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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1552
Renato Galluzzi, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Gabriele Curcuruto, Piero Conti, Giordano Greco, Andrea Nepote
The development of suspension systems has seen substantial improvements in the last years due to the use of variable dampers. In such solutions, the characteristic of active or semi-active devices is modified to meet desired constraints, such as comfort and road holding. Furthermore, the persisting goal of improving the efficiency of subsystems within the automotive chassis has favored the use of regenerative solutions, in which electric machines can be employed as generators to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated as heat during cyclic excitation. Although linear electric actuators seem a straight-forward choice in vehicle vibration damping, their limited force density leads to the implementation of rotary machines together with additional transmission mechanisms to convert angular displacements into linear ones and vice versa. Regenerative suspensions present different issues that limit their efficiency, being inertial stiffening and friction the most challenging ones.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
In 2010 more than 32,500 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile accidents, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane change crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane change crashes accounted for approximately 9%. In order to develop effective crash avoidance systems, we investigate incorporating driver response models to actuate the systems in a timely manner. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior as well as warning systems that are tuned to issue useful alerts that are not perceived as false, or nuisance, alerts by the driver. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of such driver behavior modeling. Several scenario events were designed to fill in gaps left by previous crash research.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (cobots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. Cobots, unlike traditional robots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although cobots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of ‘cobots’. The framework consists of the system level, workcell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hrs to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0462
Chunlei Wang, Xinjie Zhang, Konghui Guo, Fangwu Ma, Dong Chen
With the development of the advanced driver assistance system and autonomous vehicle techniques, a precise description of the driver’s steering behavior with mathematical models has attracted a great attention. However, the driver’s steering maneuver demonstrates the stochastic characteristic due to a series of complex and uncertain factors, such as the weather, road, and driver’s physiological and psychological limits, generating negative effects on the performance of the vehicle or the driver assistance system. Hence, this paper explores the stochastic characteristic of driver’s steering behavior and a novel steering controller considering this stochastic characteristic is proposed based on stochastic model predictive control (SMPC). Firstly, a search algorithm is derived to describe the driver’s road preview behavior.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0461
Wenfei Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
this paper proposes a new braking torque distribution strategy for electric vehicles equipped with a hybrid hydraulic braking and regenerative braking system. The braking torque distribution strategy is proposed based on the required braking torque and the regenerative braking system’s status. To get the required braking torque, a new strategy is designed based on the road conditions and driver's braking intentions. Through the estimated road surface, a robust wheel slip controller is designed to calculate the overall maximum braking torque required for the anti-lock braking system (ABS) under this road condition. Driver's braking intentions are classified as the emergency brake and the normal brake. In the case of emergency braking, the required braking torque is to be equal to the maximum braking torque. In the case of normal braking, the normal brake torque is proportional to pedal stroke.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0466
Daan Roethof, Tarik Sezer, Mustafa Ali Arat, Barys Shyrokau
The wheel-camber geometry holds considerable potential to improve vehicle safety and performance, which has led to the development of numerous unique camber mechanisms with active or self-regulating features over the last decade. An extended overview of these prototypes, as included in this report, reveals that most of the investigations employ so-called open-loop manoeuvres to evaluate the vehicle response excluding driver response. However, driver’s perception and his/her reaction is a crucial if not the most critical factor during vehicle operation. Therefore, the research goal of the presented study is to assess the influence of active camber control on steering feel and driving performance using a driving simulator. In the proposed investigation, the vehicle body dynamics are based on dSPACE ASM software and have been extended by comprehensive models of the steering and active camber regulation systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1553
Akihito Yamamoto, Wataru Tanaka, Takafumi Makino, Shunya Tanaka, Ken Tahara
In recent years, semi active suspension systems which are energy saving and low cost have already been adopted in various vehicles to improve ride comfort and vehicle controllability. At the same time, various reports have been published that examine the control laws for ride comfort using these systems. Controlling ride comfort with semi active suspension systems, it is necessary to estimate the suspension stroke velocity. There are researches of the observer using suspension stroke sensor and vertical acceleration sensor on sprung mass. However, there are researches of the observer using vertical acceleration sensor on un-sprung mass to develop the simple and low cost semi active suspension systems too. The study described in this paper aim to further enhance the estimation precision of the suspension stroke velocity using the vertical acceleration sensor on the un-sprung mass.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1304
Tadayoshi Fukushima, Hitoshi Takagi, Toshio Enomoto, Hiroyuki Sawada, Tomoyuki Kaneda
Interior noise caused by exterior air flow, or wind noise, is one of the noise-and-vibration phenomena for which a systematic simulation method has been desired for enabling their prediction. One of the main difficulties in simulating wind noise is that, unlike most other noises from the engine or road input, wind noise has not one but two different types of sources, namely, convective and acoustic ones. Therefore, in order to synthesize the interior sound pressure level (SPL), the body sensitivities (interior SPL/outer source level) for both types of sources have to be considered. In particular, sensitivity to the convective input has not been well understood, and hence it has not been determined. Moreover, the high-frequency nature of wind noise (e.g., the main energy range extends up to 4000 Hz) has limited the effective application of CAE for determining body sensitivities, for example, from the side window glass to the occupants’ears.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, in order to control test variables, the systems trade-off characteristics of real life rollovers, making it difficult to compare laboratory and real life tests. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTs vehicle tests were performed to judge the ability of DRoTs to match conditions measured during a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and some touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1725
Sitthiborn Chiawatda
The objective of a research is to investigate a suitable fuel injection strategy of a new ethanol combustion concept in compression ignition engine fueled with ethanol in compression ratio 18 for improving combustion efficiency and emission. The ethanol partially premixed combustion (EPPC) is found which to enhance the premixing combustion with low emission and high efficiency. The controlling EPPC is based on suitable lambda, strategy fuel injection and high pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation levels. The experimental investigations will be performed by varying the number of injections of each cycle, timing of the injections, the ratio between different injection pulses and the characteristic of combustion at low and full loads of engines. The results will show the combustion characteristic in terms of controllability, stability, emissions and efficiencies. Moreover, it is expected that the multi-injection strategy should be suitable for EPPC.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1727
G. Magendran
Differential thrust washers are conventionally manufactured by copper base alloy grades which is often used in axle systems. The thrust washer, which is mounted between differential housing and bevel gear which has a relative motion all the time and getting thrust load during the time of differential action taking place. Thrust washer capable of absorb all the thrust loads and should not be transferred to differential housing. Bevel gear will have relative motion against the thrust washer which required higher wear resistance properties on the surface. Geometry of the thrust washer doesn’t permit to manufacture through by high carbon steel which need high capacity of forging press and very expensive. So thrust washer manufactured by low carbon steel and these properties are achieved by carburization heat treatment and followed by gas nitriding process. We have developed thrust washer to meet thrust load and wear properties with optimized the material composition.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1726
Pranab Das
In-cylinder Stratification controlled HCCI combustion strategy is used in this present study to investigate combustion, cycle by cycle variation and emission behaviour of HCCI-DI combustion under various operating conditions. In this present study, 80% of the fuel was injected early during the suction stroke (Pilot injection fixed at 270 deg. bTDC) allowing sufficient time to form a lean homogeneous mixture. Rest of the fuel (20%) was injected near TDC (Main injection fixed at 20 deg. bTDC) to form a cloud of rich mixture to triggers the combustion. It was found that, at higher load when premixed equivalence ratio (caused due to early injected fuel) exceeds a threshold value, combustion phasing control becomes extremely difficult. In that situation, external EGR was supplied back to the engine to control combustion phasing of HCCI-DI combustion keeping a constant stratification level.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1728
Prateek Arora, Jyotirmoy Barman, Sumit arora, Munendra Parashar
In meeting the stringent emission norms the injector selection plays a vital role. Selection of optimum injection parameters helps in achieving good spray targeting and efficient atomization of fuel to generate optimum mixing effect. The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effect of injection parameters on a heavy duty diesel engine performance and emission characteristics. The injection parameters such as hydraulic through flow, cone angle, number of holes & hole diameter are studied on 6-cylinder turbocharged common rail diesel engine (BS-IV). The influence of these parameters and their combinations along with the various injection strategies are analyzed using different parametric variations in order to see the combustion and performance trend of engine. The performance of the various hardware configurations are then evaluated and discussed based on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission values.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1731
G. Magendran
Transmission quill gears are hot forged steel parts often used in constant mesh manual transmissions. The quill gear, which allows a drive shaft to shift its position either axially, radially, or both relative to its driving shaft. It’s having external teeth which is positively engaged with intermediate gear and sleeve which permits the required motion to drive shaft. Quill gear directly engaged with shift gears on outer surface and bearing in inner surface which needs to have high strength and durability. These properties can be improved by carburization heat treatment in existing design such processes can lead to increased costs. We have developed quill gear through powder metallurgical process and then cooled rapidly in the furnace to get high strength and wear properties with optimized the material composition and sintering conditions. Thus, we have succeeded in the development of quill gears via sinter hardening, thus eliminating the forging and second hardening process.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1730
Panuwat Kangkaya
The fossil fuel which propels to vehicle is limited, the emission regulations are intensive for aware an environment. Then, a reduction of fossil fuel and promote new technology of internal combustion engine is essential. Using alternative energy as ethanol from its benefit properties likewise; oxygenated fuel for more complete combustion and reduce emissions together with direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines are suitable. In this research, a DISI engine with wall-guided combustion system was investigated for stratified lean burn when fueled gasoline with ethanol. The condition in this experiment are controlled at constant of speed and loads which relies on general of engine operations in passenger vehicles. Performance, Fuel consumption, Emissions and Stability of combustion were measured at each surplus air-fuel ratio. The results showed that higher percentage of ethanol in gasoline obtained combustion more lean.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1732
Weicheng Huang
When the vehicle parks in direct sunlight conditions, the cabin will form a high-temperature thermal environment in hot weather. Drivers would turn on the air-conditioning with relatively high gear in the most conditions to reduce the cabin temperature, which could affect the life of equipment, resulting in energy waste and increasing emissions. This study adopted solar energy in the ventilation system. When the car parks the cabin blower was driven by a solar panel mounted on the car roof to discharge heat inside the cabin real time, achieving the purpose of pre-cooling. Firstly, heat transfer model and ventilation cooling model for the cabin were established according to the theory of heat transfer, and models were modified through experiments. Besides, the impact of ventilation flow rate on the pre-cooling effect was studied based on simulation analysis.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1736
Manida Tongroon, Amornpoth Suebwong, Mongkon Kananont, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated.z Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4x2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1724
Jyotirmoy Barman
In order to meet tightening emission regulations and increasing needs of lower fuel consumption and emissions, turbocharging is playing a vital role in internal combustion engine development. It is therefore possible to increase engine specific power output as well as reduce fuel consumption. Turbo matching is the critical and important parameter for turbocharging systems to an internal combustion engine plays an important role in engine development to meet stringent emission legislation and customer demands such as specific power output and fuel economy. Turbocharger matching is meant by selection of a compressor and turbine combination in order to meet the required boosting pertaining to prescribed band of engine operations. An effort is also done to optimize this combination. It’s expected that the compressor so chosen should offer maximum possible efficiency during crucial engine operation zones while engine running at full load.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1734
G. Magendran
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process.Generally the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1733
Jyotirmoy Barman, Sumit Arora, Rizwan Khan, Munendra Parashar
An efficient after treatment technique is driven by the need to maintain strict emission norms for heavy-duty and medium-duty ground vehicles. SCR being an advanced active emission technology system for diesel engine, is one of the most cost-effective and fuel-efficient technologies available for complying with the stringent NOx emission legislations. The design of the SCR system involves catalyst selection, complex controller development like urea dosing strategy and the interaction between engine setup and after treatment system. For this purpose, the SCR model must be computationally efficient to evaluate the complete efficiency along with to take care for the NH3 slip also. The SCR model was prepared with respect to SCR inlet temperature and ratio of NOx and ammonia to study the behavior of NOx conversion efficiency keeping consideration of NH3 slip also required for optimizing the calibration.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1735
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sonu Paroche, Sayak Mukherjee, Diwakar Ayyar, Umashanker Gupta
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs, hence the need for upgrading the Existing/Proven Integral Connecting Rod to Fracture Split Connecting Rod. This technique provides gains as weight reduction and consequently reducing noise and vibration due to the decrease of the oscillating mass from the system. Using the proposed fracture split connecting rod, it is estimated that cost savings of up to 10%, reduction in weight and better fatigue performance (25% - 30%) can be achieved. For this, we have used simulation tools to reduce number of physical tests and thereby achieving considerable reduction in design and development time and cost. High carbon alloy steel used for manufacturing Fracture Split connecting rod and it doesn't require additional heat treatment after hot forging.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1729
Prathan Srichai, Preechar Karin PhD, Chinda Chareonphonphanich PhD, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
Nowadays the model diesel engine is developed from unite pump to Common-rail injector. However, palm methyl ester is the most alternative fuel to replace commercial diesel. Due to palm Methyl ester as an alternative fuel has high viscosity and density than conventional diesel it may effect to injection characteristic. Injection pressure has been the important parameter of common rail injector such as the balance the pressure between command port and control volume to move a needle lift during injection process. This paper presents injection pressure characteristic of Solenoid injector in a Zeuch’s Chamber such as injection pressure drop, frequency of injection pressure. This experiment were selected test fuel diesel, palm Methyl ester various injection pressure 40, 80, 120 and 160 MPa and constant back pressure 4.5 MPa and energizing duration 0.5, 1, and 2.5 milliseconds in Zeuch’s Chamber. The injector diameter was used single-hole injector with diameter 140 Micron.
2016-02-05
Magazine
Off-highway hybrids: Opportunities and challenges With oil prices declining and emissions regulations in North America 'stabilized,' is there a place for hybrid powertrains in this new world of cheap oil? Looking for a better image Display advances are helping to reduce operator fatigue. Charging up electrified powertrains Control technologies race forward while batteries improve and adopt standard sizes. Measuring and accounting for suspension TARDEC teamed with SEA Ltd. to develop a system to measure the suspension parameters, center of gravity, and moments of inertia of wheeled vehicles in the never ending quest to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior. Looking at mobility in 2050 Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about the future of auto- and aero-mobility.
2016-02-04
WIP Standard
ARP6378
This document is intended to give guidance to users, regulators and persons in the aviation field who may be affected by the potential hazard of lasers aimed at aircraft by the general public. The potential hazards include startle (distraction, disruption, disorientation, and incapacitation), glare, flashblindness and eye injury. (Some information may also be useful for non-aviation users, such as persons driving vehicles. Additional information can be found in ANSI Z136.6, “Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors”.)
2016-02-03
Article
Britain has established a real-world test highway for connected and autonomous vehicle technologies. JLR is one of the companies investing in the 66-km-long R&D route.
2016-02-03
WIP Standard
ARP6377
Develop and propagate recommended practices for the design, development, testing and implementation of head worn displays in piloted airborne platforms
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0044
Ashish Rawat, Ashwinder Singh, Hardeep Singh, Deepak Sharma
Abstract India is a country of diversity. From North to South, east to west, one can find altogether different culture, religions, spoken languages, foods, weather conditions, people lifestyles, dressing styles etc. This vast diversity of India poses a great challenge in front of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, so as to assimilate all the requirements (of this big nation) in one single car (design). For example, many people in India wear turban (out of their religious beliefs or cultural heritage). So, is it required to keep enough consideration for Turban wearing population in vehicle design? Turban, unlike caps or hats, is something which is tied on the head (not just only kept). It is something which cannot be removed whenever required. So, it can somehow be considered as an integral part of body (as an added head dimension). So, it becomes all the more important to thoroughly understand this aspect & keep a consideration for the same in vehicle design.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0236
Manish Kumar, Jasbir Singh, Vikram Khanna
Abstract In the Indian Context, Fuel Economy of a vehicle is one of key elements while buying a Car. The fuel economy declared by OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) is one of the key indicators while assessing the fuel economy. However it is based on a standard driving cycle and evaluated under standard conditions as mandated by emission legislation. As the driving pattern has a major influence on fuel economy, the objective of this paper is to study real world driving patterns and to define a methodology to simulate a real world driving cycle. A case study was done on Delhi City, by running a fleet of vehicles in different traffic conditions. Thereafter data analysis like acceleration %, specific energy demand per distance, Acceleration vs. Vehicle Speed distribution etc. was done with the help of MATLAB. The final validation of cycle was done by comparing Lab results with on-road Fuel Economy data.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0223
Aneesh Paul, Rohan Chauhan, Rituraj Srivastava, Mriganka Baruah
This paper provides a detailed study of the recent developments in the field of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and researches in ADASs since last decade. The paper provides a survey on Cognitive cars and driver oriented intelligent vehicles and their motion, stimuli, reflex and response. The main objectives of the paper re the future advancements in ADASs, the response duration, user-compatibility and stimuli decision-action on driver as well as on the system side. "THE SOUL PURPOSE OF ADASs IS TO SUPPORT THE DRIVERS RATHER THAN TO REPLACE THEM". Keeping this into consideration, this paper addresses the major achievements and major difficulties in making Advanced Driver Assistance System to be incorporated in today’s automation. The paper describes the pros and cons on the modern day cognitive cars, its areas of improvement and further modifications. The paper also describes briefly about the driver safety when the ADASs is not implemented and modern day driving skills.
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