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Viewing 31 to 60 of 6139
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0135
Ji Zhang, Mengjing Shen, Xiangyu Zhu, Qipeng Chen
Abstract Nowadays researches of automotive electromagnetic field mainly focus on the component level and electromagnetic compatibility, while there is a lack of relevant studies on internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicles. With the increasingly complex internal electromagnetic environment of the vehicle, people are increasingly concerned about its potential impact of human health. This article researches on a type of electric vehicle and the occupants and analyses its electromagnetic radiation effects on human health. Firstly, considering the characters of Pro/E, Hypermesh and FEKO, the “Characteristics grouping subdivision” method is used to establish the entire vehicle body FE model. According to the requirement of MOM/FEM method, the entire vehicle model is optimized to be a high quality body model with simple construction and moderate grid size.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0141
Prasanna Vasudevan, Sreegururaj Jayachander
Abstract Several studies in the field of hedonics using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to explain the complex psychological and chemical processes. Work on the effect of odors in alleviating driver fatigue is limited. The potential to improve road safety through non-pharmacological means such as stimulating odors is the impetus behind this paper. This is especially relevant in developing countries today with burgeoning economies such as India. Longer road trips by commercial transport vehicles with increasingly fatigued drivers and risk of accidents are being fuelled by distant producer - consumer connections. This work describes a two stage comparative study on the effects of different odors typically obtainable in India. The stages involve administration of odorants orthonsally and retronasally after the onset of circadian fatigue in test subjects. This is followed by a small cognitive exercise to evaluate hand-eye coordination.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0140
Yang Zheng, Navid Shokouhi, Nicolai Thomsen, Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
Abstract The use of smart portable devices in vehicles creates the possibility to record useful data and helps develop a better understanding of driving behavior. In the past few years the UTDrive mobile App (a.k.a MobileUTDrive) has been developed with the goal of improving driver/passenger safety, while simultaneously maintaining the ability to establish monitoring techniques that can be used on mobile devices on various vehicles. In this study, we extend the ability of MobileUTDrive to understand the impact on driver performance on public roads in the presence of distraction from speech/voice based tasks versus tactile/hands-on tasks. Drivers are asked to interact with the device in both voice-based and hands-on modalities and their reaction time and comfort level are logged. To evaluate the driving patterns while handling the device by speech/hand, the signals from device inertial sensors are retrieved and used to construct Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0145
Madeleine Gibson, John Lee, Vindhya Venkatraman, Morgan Price, Jeffrey Lewis, Olivia Montgomery, Bilge Mutlu, Joshua Domeyer, James Foley
Abstract The rapid increase in the sophistication of vehicle automation demands development of evaluation protocols tuned to understanding driver-automation interaction. Driving simulators provide a safe and cost-efficient tool for studying driver-automation interaction, and this paper outlines general considerations for simulator-based evaluation protocols. Several challenges confront automation evaluation, including the limited utility of standard measures of driver performance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), and the need to quantify underlying mental processes associated with situation awareness and trust. Implicitly or explicitly vehicle automation encourages drivers to disengage from driving and engage in other activities. Thus secondary tasks play an important role in both creating representative situations for automation use and misuse, as well as providing embedded measures of driver engagement.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0144
Morgan A. Price, Vindhya Venkatraman, Madeleine Gibson, John Lee, Bilge Mutlu
Abstract Increasingly sophisticated vehicle automation can perform steering and speed control, allowing the driver to disengage from driving. However, vehicle automation may not be capable of handling all roadway situations and driver intervention may be required in such situations. The typical approach is to indicate vehicle capability through displays and warnings, but control algorithms can also signal capability. Psychophysical methods can be used to link perceptual experiences to physical stimuli. In this situation, trust is an important perceptual experience related to automation capability that is revealed by the physical stimuli produced by different control algorithms. For instance, precisely centering the vehicle in the lane may indicate a highly capable system, whereas simply keeping the vehicle within lane boundaries may signal diminished capability.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0147
Toshiya Hirose, Tomohiro Makino, Masanobu Taniguchi, Hidenobu Kubota
Abstract Vehicle to vehicle communication system (V2V) can send and receive the vehicle information by wireless communication, and can use as a safety driving assist for driver. Currently, it is investigated to clarify an appropriate activation timing for collision information, caution and warning in Japan. This study focused on the activation timing of collision information (Provide objective information for safe driving to the driver) on V2V, and investigated an effective activation timing of collision information, and the relationship between the activation timing and the accuracy of the vehicle position. This experiment used Driving Simulator. The experimental scenario is four situations of (1) “Assistance for braking”, (2) “Assistance for accelerating”, (3) “Assistance for right turn” and (4) “Assistance for left turn” in blind intersection. The activation timing of collision information based on TTI (Time To Intersection) and TTC (Time To Collision).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Abstract Automation of vehicles can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and is being developed in various countries. Introduction of automated driving can be ranked from 0 to 5 (0: no automation, 1: driver assistance, 2: partial automation, 3: conditional automation, 4: high automation, 5: full automation). Currently, feasible automation levels are considered to be levels 2 or 3, and human manual take-over from the automated system is needed when the automated system exceeds these levels. In this situation, time required for take-over is an important issue. This study focuses on describing driving simulator experimental results of time required for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead during automated driving on the highway, and issues a take-over request to the driver. The subject driver can be in the following driver situations: hands-on or hands-off the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1542
Shaosong Li, Jiafei Niu, Ren Sheng, Zhixin Yu, Shunhang Zheng, Yongfa Tu
Abstract With motor and reduction mechanism applied to Electric Power Steering (short for EPS) system of automobile, the frictional loss torque of steering system is increased. The common friction compensation control through the sign function of angular velocity or the saturation function of angular velocity is conducted to reduce the frictional loss torque of steering system. However, when the motor used in steering system generates assist torque based on the common friction compensation control, the longitudinal intercepts of steering torque change obviously at different steering wheel angles. The driver will get different frictional loss torque of steering system at different steering wheel angle. The information of steering torque contains the change of steering reaction torque and the frictional loss torque of steering system, so the change of frictional loss torque can cause the fuzzy of road feeling.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1536
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
Abstract In this study, the available metrics to evaluate the crash pulse severity are reviewed and their assessability is investigated by using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) test data. Linear regression analysis and sled test simulations are conducted. In addition, a new approach is proposed to measure the crash pulse severity and restraint system performance separately and objectively.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1526
Daniel V. McGehee, Cheryl A. Roe, Linda Ng Boyle, Yuqing Wu, Kazutoshi Ebe, James Foley, Linda Angell
Abstract Pedal misapplications may be rare, but the outcomes can be tragic. A naturalistic driving study with 30 drivers was conducted to gain a better understanding of foot pedal behaviors. Foot movements were observed from the moment subjects entered and positioned themselves in their vehicle, and continued through starting the ignition, shifting into gear, accelerating to driving speed, and finally, resting their foot after parking the vehicle. A coding methodology was developed to categorize the various foot movements and behaviors. Over 3,300 startup and parking sequences were coded. This paper describes the unique challenges involved in classifying foot movements and behaviors when drivers’ intentions are not known. For example, hesitant or interrupted foot movements often occurred when a driver was transitioning from a gas pedal press to a brake pedal press.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1518
Carolyn W. Roberts, Jacek Toczyski, Jack Cochran, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Bronislaw Gepner, Jason Kerrigan, Mark Clauser
Abstract Multiple laboratory dynamic test methods have been developed to evaluate vehicle crashworthiness in rollover crashes. However, dynamic test methods remove some of the characteristics of actual crashes in order to control testing variables. These simplifications to the test make it difficult to compare laboratory tests to crashes. One dynamic method for evaluating vehicle rollover crashworthiness is the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS), which simulates translational motion with a moving road surface and constrains the vehicle roll axis to a fixed plane within the laboratory. In this study, five DRoTS vehicle tests were performed and compared to a pair of unconstrained steering-induced rollover tests. The kinematic state of the unconstrained vehicles at the initiation of vehicle-to-ground contact was determined using instrumentation and touchdown parameters were matched in the DRoTS tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1514
Varun Bollapragada, Taewung Kim, Mark Clauser, Jeff Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
Abstract Some rollover testing methodologies require specification of vehicle kinematic parameters including travel speed, vertical velocity, roll rate, and pitch angle, etc. at the initiation of vehicle to ground contact, which have been referred to as touchdown conditions. The complexity of the vehicle, as well as environmental and driving input characteristics make prediction of realistic touchdown conditions for rollover crashes, and moreover, identification of parameter sensitivities of these characteristics, is difficult and expensive without simulation tools. The goal of this study was to study the sensitivity of driver input on touchdown parameters and the risk of rollover in cases of steering-induced soil-tripped rollovers, which are the most prevalent type of rollover crashes. Knowing the range and variation of touchdown parameters and their sensitivities would help in picking realistic parameters for simulating controlled rollover tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1516
Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin, Janna Kaplan, Joel Ventura, James R. Lackner, Paul DiZio
Abstract It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will offer increased productivity and convenience by freeing occupants from the responsibility of driving. However, studies indicate that the occurrence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles will be substantially higher than in conventionally driven vehicles. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are more likely to be involved in performing tasks and activities, such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet, that typically increase the occurrence of motion sickness. The authors present a novel high bandwidth active suspension system, GenShock®, and tailored control algorithms targeted toward mitigating motion sickness in autonomous vehicles. GenShock actuators can actively push and pull the wheels of a vehicle in order to keep the chassis level and reduce heave, pitch, and roll motion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1552
Renato Galluzzi, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Gabriele Curcuruto, Piero Conti, Giordano Greco, Andrea Nepote
Abstract The development of suspension systems has seen substantial improvements in the last years due to the use of variable dampers. Furthermore, the efficiency increase in the subsystems within the automotive chassis has led to the use of regenerative solutions, in which electric machines can be employed as generators to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated. However, the harvesting capability of regenerative suspensions is often limited by friction and inertial phenomena. The former ones waste mechanical energy into heat, while the latter ones hamper the shock absorption by locking the suspension when subject to dynamic excitation. Besides a suitable design and sizing of components, recent research works highlight the use of the so-called motion rectifier to improve energy recovery by constraining the motion of the electric motor to a single sense of rotation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1553
Akihito Yamamoto, Wataru Tanaka, Takafumi Makino, Shunya Tanaka, Ken Tahara
Abstract This paper reports that estimation accuracy of suspension stroke velocity is increased by considering the damping force delay characteristics to an observer. Thereby ride comfort is improved, using the simple and low-cost semi active suspension systems that use only three vertical acceleration sensors.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1456
Rini Sherony, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen, Hiroyuki Takahashi
Abstract Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1455
John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz, Susan Chrysler, Pujitha Gunaratne
Abstract In 2010, 32,855 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile crashes, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane departure crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane departure crashes accounted for approximately 9%. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of driver behavior modeling. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior, as well as warning systems that can issue useful alerts to the driver. Several scenario events were designed to fill gaps in previous crash research. For example, previous studies at NADS focused on crash events in which the driver was severely distracted immediately before the event. The events in this study included a sample of undistracted drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1448
Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract The effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) or similar crash warning/mitigation systems is highly dependent on driver acceptance. If a FCW system delivers the warning too early, it may distract or annoy the driver and cause them to deactivate the system. In order to design a system activation threshold that more closely matches driver expectations, system designers must understand when drivers would normally apply the brake. One of the most widely used metrics to establish FCW threshold is Time to Collision (TTC). One limitation of TTC is that it assumes constant vehicle velocity. Enhanced Time to Collision (ETTC) is potentially a more accurate metric of perceived collision risk due to its consideration of vehicle acceleration. This paper compares and contrasts the distribution of ETTC and TTC at brake onset in normal car-following situations, and presents probability models of TTC and ETTC values at braking across a range of vehicle speeds.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1449
Taylor Johnson, Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
Abstract Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can detect an impending road departure and deliver an alert to allow the driver to steer back to the lane. LDW has great potential to reduce the number of road departure crashes, but the effectiveness is highly dependent upon driver acceptance. If the driver perceives there is little danger after receiving an alert, the driver may become annoyed and deactivate the system. Most current LDW systems rely heavily upon distance to lane boundary (DTLB) in the decision to deliver an alert. There is early evidence that in normal driving DTLB may be only one of a host of other cues which drivers use in lane keeping and in their perception of lane departure risk. A more effective threshold for LDW could potentially be delivered if there was a better understanding of this normal lane keeping behavior. The objective of this paper is to investigate the lane keeping behavior of drivers in normal driving.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
Abstract In China there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. In this paper driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied and pedalcyclists include bicyclist, tricyclist, electric bicyclist and motorcyclist. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
Abstract While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging riders’ use of technologies (i.e., phones, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older riders (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study surveyed a convenience sample of typical motorcycle riders in the United States in order to provide an overview of the types of technologies that riders of different age groups use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, as well as rider demographics and riding habits. The sample included 97 riders (84 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (M= 50.9, SD= 10.6) who were divided into three age groups (under 40 years, between 40 and 50 years, 50 years and older).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
Abstract This study presents a long-term examination of the effects of two types of perceptual-cognitive brain training programs on senior driver behavior and on-road driving performance. Seniors (70+) engaged in either a Toyota-designed in-vehicle training program based on implicit learning principles or a commercially available computer-based training program developed by Posit Science. Another group served as a no-contact control group; total enrollment was 55 participants. Participants completed a series of four experimental sessions: (1) baseline pre-training, (2) immediate post-training, (3) 6-9 months post-training, and (4) 12-16 months post-training. Experimental metrics taken at each session included measures of vehicle control and driver glance behavior on public roads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1438
Alexander Siefert
Abstract The objective evaluation of occupant comfort is a complex task where numerous aspects such as posture, pressure distribution, internal tissue loads, handling of steering wheel or gear shift have to be taken into consideration. Currently the standard evaluation procedures are hardware tests with human subjects, who are sensitive to all these aspects. However, the reproducibility of subjective tests for the comparison of design variants is a questionable issue and the costs for each test cycle with new prototypes are very high. As an alternative, numerical approaches using human body models such as AnyBody [1], CASIMIR [2] or RAMSIS [3] are applied. Here the issue of reproducibility does not exist and only little effort is required to investigate new setups. However, the disadvantage is that each approach focuses only on one specific aspect of occupant comfort, while in reality the emotions of the occupant are always a combination of all impressions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
Abstract The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver’s seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one’s capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
Abstract We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver’s line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (∼80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1445
Jonathan Dobres, Bryan Reimer, Bruce Mehler, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Bobbie Seppelt, Linda Angell
Abstract Driving behaviors change over the lifespan, and some of these changes influence how a driver allocates visual attention. The present study examined the allocation of glances during single-task (just driving) and dual-task highway driving (concurrently tuning the radio using either visual-manual or auditory-vocal controls). Results indicate that older drivers maintained significantly longer single glance durations across tasks compared to younger drivers. Compared to just driving, visual-manual radio tuning was associated with longer single glance durations for both age groups. Off-road glances were subcategorized as glances to the instrument cluster and mirrors (“situationally-relevant”), “center stack”, and “other”. During baseline driving, older drivers spent more time glancing to situationally-relevant targets. During both radio tuning task periods, in both age groups, the majority of glances were made to the center stack (the radio display).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1442
David Miller, Mishel Johns, Hillary Page Ive, Nikhil Gowda, David Sirkin, Srinath Sibi, Brian Mok, Sudipto Aich, Wendy Ju
Abstract Age and experience influence driver ability to cope with transitions between automated and manual driving, especially when drivers are engaged in media use. This study evaluated three age cohorts (young/new drivers, adults, and seniors) on their performance in transitions from automated driving to manual vehicle control in a laboratory driving simulator. Drivers were given three tasks to perform during the automated driving segments: to watch a movie on a tablet, to read a story on a tablet, or to supervise the car's driving. We did not find significant differences in people's driving performance following the different tasks. We also did not find significant differences in driving performance between the people in each age group who successfully completed the study; however, the rejection rate of the senior age group was over 30% because many of the people in this age group had difficulty hearing instructions, understanding tasks, or remembering what to do.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
Abstract We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The LDW included yellow “advisory” visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red “imminent” when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver’s forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1498
Hironori Wakana, Masuyoshi Yamada, Minoru Sakairi
Abstract The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
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