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Article
2014-05-13
Vehicular traffic deaths decline, but pedestrian fatalities unchanged. Proposed solutions range from greater use of roundabouts, new signaling, and vehicles with pedestrian detection and auto-braking. Some success found with driver and pedestrian education. "Vision Zero" program adopted in New York City.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
The number of elderly drivers is increasing in Japan and ensuring the safety of elderly drivers is becoming an important issue. The authors previously conducted an analysis of the characteristics of accidents and traffic violations by elderly drivers based on the number of accidents in which they were rear-ended. This method was used in order to exclude the influence of driving frequency. As a result of that analysis, it was found that the likelihood of violations committed by elderly drivers was not particularly higher than in other age groups, while the likelihood of accidents caused by them was higher. The risk of causing an accident was judged to be about two times higher in elderly drivers than in the 35-44 year age group. However, the methodology presupposed that collisions in which a driver is rear-ended are accidents that occur randomly, and that they occur with the same probability in each age group. To verify the results of that study, we attempted a new analytical method that uses the number of stop sign violations, which are considered to occur with the same probability among age groups, as an indicator of driving frequency in place of accidents in which a driver is hit from behind (rear-end collisions).
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Nikolina Samardzic
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for ‘average speech’ was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard. In this study, the HINT jury test measurements from a variety of background noise spectra and listening configurations of talker and listener are used in an effort to obtain a band importance function for the HINT, to potentially correlate the calculated SII scores with the measured speech intelligibility scores.
WIP Standard
2014-05-08
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) will provide general guidelines and procedures for servicing and maintaining oxygen systems. Such methods and procedures may be applied to gaseous, liquid, chemical and portable oxygen systems. These guidelines and recommendations will be provided to engineering and maintenance personnel for airlines, modification centers and third party maintenance contractors, to be used while performing maintenance on oxygen systems and components.
Article
2014-04-24
Airbus Helicopters Japan recently inaugurated Japan’s first full flight simulator (FFS) for helicopters at its facilities located in the Kobe Airport vicinity. The simulator is configured to represent Airbus Helicopters’ light twin-engine EC135 P2+ rotorcraft, and has received Level C certification from the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau.
Article
2014-04-24
With 76% high-strength and ultra-high-strength steel, larger welds, and extensive use of structural adhesives, the design is predicted to get top ratings from NHTSA and IIHS. Other highlights are a direct-injection 3.3-L V6, hands- and feet-free liftgate, and UVO infotainment with new eServices.
Article
2014-04-22
In part to improve safety performance of its vehicles and to enhance cross-system integration, General Motors is restructuring its global vehicle-engineering organization. It will now consist of two units: Global Product Integrity and Global Vehicle Components and Subsystems.
Article
2014-04-16
In the wake of its ignition switch recall, General Motors CEO Mary Barra has announced creation of a Global Product Integrity organization. Housed within the Global Production Development group, it will "build on the formula and specific actions we have taken in recent years to lead the industry in vehicle dynamics," Barra said at the 2014 New York International Auto Show.
Article
2014-04-14
The Visteon- and Cisco-developed OASIS (Optimized, Adaptable, Secure, Intelligent, Seamless) concept makes secure car-to-cloud communications the prerequisite for unlocking vehicle network connectivity-associated benefits.
Standard
2014-04-14
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
Standard
2014-04-14
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes design guidance and photometric values for adequate cargo compartment and cargo access lighting systems for ground handling. The adoption of a standard set of illuminance values, found appropriate for the performance of the task in specified areas should expedite ground handling.
Article
2014-04-10
With the large commercial van market continuing to grow, Mercedes-Benz continues to improve its Sprinter van to keep it the “best” in a crowded field.
Article
2014-04-10
The system uses specific Sport Mode algorithms with modules from the high-speed CAN data bus, including those for adaptive cruise control, forward facing camera, all-wheel drive, shift-by-wire, electric power steering, transmission, and powertrain.
Article
2014-04-10
Dangers from malware, including ransom demands, must be pro-actively avoided as industry and owners enter era of connected cars. For all their conveniences, telematics could pose ugly series of risks that will require new approaches to prevent, explains Cisco Systems scientist to SAE Congress attendees. Vulnerabilities are in many areas, including the OBD system.
Article
2014-04-05
According to Lord's Andrew J. Winzenz, companies wanting to compete in the industrial market must expand their expertise beyond components to system-level design.
Article
2014-04-03
A new occupant-protection technology from TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. has the passenger-seat airbag deploying from the headliner instead of the dashboard. It is being launched on the Citroën C4 Cactus.
Standard
2014-04-03
This SAE Aerospace Recommend Practice (ARP) is intended to identify both safety related best practices and unique design considerations of metal halides High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps and power supplies in aircraft applications.
WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This document provides guidance for in-flight rest facilities provided for use by cabin crew on commercial transport aircraft.. This document is applicable to dedicated cabin crew rest facilities. Passenger seats used to provide “cabin crew rest facilities” are not within the scope of this document.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Recommended Practice presents the general uses, limitations on use, and appearance of the safety alert symbol.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality,serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Article
2014-04-01
All new vehicles under 10,000 lb will be required to have rearview camera technology under a final rule issued March 28 by NHTSA (U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). The rule applies to vehicles ranging from passenger cars to trucks and buses (any vehicle under 10,000 lb) built on or after May 1, 2018.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Juergen Boehme, Tobias Sehnke, Matthias Schultalbers, Torsten Jeinsch
Abstract In this paper an energy management is proposed which is optimal to certain driving scenarios which can be clustered into freeway, rural and urban situations. This strategy is non-predictive but uses information about the current driving situation provided by modern navigation systems to identify the current road type. Based on this information a set of simplified optimal control problems are solved offline via an indirect shooting algorithm. By relaxation of the problem formulation, the solutions of these optimal control problems can be stored into easily implementable maps. The energy management control is then determined from these maps during vehicle operation using the current road type, the vehicle speed and the required wheel-torque. The strategy is implemented in a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and validated on a near mass-production vehicle. The proposed methodology has shown fuel savings on a real world drive cycle. Additionally, robustness aspects have been considered in a MATLAB/Simulink based simulation environment.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rama Subbu, Baskar Anthony Samy, Piyush mani Sharma
Abstract Fierce competition in India's motorcycle industry has led to constant product innovation among manufacturers. This has resulted in the reduction of the lifecycle of the vehicle and has driven the manufacturers to alter the product design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continued to challenge motorcycle designers is ride comfort in vertical and longitudinal direction. An essential tool in the motorcycle development process is the ability to quantify and grade the ride comfort behavior. This is performed either through subjective or objective tests. Subjective tests have the disadvantage that numerous factors influence test drivers' opinion while objective measures have the advantage of repeatability. However, objective methods provide only an approximate grading of vehicles and it is difficult to get consistent results that we can rely upon It is proposed that consistent result could be achieved if the motorcycle is run over the pave track in similar repeated cycles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lee Carr, Dan Barnes, Jennifer Crimeni
Abstract Prior to the widespread implementation of ABS brake technology in light vehicles, driver training often included instruction to “pump the brakes” to avoid locking the wheels. Many driver education programs now recommend maintaining high brake pedal force and relying on ABS. It is sometimes asserted that drivers desiring to stop a vehicle quickly still “pump the brakes”. Investigators sought to understand whether drivers desiring to decelerate quickly pump the brakes, especially in a way that may deplete the vacuum stored in a vehicle's brake booster if so equipped, or whether they apply the brakes in a manner corresponding to their desired deceleration. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a testing program to examine driver braking behavior in crash avoidance maneuvers. The data for those 245 test runs were reanalyzed, assessing patterns of brake pedal force application to determine whether pedal force variation was sufficient in magnitude and duration to reflect driver intent.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Maki Kawakoshi, Takanobu Kaneko, Toru Nameki
Abstract Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road. First, the relationship between the S class and the difference of speed at the moment of collision obtained in the experiment was classified according to ISO/DIS 26262 Part 3 Annex B.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments. Dynamic and Static testing techniques were used to measure GSQ parameters like efforts during gear shift/select, feel of different phases of gear engagement /selection, gate definitions and lever travels; this helped in formulating objective metrics that can be used to create a definition of GSQ in a vehicle segment and an objective methodology to assess the same.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sooncheol Park, Wonwook Jung, Chunwoo Shin, Jaewung Jung
Abstract Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Takahiro Adachi, Takashi Yonekawa, Yoshitaka Fuwamoto, Shoji Ito, Katsuhiko Iwazaki, Sueharu Nagiri
Abstract The driving simulator (DS) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation simulates acceleration using translational (XY direction) and tilting motions. However, the driver of the DS may perceive a feeling of rotation generated by the tilting motion, which is not generated in an actual vehicle. If the driver perceives rotation, a vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is generated that results in an unnecessary correction in the driver's gaze. This generates a conflict between the vestibular and visual sensations of the driver and causes motion sickness. Although such motion sickness can be alleviated by reducing the tilting motion of the DS, this has the effect of increasing the amount of XY motion, which has a limited range. Therefore, it is desirable to limit the reduction in the tilting motion of the DS to the specific timing and amount required to alleviate motion sickness. However, the timing and extent of the VOR has yet to be accurately identified. This paper describes how the eye movement of the driver was used to measure the positional deviation between the gaze of the driver and images caused by unnecessary VOR.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xingyu Liang, Kang Sun, Yuesen Wang, Gequn Shu, Lin Tang, Lei Ling, Xu Wang
Abstract Like outside scenery, the car interior noise and road condition will affect the driver's mental state when driving. In order to explore the influence of external visual and auditory factors on the driver's mood in the driving process based on research of traffic soundscape, this paper has selected four backbone roads of Tianjin city (China) to test and drive a gasoline passenger vehicle at different speeds. Near Acoustic Holographic was used to scan interior acoustic field distribution, while the tracking shot of the driver's location was recorded by a Sony camera. People with different characteristics were invited to watch the video and completed a self-designed survey questionnaire. The external factors affecting the driver's mood were explored by analyzing all these data. After the investigation, we found that the sound field distribution inside the car could be affected directly and significantly by the opening and closing the car window when driving; in the case of keeping the window closed, the acoustic characteristics of the car cabin was relatively stable; and the visual impact factor of the driver's mood is mainly related to the traffic congestion degree and the construction quality of road surface, whereas the road appearance and aesthetics, which people usually concern about have very little influence.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred. Topics of special importance for nighttime analysis include perception-reaction time (PRT), sensation, attention, distraction, and expectation, all of which are strongly influenced by limited levels of lighting.
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