expectations and/or priorities and thus the comfort provided is lacking. This paper seeks to explore that gap between the seat and the user by modeling comfort using techniques similar to those found in the social sciences where models often focus on user or individual behavior. The model is built upon but diverges from the Cobb Douglas consumer utility model found in economics. It is presented as theory and presents a very different perspective on comfort. The model should be used not as a replacement but a complement to the more traditional technical models of comfort that model the seat.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Prasad Kumbhar, Ning Li, Peijun Xu, James Yang
In vehicle driving environment, the driver is subjected to the vibrations in horizontal, vertical, and fore-aft directions. The human body is very much sensitive to whole body vibration and this vibration transmission to the body depends upon various factors including road irregularities, vehicle suspension, vehicle dynamics, tires, seat design and the human body's properties. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters which include spring stiffness and damping of seat suspension and cushion. In this paper, an optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameters for seat suspension, and cushion based on minimizing occupant's body fatigue (occupant body absorbed power). A 14-degree of freedom (DOF) multibody biodynamic human model in 2D is selected from literature to assess three types of seat arrangements. The human model has total mass of 71.32 kg with 5 body segments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mingyu Wang, Edward Wolfe, Debashis Ghosh, Jeffrey Bozeman, Kuo-huey Chen, Taeyoung Han, Hui Zhang, Edward Arens
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems condition the entire cabin to a comfortable range of temperature and humidity regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. The A/C system is designed to have enough capacity to provide comfort for transient periods when cooling down a soaked car. Similarly for heating, the entire cabin is typically warmed up to achieve comfort. Localized heating and cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by forming a micro climate around the passenger. This is more energy efficient since the system only needs to cool the person instead of the entire cabin space and cabin thermal mass. It also provides accelerated comfort for the passenger during the cooling down periods of soaked cars. Additionally, the system adapts to the number of passengers in the car, so as to not purposely condition areas that are not occupied. The present paper reports on a fundamental study of localized cooling to achieve comfort in a vehicle environment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vincent Laurent, Christophe Then, Gerhard Silber
Comfort is a main factor in customer's decision when buying a car. The seat plays a very important role, as it is the interface between occupant and vehicle. Pressure distribution is today's most common approach to characterize seat comfort, but it shows limitations. Analysis of human inter-tissue stress tends to be relevant for an objective comfort assessment. This paper presents the construction and validation of a CAE human model, based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans and in-vivo tests data. Correlation between objective criteria and subjective evaluation will be investigated, comfort performance of a real seat will be predicted.
Collection
2014-04-01
As information and entertainment to and from the vehicle (Telematics) become more prolific it is critical to increase our understanding of how the driver understands and uses Telematics functions. Equally critical is how those functions impact the driver. The papers in this technical paper collection will address these issues.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lee Carr, Dan Barnes, Jennifer Crimeni
Abstract Prior to the widespread implementation of ABS brake technology in light vehicles, driver training often included instruction to “pump the brakes” to avoid locking the wheels. Many driver education programs now recommend maintaining high brake pedal force and relying on ABS. It is sometimes asserted that drivers desiring to stop a vehicle quickly still “pump the brakes”. Investigators sought to understand whether drivers desiring to decelerate quickly pump the brakes, especially in a way that may deplete the vacuum stored in a vehicle's brake booster if so equipped, or whether they apply the brakes in a manner corresponding to their desired deceleration. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a testing program to examine driver braking behavior in crash avoidance maneuvers. The data for those 245 test runs were reanalyzed, assessing patterns of brake pedal force application to determine whether pedal force variation was sufficient in magnitude and duration to reflect driver intent.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rudolf Mortimer, Errol Hoffmann, Aaron Kiefer
Abstract Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred. Topics of special importance for nighttime analysis include perception-reaction time (PRT), sensation, attention, distraction, and expectation, all of which are strongly influenced by limited levels of lighting.
Standard
2014-03-31
This Information Report contains a definition of road vehicle hands-free operation. This definition applies to driver inputs to a wireless communications device used for person-to-person wireless communications while driving. This report applies to both original equipment manufacturers’ and aftermarket devices. The definition does not apply to outputs, e.g., visual or haptic feedback, from a communication system or device, regardless of the modality of human-machine interface. It also does not apply to parallel or redundant manual control operating modes.
Article
2014-03-25
The company is continuing to develop foundation tools for future autonomous driving by advancing the fundamentals of sensing, planning, and then acting to guide vehicle response. Mimicking a human-like response is requiring new algorithm and systems engineering that better exploits existing sensors.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Peerapat Phondeenana, Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanya Klongnaivai, Nuksit Noomwongs, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Driver behavior is one of the most important factors in safe mobility. In general, various driver maneuvers can be determined from acceleration of the vehicle. Physically, the acceleration and brake can be detected with longitudinal acceleration while turning and lane change can be detected with lateral acceleration. Normally, IMU (inertia measurement unit) has been designated to get these data. However, the IMU is not convenience to install in the vehicles especially as aftermarket parts. Nowadays, navigation system technologies have been much improved, both on availability and accuracy with combination of multiple navigation satellite systems. Normally, it's called Multi-GNSS (multiple global navigation satellite system). In particular, the satellite navigation systems available in this work are GPS, GLONASS, and QZSS. With decimeter precision and the update rate scale up to 10-Hz, the GNSS can be a viable alternative for driver behavior detection. In previous studies, it was found that dangerous behaviors such as aggressive lane change required decimeter accuracy from GNSS.
Magazine
2014-03-21
Downsizing: the heat is off Ian Adcock discovers why a material developed in the nuclear industry could prove a real boon for OEMs as they look to downsize engines. Lightweight champions Could an alloy with the strength of steel, but as light as aluminium, prove to be a game changer for the automotive industry? Ian Adcock investigates. Road fatalities: eliminating the human factor In a new series on vehicle safety, Ian Adcock looks at the need for more driver intervention systems.
Article
2014-03-19
Ford is using a highly engineered lens with 16 precision optical surfaces and 80 facets in the upcoming 2015 F-150's headlamp to re-create as much as possible a daytime quality of light after the sun goes down. The automaker says no other light-duty pickup truck on the road today uses LED headlamps.
Article
2014-03-19
Amid its recall of 1.62 million vehicles for faulty ignition switches, linked to 12 fatalities, General Motors Co. on March 18 announced the creation of a new position, Vice President, Global Vehicle Safety.
Article
2014-03-19
J2601 and J2799 spell out pressure levels and other parameters for hydrogen fueling, helping pave the way for commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles.
Article
2014-03-11
When electronic systems take control of an autonomous car, they need to perform perfectly every time. That’s prompting developers to build fault tolerance into systems.
Article
2014-03-10
Changes in networking are likely to occur as safety systems are linked together to further reduce accidents and pave the way for autonomous driving. Many developers feel that the bandwidth of CAN (Controller Area Network) systems won’t meet emerging demands, so they’re moving toward Ethernet and FlexRay.
Article
2014-03-10
Engineers at NASCAR's Research & Development Center in Concord, NC, recently performed three separate window net and window net mounting tests and used them to design an improved window net mounting system for the 2013 season.
Article
2014-03-10
The continued use of composite materials in aerospace has revealed other challenges that need to be addressed while the solutions to material and manufacturing cost are reduced. Before the widespread use of the material in transportation vehicles can be realized, safety challenges surrounding the material must be addressed.
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