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Viewing 31 to 60 of 6075
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0466
Daan Roethof, Tarik Sezer, Mustafa Ali Arat, Barys Shyrokau
The wheel-camber geometry holds considerable potential to improve vehicle safety and performance, which has led to the development of numerous unique camber mechanisms with active or self-regulating features over the last decade. An extended overview of these prototypes, as included in this report, reveals that most of the investigations employ so-called open-loop manoeuvres to evaluate the vehicle response excluding driver response. However, driver’s perception and his/her reaction is a crucial if not the most critical factor during vehicle operation. Therefore, the research goal of the presented study is to assess the influence of active camber control on steering feel and driving performance using a driving simulator. In the proposed investigation, the vehicle body dynamics are based on dSPACE ASM software and have been extended by comprehensive models of the steering and active camber regulation systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. Due to the sensitivity of pedestrian biomechanics to anthropometry, a PFEM with a generic anthropometry (50th-percentile male) cannot be sufficiently evaluated against post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) test data without accounting for the specific anthropometry. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of locally-morphed PFEM anthropometry compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the biomechanics of vehicle-pedestrian impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1419
Helen S. Loeb, Sam chamberlain, Yi-Ching Lee
Motor vehicles crashes are the leading cause of injury and death of US teens. Driving simulators offer a way to safely expose drivers to specific events in a controlled and repeatable manner. They empower researchers by enabling them to compare different groups and driving behaviors and assess the cognitive and attention skills that are essential to safe driving. Classically, assessment of eye glances and gaze duration relies largely on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. In addition, the synchronization of eye tracker and simulator data is essential to a valid analysis of the eye glances patterns in relation to the driving scenario. To better understand and quantify eye glances in relation to a driving scene, Eyesync was developed as a synchronization bridge between an eye tracker and a driving simulator. It allows the real time synchronization and logging of eye tracking and simulator data. The design of the software is presented in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin
Autonomous vehicles can offer increased productivity by freeing occupants from the responsibility of driving. This enables all passengers to safely perform tasks such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet. However, studies show that the incidence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles is expected to increase compared to human driven vehicles.[1] Motion sickness is believed to be caused by head motion between 0.1 Hz and 0.5 Hz that is uncorrelated with visual anticipatory cues. This head motion may be induced by movement in the vertical and lateral directions caused by an uneven road surface or steering/acceleration inputs of the vehicle. Because passengers in such vehicles are more disconnected from road events they cannot anticipate how their bodies are going to move. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are also more prone to shift focus from the road to other activities compared to conventionally driven vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1504
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Law enforcement officers (LEO) make extensive use of vehicles to perform their jobs, often spending large portions of a shift behind the wheel. Few LEO vehicles are purpose-built; the vast majority are modified civilian vehicles. Data from the field indicate that LEO suffer from relatively high levels musculoskeletal injury that may be due in part to poor accommodation provided by their vehicles. LEO are also exposed to elevated crash injury risk, which may be exacerbated by a compromise in the performance of the occupant restraint systems due to body-borne equipment. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the application of three-dimensional anthropometric scanning and measurement technology to address critical concerns related to vehicle design. Detailed posture and belt fit data were gathered from five law enforcement officers as they sat in the patrol vehicles that they regularly used and in a mockup of a mid-sized vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1445
Jonathan Dobres, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Bobbie Seppelt, Linda Angell
Driving behaviors change over the lifespan, and some of these changes influence how a driver allocates visual attention. The present study examined the allocation of glances during single-task (just driving) and dual-task highway driving (concurrently tuning the radio using either visual-manual or auditory-vocal controls). Results indicate that older drivers maintained significantly longer single glance durations across tasks compared to younger drivers. Compared to just driving, visual-manual radio tuning was associated with longer single glance durations for both age groups. Off-road glances were subcategorized as glances to the instrument cluster and mirrors (“situationally-relevant”), “center stack”, and “other”. During baseline driving, older drivers spent more time glancing to situationally-relevant targets. During both radio tuning task periods, in both age groups, the majority of glances were made to the center stack (the radio display).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1417
Toshinao Fukui, Kazuhiko Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Satake
Recently, head up displays (HUD) have become a common visual feedback device of advanced technologies as the HUD can display feedback to the driver in a highly visible area. However, a reflection to front windshield is often caused by the outline (mikiri line) of the HUD unit on the dash board when the dash board is in direct sun light. The reflection can lead to driver annoyance on an asphalt road as well as dark view in front of windshield. In certain conditions of the front view, location and thickness, and contrast of the outlines were considered as factors impacting annoyance. These factors were considered to contribute to the visibility of stripe pattern (a contrast sensitivity function). In addition, since the reflection of the outlines can be enhanced by bright sunlight coming to the dash board, the present study considered high illuminance on the dash board as an environmental factor. This additional factor was not considered in the past study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1412
Takeshi Hamaguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Shigeyuki Kimura, Terumasa Endo
In general, driver workload can be measured with questionnaires or other subjective methods for human-centered design. Many researchers have studied how subjective ratings of workload have good correspondence to physiological and/or behavioral, psychological measures. On the other hand, a model of driver behavior can be more informative because it allows researchers to estimate how drivers actually control the vehicle. Behavioral measures can be used to understand the interaction between a driver’s perception of information and his/her choice of action. Previously, pedal control was used for identifying specific individual habits or evaluating acceptability for a wide variety of driving assistance systems. Pedal behavior has not been modeled to estimate driver workload.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1428
Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer, Jonathan Dobres, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe
This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI). Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1553
Akihito Yamamoto, Wataru Tanaka, Takafumi Makino, Shunya Tanaka, Ken Tahara
In recent years, semi active suspension systems which are energy saving and low cost have already been adopted in various vehicles to improve ride comfort and vehicle controllability. At the same time, various reports have been published that examine the control laws for ride comfort using these systems. Controlling ride comfort with semi active suspension systems, it is necessary to estimate the suspension stroke velocity. There are researches of the observer using suspension stroke sensor and vertical acceleration sensor on sprung mass. However, there are researches of the observer using vertical acceleration sensor on un-sprung mass to develop the simple and low cost semi active suspension systems too. The study described in this paper aim to further enhance the estimation precision of the suspension stroke velocity using the vertical acceleration sensor on the un-sprung mass.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1486
Qi Zhang, Bronislaw Gepner, Jacek Toczyski, Jason Kerrigan
While over 30% of US occupant fatalities occur in rollover crashes, no dummy has been developed for such a condition. Currently, an efficient, cost-effective methodology is being implemented to develop a biofidelic rollover dummy. Instead of designing a rollover dummy from scratch, this methodology identifies a baseline dummy and modifies it to improve its response in rollover. Using computational models of the baseline dummy (both multibody and FE), the dummy’s structure was continually modified until its response was aligned (using BioRank metric) with biofidelity targets. A previous study (Part I) identified the THOR dummy as a suitable baseline dummy by comparing the kinematic responses of six existing dummies with PMHS response corridors through laboratory rollover testing. In this study (Part II), the whole-body kinematic response of THOR multibody and FE models were validated with responses of the physical THOR dummy in experiments that simulated rollover conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1542
Shaosong Li, jiafei niu, Ren Sheng, Zhixin Yu, Shunhang Zheng, Yongfa Tu
Road feeling is the reaction force of steering wheel felt by the driver when the driver steers and this force contains the motion and force of vehicle and ties. Good road feeling is indispensable feedback information for the driver. The decrease in the strength of road feeling can make the driver feel that the on-center area is too large. Meanwhile the steering torque reacted by steering wheel cannot truly reflect the steering reaction torque, which is the so-called “poor linearity of steering force” and “fuzzy of road feeling” in subjective evaluation. With motor and reduction mechanism applied to Electric Power Steering (short for EPS) system of automobile, the frictional loss torque of steering system is increased. The friction compensation control based on the sign function or stature function of the angular velocity of motor is added to the electric power steering system to reduce the frictional loss torque of steering system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1303
Haiqing Xu, Chang JIN, HONG ZHOU, YI ZHOU
On the study of reducing the disturbance on driver’s attention induced by low frequency vehicle interior stationary noise, a subjective evaluation is firstly carried out by means of rank rating method which introduces Distraction Level as evaluation index. A visual-finger response test is developed to help evaluating person better recognize the Distraction Level during the evaluation. A non-linear BP neural network is then modeled for the prediction of subjective Distraction Level, in which linear sound pressure RMS amplitudes of five critical bands from 20 to 500Hz are selected as inputs of the model. Furthermore, active noise equalization (ANE) on Distraction Level is realized based on FXLMS algorithm that controls the five gain coefficients of each input of trained BP neural network model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1420
Shinichi Kojima, Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka PhD, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada PhD, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
The purpose of this study is to develop the projection pattern which is capable to shorten the driver’s perception time to night pedestrian than illuminating only high beam. Our approach is based on spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatio-temporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency is adapted by environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are some applications of spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision such as NTSC television format. These were applied the low sensitivity of visual characteristics. By contrast, our approach applies the high sensitivity of visual characteristics. On the assumption that higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequency is correlated with shorter perception time, we conducted an experiment to determine the frequency of maximum contrast sensitivity under lighting conditions that simulate night time light levels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1414
Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka PhD, Shinichi Kojima, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada PhD, Keiichi Shimaoka, Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
We investigated a lighting method supporting driver's pedestrian perception that makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments with a Campbell-Robson chart, we realized a suitable lighting pattern to improve the performance of driver's pedestrian perception. To assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests in the target environment were executed, the results of which validated the proposed method. From the preliminary experiments, the following were determined to be reasonable parameter values: 5 Hz for temporal frequency and 1.0 cycle/degree for spatial frequency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1304
Tadayoshi Fukushima, Hitoshi Takagi, Toshio Enomoto, Hiroyuki Sawada, Tomoyuki Kaneda
Interior noise caused by exterior air flow, or wind noise, is one of the noise-and-vibration phenomena for which a systematic simulation method has been desired for enabling their prediction. One of the main difficulties in simulating wind noise is that, unlike most other noises from the engine or road input, wind noise has not one but two different types of sources, namely, convective and acoustic ones. Therefore, in order to synthesize the interior sound pressure level (SPL), the body sensitivities (interior SPL/outer source level) for both types of sources have to be considered. In particular, sensitivity to the convective input has not been well understood, and hence it has not been determined. Moreover, the high-frequency nature of wind noise (e.g., the main energy range extends up to 4000 Hz) has limited the effective application of CAE for determining body sensitivities, for example, from the side window glass to the occupants’ears.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Approximately 20% of traffic deaths in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using Rollover Buck test system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. This paper describes results of occupant kinematics of 95th percentile male (AM95), 50th percentile male (AM50), and 5th percentile female (AF05), simulated using THUMS, when a rolling condition was added to Rollover Buck FE model that include the cases using a rigid mock-up seat and a vehicle seat. Main results were as follows: Lateral head displacement of AM95 case on the right side seat was the largest among all cases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1416
Radakrishnan Rambabu, Ganesh Dharmar, MOHANRAJ BALAKRISHNAN, Sarath Padattil
Infotainment screens have become critical interface between occupant and Vehicle. Historical development of In-vehicle infotainment (IVI) has shown us the growth of interface size and usability is tremendously increased. The basic small segmented displays of past decades have transformed into large touch screen interface. Earlier small screen interfaces had minimal information and less driver assist functions. It was mainly entertainment based information, which does not require much attention from driver. But recently it has changed from glancing the screen to seeing the screen, due to increased driver assist functions like GPS navigation etc. The amount of information displayed is also increased tremendously. This scenario requires the screen positioning inside vehicle with following requirements like visibility without any obscuration, zero in vehicle reflection on glass areas due to infotainment screen illumination and legibility requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1431
Premananth S, Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed
Ergonomics Evaluation of In-car Occupant Posture with Indian Specific Usage Pattern Virtual assessment of an occupant posture ergonomics has become an essential part of vehicle development process. To design vehicle for different market is one of the primary reason for manufacturers using digital tools to address the specific needs of the target market such as cultural background, road and traffic conditions. Ergonomics software like RAMSIS allows manufacturers to asses design with unique customer requirements in product design. Defining these requirements with RAMSIS human module helped development team to accurately define occupant targets such as occupant space, visibility and reach-ability etc. This paper defines the methodology to develop, create and adopt Indian behavior and usage patterns in vehicle development process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0254
Gursaran D. Mathur
In southern states (e.g., Arizona) typically people drive their vehicles in summer by running vehicle’s air conditioning systems in recirculation modes only. Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation in recirculation mode. The concentration of carbon dioxide starts increasing in the cabin. The CO2 that is inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant’s health. ASHRAE Standard 62 specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over the ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Current global average ambient concentration level of CO2 as of March 2015 is approximately 401 ppm. Hence, if the CO2 concentration exceeds approximately 1100 ppm inside of a home or a vehicle cabin, then we must introduce outside air into the home or vehicle cabin to reduce the CO2 concentration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
The sense of smell has been strongly linked to taste through direct chemical mechanisms. Its role in affecting human moods is a more complex phenomenon involving both chemical and psychological processes. Several studies using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to throw light on the details of these processes. It is also a well-known fact that a large percentage of the commerce and trade powering global economics is facilitated by logistics through road transport networks. As distant producer – consumer connections are made, the drivers at the helms of the commercial transport vehicles make longer trips. This results in increased fatigue and risk of accidents. Work in the area of the effect of odors on alleviating the driver fatigue is limited. This paper shall describe, in detail and in particular, the effect of different odors typically obtainable in India.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0456
Zhaozhong Zhang, Dongpu Cao
This paper analyses how a human driver interacts with the steer-by-wire (SBW) controller using a simplified driver-vehicle-SBW system model. Driver model includes three main parameters: driver preview time, driver time delay and driver control gain. Driver neuromuscular dynamics are also considered using a simple transfer function. Simulation analyses and parametric studies have been conducted to draw conclusions for offering valuable information for SBW control design when considering driver-SBW collaborations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1435
Amber Hall, Michael Kolich
Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system applications. The physiological responses and comfort obtained from human subjects are compared to seat surface temperatures & quality data verbatim responses of the seats.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1546
Dongpil Lee, Kyongsu Yi, Bongchoon Jang, Sehyun Chang, Byungrim Lee
This paper describes a reference steering feel tracking algorithm for Electric-Power-Steering (EPS) system. Development of the EPS system with intended steering feel has been time-consuming procedure, because the feedforward map-based method has been applied to the conventional EPS system. However, in this study, a three-dimensional reference steering feel surface, which is determined from current vehicle states, is proposed. In order to track the proposed reference steering feel surface, sliding mode approach is applied to second-order steering dynamics model considering a coulomb friction model. An adaptive technique is utilized for robustness against uncertainties. In order to validate the proposed EPS control algorithm, hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) has been conducted with respect to various steering tests (Weave, Transition, Flick, and Return-ability). It is shown that the reference steering feel is realized well by the proposed EPS control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1425
Thomas McWilliams, Daniel Brown, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, Jonathan Dobres
Changes in physiological and operational behavior following lane departure warnings are explored in current production automotive systems. Different implementations employing auditory and haptic lane departure warning alerts were recorded in highway driving conditions from the factory installed lane departure warning systems. The lane departure warning events took place during single task driving periods as well as dual task driving. Dual task periods consisted of the driver interacting with the vehicle’s production interface to perform a secondary visual-manual (e.g., radio tuning, contact dialing, etc.) or auditory-vocal (e.g. destination address entry, contact dialing, etc.) tasks. Driver physiology and behavior were recorded and analyzed for pre-event and post-event conditions. To normalize between vehicles, percentage changes between pre-event and post-event measures were calculated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1421
Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh, Richard Young
This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0- and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated control and driver control, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a full-vehicle driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a book section on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in participants' accident avoidance ability following the different tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1426
Lex Fridman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler
The challenge of developing a robust, real-time driver gaze classification system is that it has to handle difficult edge cases that arise in real-world driving conditions: extreme lighting variations, eyeglass reflections, sunglasses and other occlusions. We propose a single-camera end-to-end framework for classifying driver gaze into a discrete set of regions. This framework includes data collection, semi-automated annotation, offline classifier training, and an online real-time image processing pipeline that classifies the gaze region of the driver. We evaluate an implementation of each component on various subsets of a large on-road dataset. The key insight of our work is that robust driver gaze classification in real-world conditions is best approached by leveraging the power of supervised learning to generalize over the edge cases present in large annotated on-road datasets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
A new trend in automation is integration of collaborative robots. A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial tasks. Engineering Technology at Wayne State University offer several robotic courses, trainings and research in the advanced robotic lab. Recently we purchased a Baxter ® collaborative robot made by Rethink RoboticsTM. This Cobot is dual arm robot manipulator with vision based control. The goal of our research is to develop Matlab based toolbox for Baxter ®, which includes several modules: Kinematic, Jacobian matrix and singularity conditions, Dynamics of links, Dynamics of actuators and model based platform for control purposes. This Cobot has two arms and the calculation should be done for both arms. Doing the calculation for both arms individually, is very long and tedious process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Road departure crashes are one of the most dangerous crash modes in the United States. When the vehicle drifts out of lane and departs the roadway, it has a higher potential of impacting less compliant objects, such as trees, poles, as well as oncoming vehicles. In the U.S., road departure crashes account for 10% of all crashes, but is responsible for over 30% of all vehicle occupant fatalities. Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. However, if the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert.
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