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Viewing 5581 to 5610 of 5734
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
J. T. Tielking
An elastically supported cylindrical shell is used to represent the motion of a pneumatic tire in the plane of the wheel. This is an attempt to utilize shell motion as an analog to the plane motion of the pneumatic tire tread. The idea is suggested by the constructional features of a pneumatic tire, both from the point of view of mass distribution and the distribution of elastic stiffness. The equations of motion for such a model are derived by reference to conventional energy methods. In this derivation, the influence of internal pressure and elastic support of the shell is taken into account. The frequencies are determined as functions of the mode shape, and it is shown that nodes, as well as antinodes, rotate with an angular velocity somewhat less than the angular velocity of the rotating pneumatic tire, to an extent determined by the particular mode shape in question. It is hoped that these phenomena may be useful in explaining or understanding some vibratory or acoustic interactions between a tire and suspension system.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
Stanley Deutsch
This paper deals with a few of the important problem areas involved in a long duration manned space flight. Some of the problems discussed in detail that will be encountered in an extended space voyage are space vehicle maintenance and extra-vehicular activities, visual skill performance, and manual and automatic control of spacecraft systems. Although some of these areas have been studied in the Mercury and Gemini programs, additional testing must be undertaken before successful extended manned spaceflights can be carried out.
Technical Paper
1965-02-01
Fred Pradko, Theodore R. Orr, Richard A. Lee
A new method has been developed to study the effects of vibration environments upon human beings. The method is usable to assess the effects of random vibration, transients, or sinusoidal wave forms. It is equally effective for synthesis or analysis of applied force, effective mass, impedance, displacement, or acceleration. The linearity of human response to vibration is established. The procedure employs the transfer function technique. Data are presented describing human response to vertical motion for voluntary tolerance and low intensity acceleration. The frequency spectrum studied was 1–60 cps.
Standard
1965-01-10
This report is intended to furnish the aerospace industry with brief design information and data on cabin and cargo space electrical heating. The design information and data contained herin are applicable to modern aircraft utilizing main propulsion systems such as turbo-jet, turbo-fan, and turbo-prop.
Standard
1964-08-01
The purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice is to provide recommendations which will lead to the standardization of flight deck interior doors and their operation in all transport aircraft by establishing design criteria which will provide optimum use under normal and emergency conditions. The flight deck interior door is that door which connects the flight deck area with any cabin area or area leading to any cabin area, whether passenger or cargo, and does not include any door leading from the flight deck directly to the outside of the aircraft.
Standard
1964-08-01
This standard covers all types of oxygen breathing equipment used in non-military aircraft. It is intended that this standard supplement the requirements of the detail specification or drawings of specific components or assemblies, e.g., regulators, masks, cylinders, etc. Where a conflict exists between this and detail specifications, detail specifications shall take precedence.
Standard
1964-06-20
This recommended practice is intended to recommend the basic shapes and dimensions for knobs used in aircraft. Two basic types of knobs, the bar shape and the round shape, are described, as well as several widely used variations of these two basic shapes.
Standard
1964-04-01
This SAE Standard covers minimum dimensional relations for sheaves, drums, and wire rope for mobile, construction type lift cranes.
Standard
1964-02-01
The purpose of this information report is to present factors which affect the design and development of jet blast windshield rain removal systems for commercial transport aircraft. A satisfactory analytical approach to the design of these systems has not yet been developed. Although detailed performance data are available for some test configurations, rain removal systems will generally be unique to specific aircraft. This, then, requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with an extensive laboratory development program.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
J. Jay Keegan
Abstract A scientific medical study of “Alterations of the Lumbar Curve Related to Posture and Seating” has shown that the cause of most postural lower back discomfort and pain when sitting is degeneration and posterior protrusion of lower lumbar intervertebral discs. Sitting at a right angle greatly flattens the lumbar spine curve and increases this disc protrusion. Seats need to be designed to allow more backward inclination of the shoulders and give support over the lower lumbar region. Other requirements for a comfortable and protective seat are presented, with application to automobile seats.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Stanley R. Mohler, John J. Swearingen, Ernest B. McFadden, J. D. Garner
Abstract This paper presents newly discovered principles concerning human factors in emergency evacuation of aircraft following survivable accidents. A comprehensive summary and evaluation of all known emergency evacuation tests through December 1963 is presented. Human factors data resulting from tests conducted between July 1963 and February 1964 in CARI's 132,000 gal indoor ditching pool, under extreme conditions of lighting, and at Lake Tenkiller in eastern Oklahoma are presented. Also, land tests were conducted using new escape devices, including the “Telescape” device. Lack of familiarity with emergency equipment on the part of the crew, plus certain equipment design defects, doubled the escape times, and in certain instances resulted in unsuccessful escapes. Designs enabling a minimum escape time of 90 sec are recommended for future civil aircraft. The results indicate the desirability of instituting changes in crew emergency evacuation training and in passenger briefing practices.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Paul L. Connolly
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
James N. Anderson
Analysis of performance data for complex mechanical energy conversion and control equipment has shown that human learning is a contributing factor to reliability growth. Resolution of technical problems is delayed until the personnel involved have developed the skills enabling them to effectively do their jobs. Added to the effect of wrong decisions and inadequately performed tasks is the accompanying lack of self-confidence that may result in the failure of personnel to assume responsibility for their actions. Case histories are presented to illustrate some of the situations that cause set-backs in reliability growth, with emphasis on that part caused by the learning process.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
B. G. Peters, D. Amorelli, J. T. Celentano
This paper discusses a concept of reliability, which includes the relationship of man to total system reliability, and the techniques and controls used to insure spacecraft mission success through reliability. Former maintainability concepts for weapon systems are reviewed briefly, pointing out their inadequacies for manned spacecraft. The reliability concepts for manned spacecraft which require that all systems function during a mission are examined. Examples of man's contribution to the reliability of aircraft and spacecraft systems are discussed. These concepts will permit achievement of mission success that approaches 100 percent, using hardware with a reliability of 80 percent. The method for integrating reliability concepts, step by step, into design analysis and review is discussed in detail as is the subsequent extension into test and redesign activities. The method for integrating man into the space system reveals his capability to manually override, maintain, and repair. This upgrades reliability and provides the means to assure mission success.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
R. B. Wilson, J. L. Gaffney
History of X-15 performance reveals that the pilot, by unscheduled or unplanned inputs, enabled completion of almost twice as many flights as would otherwise have been completed on a routine basis. The prelaunch team (including the pilot) supported 92 successful routine launchings and overcame malfunctions to enable 10 additional launchings; 13 missions were unsuccessful because of team error. The maintenance crew was responsible for 6 failures out of 164 mission attempts. A reliability point estimate of 0.84 for the X-15 personnel subsystem is derived from these comparisons.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
R. J. Dutzmann
This paper discusses the general problems facing a human operator in space with particular emphasis on mobility. An analysis of motions using a simple systems concept leads into a discussion of operational aspects and determination of propellant requirements and results in a preliminary design specification of a mobility system. Finally, a first attempt at a preliminary design of a system is presented. From this effort, it can be concluded that a simple, free space mobility system can be provided at low weight penalties, thus making it suitable for early experiments, possibly on “Gemini.”
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Scott Flower, James W. Flickinger
The paper outlines a general philosophy for locating and equipping the major crew member stations in supersonic transport aircraft, and also highlights some important comfort items that reflect poor design in current jet aircraft. A few suggestions are made on crew seating, control wheel design, instrumentation, visibility, and flight engineer's station requirements, showing examples of each.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
BRUCE D. GREENSHIELDS
This paper describes the evolution of equipment and techniques leading to the development of a “Quality Index of Traffic Flow”. Four applications of the quality index were studied: The development of cost figures for different values of the index; an investigation of the relationship between density, volume and the quality indices; a test of the correlation between gasoline consumption and the quality of flow; and an attempt to discover if there is a correlation between the quality of flow and the frequency of highway accidents. At the conclusion of these studies it became possible to modify the original equipment, as a result the “Drivometer and Traffic Events Recorder” was developed. Using this equipment, a mathematical interpretation of driver’s responses to traffic events was developed and three additional studies were delineated. These included: the functional classification of streets and highways, effect of highway design and control devices on traffic flow, and testing vehicle proving grounds.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Joseph W. Wissel
A single military specification for Human Factors does not exist at this time. Many standards and specifications which cover various parts of the field were reviewed. The Electronic Industries Association has prepared a proposed specification on Human Factors which encompasses all aspects of the field, and is applicable to the entire weapon system spectrum. Methods of interpretating existing standards for utilization by design engineers has been accomplished through the development of Human Factors Guides. The factor that may have greatest influence on the effectiveness of Human Factors specification is the shift from fixed fee contracting to incentive contracting.
Standard
1963-12-01
This Recommended Practice is intended to outline the design, installation, testing, and field maintenance criteria for a high temperature metal pneumatic duct system, for use as a guide in the aircraft industry. These recommendations are to be considered as currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time, as a result of the rapid development of the industry.
Magazine
1963-11-01
Standard
1963-05-01
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to establish recommendations for the design, installation and testing of air vehicle vapor cycle refrigeration systems. These recommendations are representative of the refrigerant cycles.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
T. B. Sheridan
Recent mathematical descriptions of the human operator in control systems are reviewed. Available models are shown to have certain shortcomings when applied to automobile driving. It is proposed that “self-pacing” and “programed-transient” behavior are requisite to satisfactory characterization of the driver.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Sylvester H. N. Zumbrun
No major technological breakthrough is required to design an environment within a lunar surface vehicle which will support life on the surface of the moon. Engineering aspects associated with developing habitable environment require the coordinated efforts of engineers, psychologists, and biologists, and must accommodate the capabilities and limitations of the human operator in order to provide for environmental protection, comfort, and operating efficiency. Man, considered as a system, will function as an element of the several systems in the lunar vehicle, and the lunar crew must be carefully selected and trained.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Charles E. Nerpel
A plea for better automotive design which would benefit car drivers. Better design would include rearrangement of dashboard, a more flexible steering wheel, and improved seat adjusting tracks. The automotive designer has an obligation to provide maximum adjustment of seat, steering wheel, and pedal relationship. Ability to adjust these things to any size driver has barely increased, although the amount of different sized drivers has. Greater flexibility of these instruments would be also insure safer driving.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
H. S. Simpson
Competitive forces of business, social legislation, public opinion, and operating costs are making employers consider the human factors as a definite part of design criteria for implements, tools, or systems. Consideration of human factors in the design can reduce accidents, make the operator more comfortable, and increase his efficiency.
Standard
1962-12-01
This document supplements ARP85, to extend its use in the design of ECS for supersonic transports. The ECS provides an environment controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals and equipment. These limits include pressure, temperature, humidity, conditioned air velocity, ventilation rate, thermal radiation, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.) of the environment. The ECS is comprised of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute conditioned air to the occupied compartments. This system is defined within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 21. It interfaces with the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100), at the inlet of the air conditioning system shutoff valves.
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