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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1411
Caroline Crump, David Cades, Robert Rauschenberger, Emily Hildebrand, Jeremy Schwark, Brandon Barakat, Douglas Young
Advanced Driver Assistive System technologies are currently available in many passenger vehicles that provide safety benefits and will ultimately lead to autonomous, “self-driving” vehicles. One technology that has the potential for having substantial safety benefits is the forward collision warning and mitigation (FCWM) system, which is designed to (1) warn drivers of imminent front-end collisions, (2) potentiate driver braking responses, and (3) have the ability to apply the vehicle’s brake autonomously to slow, or, in some cases, stop the vehicle prior to a forward collision. Although the proliferation of such technologies can, in many ways, mitigate the necessity of a timely braking response by a driver in an emergency situation, how this system affects a driver’s overall ability to safely, efficiently, and comfortably operate a motor vehicle remains unclear.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1414
Jitendra Shah, Mohamed Benmimoun
In the framework of large scale project interactIVe co-funded by the European Commission Ford has developed an active safety system for the supported and autonomous avoidance of rear end collisions by intervention of braking and steering systems. This paper focuses on the assessment of threat perceived by drivers in collision avoidance situation. The decision making related to the initiation of the interventions by driver is crucial to understand how much threat is the driver can hold. The study has helped to understand how driver feels a threat arising from environment. It is a step towards autonomous driving where the system interventions have to be initiated as early as possible in order to avoid the collision and avoid unstable vehicle dynamics situations. In parallel the reaction has to be delayed long enough until it is likely that the driver will no longer intervene or respectively he is no longer able to intervene. For this reason an experiment is conducted with 26 subjects.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1469
Yan Wang, Taewung Kim, Yibing Li, Jeff Crandall
The characteristic of neck plays an important role on the kinematics and injury of pedestrian’s neck and head during the impact with vehicle, and the accuracy of the mathematical model affects the analysis results directly. A new mathematical pedestrian model has been developed in University of Virginia (UVA), which combines the advantages of both TNO facet occupant model and the lower extremity with more accuracy of biomechanical characteristics. So in this new pedestrian model, the occupant’s facet neck model developed by TNO is used to evaluate the pedestrian’s kinematics and dynamic response. Since the neck is special developed for occupants, the mechanical characteristics for lateral impact may not as good as that of frontal impact.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1465
Sho Nikaido, Shota Wada, Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose
1. Background and purpose There are various contributing factors to accidents of bicycles, it is considered that cyclists often do not observe the traffic regulation that requires cyclists to stop before a stop line at an intersection. As a countermeasure to this type of accident, cycling assist systems that activate a warning system for cyclists have been researched and developed. This assist system warns the cyclist about the danger of a collision. Such an assist system needs to provide a warning with appropriate timing. It is necessary to clarify cycling characteristics in developing a countermeasure for traffic accidents at an intersection without signals. The findings of this study can be used for the future construction of an assist system that will encourage cyclists to observe traffic regulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
C Sreelakshmi, Krishnan Kutty
Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans’ mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is a very easy task for human being. Human computer interface is a developing research field that enables humans’ to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures, but communication through expression is still a problem. There are a variety of fields such as biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression detection system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed for emotion analysis through facial expression, but most of them will work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to detect expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM). It includes face detection; face modeling, feature extraction and classification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0214
Ramya Deshpande, Krishnan Kutty, Shanmugaraj Mani
In modern cars, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is cardinal point for safety and regulation. The proposed method detects visual saliency regions in a given image. Multiple ADAS systems require many sensors and multicore processors for fast processing of data in real time; which leads to the increase in cost. In order to balance the cost and safety, the system should process only required information and neglect the rest. Human visual system perceives only important content in the scene while leaving rest of portions unprocessed. The studies on human psycho visual system hypothesize similar behavior in human perception. The proposed method aims to model the similar behavior in computer vision with the concept of visual saliency. Saliency in still images is computed by color, frequency and positional difference. A region is salient, if its color or pattern is unique. The color difference between the regions in Lab Space highlights the visual difference.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprising of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0418
Vijitashwa Pandey, Megan Conrad
This paper develops a design paradigm for universal products. Universal design is term used for designing products and systems that are equally accessible to people with and without disabilities. Two common challenges for research in this area are that (1) There is a continuum of disabilities making it hard to optimize product features, and (2) There is no effective benchmark for evaluating such products. To exacerbate these issues, data regarding customer disabilities and their preferences is hard to come by. We propose a copula based approach for modeling market coverage of a portfolio of universal products. The multiattribute preference of customers to purchase a product is modeled as Frank’s Archimedean Copula. The inputs from various disparate sources can be collected and incorporated into a optimal decision system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1478
Michelle Heller, Sarah Sharpe, William Newberry, Alan Dibb, John Zolock, Jeffrey Croteau, Michael Carhart, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Occupant kinematics during rollover motor vehicle collisions have been investigated over the past thirty years utilizing Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in various test methodologies such as dolly rollover tests, CRIS testing, spin-fixture testing, and ramp-induced rollovers. Recent testing has utilized steer-induced rollovers to gain a deeper understand into vehicle kinematics, including the vehicle’s pre-trip motion (Asay et al., 2009; Asay et al., 2010). The current test series utilized ATDs in steer-induced rollovers to investigate occupant kinematics throughout the entire rollover sequence, from pre-trip vehicle motion to the final rest position. Two test vehicles (a sedan and a pickup truck) were fully instrumented, and each contained two restrained 50th percentile male ATDs in the front outboard seating positions. The pickup truck was equipped with rollover-activated side-curtain airbags that deployed prior to the first ground contact.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1386
Devin SJ Caplow-Munro, Helen Loeb, Venk Kandadai, Flaura Winston
Inadequate situation awareness and response are increasingly recognized as prevalent critical errors that lead to young driver crashes. In order to assess a young driver’s key driving performance indicators (including situation awareness), our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia developed and validated a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) in which drivers are safely and reproducibly exposed to the most prevalent potential serious crash scenarios. Many of the standardized safety measures can be calculated in near real-time from simulator variables. Assessment of situation awareness, however, largely relies on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. The objective of this research was to develop a near real-time automated method for analyzing general direction and location of driver’s gaze in order to assess situation awareness.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1389
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Ifushi Shimonomoto
The need to provide both connectivity and safety to today’s driver presents an enormous challenge to the automotive industry. A holistic solution for this challenge is to minimize driver distraction and enhance driving safety at the design phase. This creates an immediate need for techniques that can objectively evaluate the demand associated with human machine interfaces (HMIs). The study presented here assessed the feasibility of one promising approach for objective evaluation of HMIs, which compares the workload of in-vehicle tasks to the workload associated with “comparison tasks” or “benchmarking tasks.” In this study, participants drove a production vehicle (Ford Explorer 2013) while performing two types of benchmarking tasks as well as radio tasks (which used the vehicle’s embedded system). All the tests were conducted on a 3-mile oval test track. Participants performed all tasks on a straight segment of the track.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1400
Umashankar Nagarajan, Ambarish Goswami
Abstract The number of seniors is rising worldwide. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility, thus improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers, which “lock in” with the gait and help the subject walk faster using a phase lead characteristic. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion, not only a gait, and can help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0158
Jackeline Rios-Torres, Pablo Sauras-Perez, Ruben Alfaro, Joachim Taiber, Pierluigi Pisu
Environmental concerns and rising fuel prices are two factors promoting the development of strategies and technologies to reduce the vehicles’ fuel consumption and emissions. Such goal can be approached by different means. While an extensive list of published work attempts to address the problem by optimizing the vehicle powertrain operation, more recently, a concept known as eco-driving is also being studied. Eco-driving allows further contributing to the fuel consumption and emissions reduction by involving the driver in the optimization process. For the particular case of electric vehicles, the driving range and performance are very sensitive to driving style. Thus, an eco-driving assistant system (EDAS) may be useful as a training tool for the driver, helping achieving the goal of maximizing his vehicle range. This objective is particularly relevant for fleet operators, which can benefit from these systems by lowering their operational cost.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0039
Ryuzo Hayashi, Hajime Tsuyuki, Masao Nagai
Abstract This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0034
Mingyu Choi
Abstract The need for a voice recognition system in the automotive industry is growing day by day. In our current voice recognition system, Hyundai's ‘Blue-Link’ and KIA's ‘UVO’ are developed with Microsoft which is a global software company. The system launched domestic market recently. Since usage of voice recognition system are increasing, research and development of Voice Recognition system also increase very fast. Research is mostly focus on increase recognition rate of speech. However there is no research of interior layout considering voice recognition usability. So in this research, we discover interior design factors for maximizing voice recognition usability.
2015-02-19
Article
Conventional CT scanners cannot accommodate long or bulky aircraft components.
2015-02-18
Standard
AMS1452C
This specification covers a general-purpose disinfectant in the form of a concentrated liquid.
2015-02-11
Article
In coming years, the industry will see the same downward cost curves in lidar that occurred with radar. The result could be the first mass-produced car with lidar.
2015-02-10
Standard
ARP5535A
This document applies to safety observers or spotters involved with the use of outdoor laser systems. It may be used in conjunction with SAE Aerospace Standard (AS4970) “Human Factors Considerations for Outdoor Laser Operations in the Navigable Airspace.” Additional control measures may be applicable and are listed in ANSI Z136.6.
2015-02-02
Article
Its new platform has fully independent suspension and two four-wheel-drive systems. The Select-Terrain system included with 4WD has an rock-climbing mode added for off-road enhanced Trailhawk.
2015-02-02
Article
A smart phone serves as the illustrative connection between distracted driving and autonomously driven vehicles.
2015-02-02
WIP Standard
AS6339
Purpose of this standard is to provide qualification requirements of an Full Face Quick Donning Mask Assembly with regards to function and performance under conditions of aircraft environments. Function and performance requirements shall take into account varying modes of use and handling during aircraft operation. It shall be demonstrated that subcomponents of the assembly ,like regulator or microphone are harmonized to comply with the overall requirements of this standard.
2015-01-28
WIP Standard
ARP6321
The scope of this document is to provide those recommended practices considered essential for all air carrier first officer initial training programs. The recommended practices contained within this document are intended primarily for the guidance of passenger and cargo air carriers, and training providers. This document is also intended to guide those responsible for rule making and the provision of oversight of organizations involved in air carrier first officer initial training programs. Any professional pilot training organization may benefit from a review of the recommendations contained in this document.
2015-01-27
Article
The system can anticipate, by up to five seconds, the likelihood of a vehicle ahead "cutting-in" and endangering another.
2015-01-26
WIP Standard
ARP6319
The scope of this document is to provide recommended practices for the development and implementation of collegiate or flight school first officer initial training programs. These recommendations are directed toward formal, advanced, and structured training programs.
2015-01-20
WIP Standard
ARP6402B
The purpose of this document is to provide certain basic considerations and design criteria for installation of LED landing, runway turnoff, and taxiing light systems for night operation. Criteria for recognition lights are also included.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0139
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Abstract Noise generated in the driveline is mainly transferred inside the passenger cabin through air (air borne noise) and through the vehicle body structure, engine mounts, cables etc. Source of the noise generation in the vehicle is mainly through the engine fluctuation (engine combustion excitations). Any change in the engine characteristics results in the change in passenger cabin noise. Also, influence of the vehicle body structure due to change in material properties also affects the NVH performance. This technical paper explains the effect of change in engine characteristics as well as change in the transfer path (material property) on the NVH performance of the gearbox and subsequently the NVH performance of vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0151
Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space [1]. With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 5855

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