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Viewing 91 to 120 of 6139
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
Field tests were conducted on a late full sized sedan with the HVAC unit operating in both Recirculation and OSA modes to monitor build-up of the CO2 concentration inside the cabin and its influence on occupant’s fatigue and alertness. These tests were conducted during 2015 summer on interstate highways with test durations ranging from 4 to 7 hours. During the above tests, fatigue or tiredness of the occupants (including CO2 levels) was monitored and recorded at 30 min intervals. Based on this investigation it is determined that the measured cabin concentration levels reaches ASHRAE (Standard 62-1999) specified magnitudes (greater than 700 ppm over ambient levels) with three occupants in the vehicle. Further, the occupants did show fatigue when the HVAC unit was operated in recirculation mode in excess of 5 hours. Further details have been presented in the paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0246
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract Vehicle occupants, unlike building occupants, are exposed to continuously varying, non-uniform solar heat load. Automotive manufacturers use photovoltaic cells based solar sensor to measure intensity and direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Use of the time of the day and the position - latitude and longitude - of a vehicle is also common to calculate direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Two angles - azimuth and elevation - are used to completely define the direction of solar radiation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system. Although the use of solar sensor is common in today’s vehicles, the solar heat load on the occupants, because of their exposure to the direct-beam solar radiation remains the area of in-car subjective evaluation and tuning. Since the solar rays travel in parallel paths, application of the ray tracing method to determine solar insolation of the vehicle occupants is possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1248
Brian Magnuson, Michael Ryan Mallory, Brian Fabien, Ajay Gowda
Abstract This study investigates using driver prediction to anticipate energy usage over a 160-meter look-ahead distance for a series, plug-in, hybrid-electric vehicle to improve conventional thermostatic powertrain control. Driver prediction algorithms utilize a hidden Markov model to predict route and a regression tree to predict speed over the route. Anticipated energy consumption is calculated by integrating force vectors over the look-ahead distance using the predicted incline slope and vehicle speed. Thermostatic powertrain control is improved by supplementing energy produced by the series generator with regenerative braking during events where anticipated energy consumption is negative, typically associated with declines or decelerations.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0466
Daan Roethof, Tarik Sezer, Mustafa Ali Arat, Barys Shyrokau
Research of the past century has demonstrated that wheel camber regulation provides great potential to improve vehicle safety and performance. This led to the development of various prototypes of the camber mechanisms over the last decade. An overview of the existing prototypes is discussed in the presented paper. Most of the investigations related to camber control cover open-loop maneuvers to evaluate a vehicle response. However, a driver’s perception and his reaction can be the most critical factor during vehicle operation. Therefore, the research goal of the presented study is to assess an influence of active camber control on steering feel and driving performance using a driving simulator. In the proposed investigation, a dSPACE ASM vehicle model has been extended by introducing advanced models of steering system and active camber regulation. The steering system describes dynamics of steering components (upper and lower columns, torsion bar, steering rack and others).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0462
Chunlei Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Konghui Guo, Fangwu Ma, Dong Chen
Abstract With the development of the advanced driver assistance system and autonomous vehicle techniques, a precise description of the driver’s steering behavior with mathematical models has attracted a great attention. However, the driver’s steering maneuver demonstrates the stochastic characteristic due to a series of complex and uncertain factors, such as the weather, road, and driver’s physiological and psychological limits, generating negative effects on the performance of the vehicle or the driver assistance system. Hence, this paper explores the stochastic characteristic of driver’s steering behavior and a novel steering controller considering this stochastic characteristic is proposed based on stochastic model predictive control (SMPC). Firstly, a search algorithm is derived to describe the driver’s road preview behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0456
Zhaozhong Zhang, Dongpu Cao
Abstract One main objective is to find out how these parameters interact and optimal driver control gain and driver preview time are obtained. Some steps further, neuromuscular dynamics is considered and the system becomes different from the simplified driver-vehicle system studied before. New optimal driver control gain and driver preview time could be obtained for both tensed and relaxed muscle state. Final step aims at analysing the full system considering driver, neuromuscular, steer-by-wire and vehicle models. The steer-by-wire system could potentially have a significant influence on the vehicle when the driver is at impaired state, which could be represented by setting higher response delay time or smaller preview time. Vehicle's stability and active safety could also be improved by introducing the steer-by-wire system.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0461
Wenfei Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Abstract This paper proposes a new braking torque distribution strategy for electric vehicles equipped with a hybrid hydraulic braking and regenerative braking system. The braking torque distribution strategy is proposed based on the required braking torque and the regenerative braking system’s status. To get the required braking torque, a new strategy is designed based on the road conditions and driver's braking intentions. Through the estimated road surface, a robust wheel slip controller is designed to calculate the overall maximum braking torque required for the anti-lock braking system (ABS) under this road condition. Driver's braking intentions are classified as the emergency braking and the normal braking. In the case of emergency braking, the required braking torque is to be equal to the overall maximum braking torque. In the case of normal braking, the command braking torque is proportional to the pedal stroke.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0523
Lauren Abro
Abstract North American customer perception of Quality has changed over time and has shifted from Quality, Dependability, and Reliability (QDR) to Interior Sensory Quality (ISQ). ISQ is defined as the harmony of characteristics that combine to make an emotional connection to the vehicles’ interior. Vehicles need to correctly appeal to customers emotional side through providing class-leading ISQ. Hypotheses for specific interior areas were developed in order to identify key ISQ strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. These hypotheses were then tested at customer clinics held across the country. The key goals were to understand customer judgment of ISQ execution, understand customer ISQ priority, and understand customer preference of detailed component areas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0509
Salah H. R. Ali, Sarwat Z. A. Zahwi, Mai S. Mabrok, Badr S. N. Azzam
Abstract Due to the accidents of the motor vehicles and the osteoporosis, many people enface a lot of troubles and sometimes necessities for replacement of their knee joints. Practically, mechanical properties and surface characteristics of Total Knee Replacement (TKR) are very important parameters for improving the performance response in human. The meniscus is a small element and an essential part of the TKR. The knee meniscus has special feature allows the easy dynamic loading and motion of leg and foot with high accuracy and good balance. Therefore design and analysis of the geometrical shape for the meniscus replacement is worthy to be studied. In this paper, a proposed design using a computer software package has been presented. 3D simulation analyses of a variety of meniscus thickness and different materials under different loads are investigated. The compression stresses and surfaces deformations are determined numerically through the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1546
Dongpil Lee, Bongchoon Jang, Kyongsu Yi, Sehyun Chang, Byungrim Lee
Abstract This paper describes a reference steering feel tracking algorithm for Electric-Power-Steering (EPS) system. Development of the EPS system with intended steering feel has been time-consuming procedure, because the feedforward map-based method has been applied to the conventional EPS system. However, in this study, a three-dimensional reference steering feel surface, which is determined from current vehicle states, is proposed. In order to track the proposed reference steering feel surface, sliding mode approach is applied to second-order steering dynamics model considering a coulomb friction model. An adaptive technique is utilized for robustness against uncertainties. In order to validate the proposed EPS control algorithm, hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) has been conducted with respect to a typical steering test. It is shown that the reference steering feel is realized well by the proposed EPS control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1559
Francesco Vinattieri, Tim Wright, Renzo Capitani, Claudio Annicchiarico, Giacomo Danisi
Abstract The adoption of Electrical Power Steering (EPS) systems has greatly opened up the possibilities to control the steering wheel torque, which is a critical parameter in the subjective and objective evaluation of a new vehicle. Therefore, the tuning of the EPS controller is not only becoming increasing complicated, containing dozens of parameters and maps, but it is crucial in defining the basic DNA of the steering feeling characteristics. The largely subjective nature of the steering feeling assessment means that EPS tuning consists primarily of subjective tests on running prototypes. On account of that, this paper presents an alternative test bench for steering feeling simulation and evaluation. It combines a static driving simulator with a physical EPS assisted steering rack. The end goal is to more accurately reproduce the tactile feedback to the driver by including a physical hardware in lieu of complicated and difficult to obtain software models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1158
Toshiaki Watanabe, Masaya Ishida
Abstract Wireless charging systems for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) employing the resonant magnetic coupling method and using induction coils have been intensively studied in recent years. Since this method requires kW class high power to be transmitted using resonant magnetic coupling in the high frequency range, it is necessary to pay attention to the leakage of the magnetic field generated by the coil current, and to its influence on surrounding objects, particularly human bodies. Noting that acceptable values for human body exposure to electromagnetic fields have previously been issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) as guidelines, we have developed a method for predicting product compliance with those guidelines at the basic design development stage.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Abstract Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. As postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) differ in anthropometry across subjects, it is believed that the biofidelity of PFEM cannot be properly evaluated by comparing a generic anthropometry model against the specific PMHS test data. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of morphed PFEM compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the kinematics against PMHS test results. The AM50 THUMS PFEM (v4.01) was used as a baseline for anthropometry, and personalized PFEM were created to the anthropometric specifications of two obese PMHS used in a previous pedestrian impact study using a mid-size sedan.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1507
Jisi Tang, Qing Zhou, Bingbing Nie, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Yuichi Kitagawa
Abstract Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
2016-04-01
Magazine
Electronic Warfare Next Generation FPGAs for Electronic Warfare Systems Materials: Composites Managing the Impact of Nanomaterials in Aerospace Manufacturing Aerospace Materials/Manufacturing Turbine Flow Meters Alternative Power Sources Designing a Power Generation System for a More-Electric Aircraft
2016-03-27
Article
Self-driving car project CEO John Krafcik discussed Google's work underway toward fully autonomous vehicles, at a recent NY forum. First likely market: the elderly and impaired.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1737
Thitsadee Ngernsukphaiboon, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana, Nuksit Noomwongs, Angkee Sripakagorn, Solaphat Hemrungrojn MD
Abstract The world is aging rapidly. Many countries can already be categorized as aging or aged societies while a few are becoming super-aged societies. In Thailand as well as in other countries, traffic accidents caused by elderly drivers will continue to rise as a significant percentage of elderly people still prefer to drive. Accidents may be prevented with driving tests and screening methods for elderly drivers. However, it is also necessary to understand the effect of aging on driving ability. With this understanding, driver training, driver assistant systems, and improvements on infrastructure may be designed accordingly. Among various physical changes, cognitive ability of the brain is one of the most significant factors affecting driving ability. In this paper, correlation between various cognitive functions of the brain and car following skill of drivers are considered.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1738
Natt Winitthumkul, Peerapat Phondeenana, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract According to the recent study, Thailand has the 2nd most dangerous road in the world. Based on many researches, the driver is the main influencers of the traffic fatalities. Since the more dangerous the driver drive, the more chance of accident become. Therefore, driver’s monitoring system become one of the solutions that acceptable and reliable, especially for fleet management and public transportation. This paper’s goal is to find an algorithm that can distinguish driving behaviour based on cars’ acceleration and velocity, calling it as Risk Driving Score (RDS). The algorithm was tested by driving test by volunteers on highways with observers, who were told to rank the drivers in terms of driving risk from the 1-5 point. Meanwhile, the drivers were asked to drive in 3 different styles, normal, safety, and hurry. All drives were recorded by satellite and video data then filtered and used for the algorithm calculation.
2016-03-25
WIP Standard
AIR5661A
This report provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
2016-03-12
Article
The standard German taxi cab, now entering its 10th generation, is 80% ready for autonomous driving on the autobahn, according to its chief engineer.
2016-03-11
Standard
J287_201603
This recommended practice describes boundaries of hand control locations that can be reached by a percentage of different US driver populations in passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, and light trucks (Class A vehicles). This practice is not applicable to heavy trucks (Class B vehicles).
2016-03-09
WIP Standard
ARP5021B
This document provides guidance for oxygen cylinder installation on commercial aircraft based on rules and methods practiced in aerospace industry and applicable in other associations. It covers considerations for oxygen systems from beginning of project phase up to production, maintenance, and servicing. The document is focused on requirements regarding DOT approved oxygen cylinders. However, its basic rules may also be applicable to new development pertaining to use of such equipment in an oxygen environment. For information regarding oxygen cylinders itself, reference should be made to AIR825/12 also.
2016-03-08
WIP Standard
AIR5742A
The scope of this document is related to the particular needs of oxygen equipment with regards to packaging and transportation. The document provides guidance for handling chemical, gaseous and liquid oxygen equipment. It summarizes national and international regulations to be taken into account for transportation on land, sea and air and provides information on classification of hazardous material. The aim of this document is to summarize information on packaging and transportation of oxygen equipment. Statements and references to regulations cited herein are for information only and should not be considered as interpretation of a law. Processes to maintain cleanliness of components and subassemblies during processing and assembly or storage of work-in-progress are outside the scope of this document.
2016-03-06
Article
Dana Holding Corp.’s Spicer Smart Suite technology is a platform of fully integrated, connected-vehicle features that converts operating data from the drivetrain into actionable insights for enhancing productivity, improving operator and machine safety and reducing total operating costs.
2016-03-06
Article
ZF TRW has enhanced the capabilities of its electronic stability control (ESC) system—in addition to its wide range of advanced braking functionality, the technology can act as a “black-box” integration hub, hosting software algorithms to control automated driving, safety, chassis and drivetrain functions.
2016-03-04
Article
The TMPV7602XBG image recognition processor from Toshiba America Electronic Components is suitable for monocular cameras used in advanced driver assistance systems and will help designers implement ADAS applications using a cost-optimized camera system with a small form factor.
2016-03-03
Magazine
Multi-material structures move mpg upward The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping. SAE 2016 World Congress Preview Technology trends and exhibitor products are highlighted in this special section, which features Toyota's plans for the show floor, tech sessions, and more.
2016-02-24
WIP Standard
ARP6901
Develop an Aerospace Recommended Practice that describes means of certification compliance for approval of passive rotorcraft engine/APU induction system ice protection (inadvertent and full icing).
2016-02-24
Standard
J3048_201602
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the implementation of driver-vehicle interfaces (DVI) for intervention-type lane keeping assistance systems (LKAS), as defined by ISO 11270. LKAS provide support for safe lane keeping operations by drivers via momentary intervention in lane keeping actions, but do not automate part or all of the dynamic driving task on a sustained basis (see SAE J3016). Thus they are not classified as a driving automation system per SAE J3016 - Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems, nor do they prevent possible lane or roadway departures, as drivers can always override an LKAS intervention and road conditions may be such that they cannot support an LKAS intervention (e.g., too slippery, curve to tight, lateral velocity too high, etc.).
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