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1977-09-01
Standard
J1139_197709
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to present design recommendations for the direction-of-motion of hand controls found in passenger vehicles, multipurpose vehicles, and trucks. These recommendations are based on recent and past human factors research and are important considerations in the design of control layouts.
1977-09-01
Standard
J1138_197709
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to describe design criteria pertaining to the location and labeling of hand controls necessary to or frequently used during the operation of passenger cars, MPV, and trucks 10,000 GVW and under. The results of SAE human factors research have strongly influenced these recommendations, specifically in the areas of driver reach, control-locating performance, and control location expectancies. Deviations from this recommended practice should be made only after careful study of the various SAE publications on these subjects, as referenced here and in SAE J1139 (September, 1977), Supplemental Information-Driver Hand Controls Location for Passenger Cars, MPV's and Trucks (10,000 GVW and Under).
1977-08-01
Standard
AS8010
This document defines the minimum degree of purity and maximum levels of certain deleterious impurities allowable for aviator's breathing oxygen at the point of manufacture or generation. It covers gaseous, liquid, and chemically generated oxygen, and oxygen supplied by in situ concentration and in situ electrolysis. Different limits are established for oxygen from different sources, in recognition of differences in the ways the oxygen is stored, dispensed, and utilized, taking into account the safety of the user. These limits are not intended to specifically reflect upon the relative capabilities or merits of various technologies. Procurement documents may specify more stringent limits, where required for specific applications. Medical oxygen is not covered by this standard. In the United States, medical oxygen is a prescription drug
1977-08-01
Standard
J336A_197708
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the equipment and procedure for determining the truck cab interior sound level over the upper half of the engine speed range. This practice applies to motor trucks and truck-tractors and does not include construction and industrial machinery.
1977-06-01
Standard
J1071_197706
This SAE Standard covers the relative position and direction of motion of controls which influence the movement of the machine and the operating direction only of equipment controls. There is no intention to eliminate or restrict the use of combination controls, automatic controls, or special operating controls. Purpose This document is intended as a guide for designing uniform operator controls for graders. Graders are defined in SAE J/ISO 6165.
1977-06-01
Standard
ARP881A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) lists the lamps in Table 1 that are recommended for the type of service indicated. This list is not intended as a catalog and does not include many types that are now in use. This specification is not applicable to Solid State Lighting Lamp Assemblies (Based LED lamps). It does, however, reflect current practice.
1977-06-01
Standard
J950_197706
Not available.
1977-06-01
Standard
J386A_197706
This standard provides performance and test requirements for operator restraint systems provided for off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to pelvic restraint systems (Type 1) for off-road, self-propelled work machines fitted with ROPS and commonly used in construction, earthmoving, forestry, and mining as referred to in SAE J1040 and industrial machines fitted with ROPS as referred to in SAE J1042.
1977-03-01
Standard
J983_197703
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to mobile, construction type, crane and cable excavator hand and foot controls. It should not be construed to limit the use of, or to apply to combination controls, automatic controls, or any other special operating control requirements.
1977-03-01
Standard
J1180_197703
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to mobile cranes when used in lifting crane service which are equipped with boom length indicating devices. The purpose of this recommended practice is to establish the minimum performance requirements of systems which measure and display to the operator, or other responsible persons, the boom length at which a load is being lifted by cranes with variable length, telescopic booms.
1977-03-01
Standard
J159A_197703
This SAE Standard applies to cranes when used in lifting service that are equipped with Rated Capacity Systems. Purpose The purpose of this document is to establish the minimum performance and tolerance criteria of systems used to warn or to indicate to the operator and/or other responsible persons when the load being lifted approaches, meets and exceeds the rated capacity on the applicable rated capacity chart of the crane.
1977-03-01
Standard
J941E_197703
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the location of drivers' eyes inside a vehicle. Elliptical (eyellipse) models in three dimensions are used to represent tangent cutoff percentiles of driver eye locations. Procedures are provided to construct 95th and 99th percentile tangent cutoff eyellipses for a 50/50 gender mix, adult user population. Neck pivot (P) points are defined in Section 6 to establish specific left and right eye points for direct and indirect viewing tasks described in SAE J1050. These P points are defined only for the adjustable seat eyellipses defined in Section 4. This document applies to Class A Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, and Light Trucks) as defined in SAE J1100. It also applies to Class B vehicles (Heavy Trucks), although these eyellipses have not been updated from previous versions of SAE J941. The appendices are provided for information only and are not a requirement of this document.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770446
John A. Rupf
This paper considers the effect of noise on conversation between two persons seated in a close, side-by-side position such as in a small aircraft. Twelve pairs of subjects were required to converse while being exposed to noises of various levels and spectra similar to those currently found in general aviation aircraft. After a period of noise exposure, subjects rated the disruptive effect of the noise on conversation and judged the acceptability of the noise. Subjective estimates of the maximum times for pleasant conversation in the noises were also obtained.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770436
Nathaniel H. Pulling
This paper explains the various types of skids and how to control them in cars and tractor-trailer trucks. Specific instructions are provided for classroom presentation, and for conducting hands-on-the-wheel practice sessions on a skid training area, using both cars and tractor-trailer trucks. Detailed directions are included for constructing a skid pan and modifying vehicles for skid control training. Essentially this paper is a condensed manual for setting up driver training instruction for skid control.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770522
L. Wayne, G. Collins
The evaluation engineer represents the customer in the product engineering department. He applies the principles of Human Engineering to the man/machine relationship. The compatability of a machine with its intended purpose is measured and optimized. He looks at the total machine balance on the scale of Product Effectiveness per Customer Dollar. The development of a jury evaluation system with a five point numerical rating scale provides some objectivity to subjective comments. Field testing on customer job sites is a valuable method of assessing the product effectiveness while it is still in the experimental stages of development.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770544
Paul D. Sandberg
A new, simple approach to general planar mechanism analysis has been developed which is intended for use with interactive graphic display terminals. This approach can be applied to 80 percent of the mechanisms used in earthmoving equipment. It allows even complex machanisms with multiple external loadings to be analyzed quickly, in small amounts of core. This paper describes the method for modeling a mechanism and the procedure for finding its new positions. Velocity, acceleration, and static force analysis techniques are presented and illustrated by example mechanisms. Not only are these procedures basic and logical, they are also repetitive from pin to pin on the linkage, which makes them easy to program.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770094
David W. Twigg, James L. Tocher, Rolf H. Eppinger
A system of computer programs has been developed to simulate the injuries suffered by a pedestrian struck by an automobile. The system provides a semi-automatic search for safer hood/grille/bumper configurations and stiffnesses. After the software system was developed, three major optimizations, interspersed with modeling changes to improve the accuracy of the simulations, were performed. Results from the optimization series were used to help design full-scale impact tests using child and adult dummies. In turn, experimental measurements were used to improve the mathematical model of the impact simulator. The results of these studies have provided some insights into vehicle design parameters which produce safer vehicles.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770056
Thomas R. Kane
The fact that single-track vehicles do not necessarily roll without slipping must be taken into account in the analysis of certain motions of such vehicles. This paper deals with kinematical questions arising under these circumstances. Constraint equations are formulated for motions involving side slip unaccompanied by longitudinal slip, expressions for side slip velocities are developed, and comparisons are drawn between the kinematical consequences of assuming rolling without slip and rolling with side slip.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770129
Wiel H. Janssen
During car following in darkness the manoeuvres of the leading car must be inferred primarily from changes in the angle subdued by its taillights. The paper discusses empirical evidence on the ability of drivers to make estimates of the magnitude of relative movement of the leading car from the behavior of its taillights. The general conclusion emerging from the data is that drivers suffer from a perceptual inability in making this type of judgment which easily may result in rear-end collisions in many typical night driving situations. Drivers of following vehicles may often be led by their estimations to close up on the leading vehicle much faster than they intended to. Counter measures to reduce the relatively high accident risk of night driving obviously have to start from this type of weakness in human perceptual ability.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770135
William T. Roe
Human Factors knowledge and methodology applied to transportation and highway safety is presented in the context of a General Personnel Subsystem (PSS) paradigm. Application of engineering/industrial psychology, physiology/anatomy, and system science are discussed in relation to this general model.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770134
Johan B. J. Riemersma, Paul W. Biesta, Cees Wildervanck
Two experiments are reported; experiment I on performance decrement during prolonged night driving and experiment II on driver stress during driving in different environments. In experiment I, Subjects in one condition carried out a continuous driving task during the night which was preceded and followed by a short drive, while in another condition subjects only carried out the pre- and post tests and slept in-between. The results showed considerable decrement in driving performance (a.o. increase in lane drifting) and performance on two subsidiary tasks, while heart rate, although decreasing during the drive, could not be directly related to fatigue, but was also influenced by adaptational effects. In experiment II, Subjects drove three different short test routes during daytime: in town, on a four-lane motorway, and on a two-lane rural road.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770813
David K. Damkot, Henry A. Geller, David G. Whitmore
A data collection and analysis system is described for an instrumented car research program. Transducers, electronic circuitry, and data recording are described, and data analysis procedures are indicated. Discussion includes the current experiments underway in the research program. System strengths and weakness are also indicated.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770802
James R. Bathurst
A different approach to training automobile accident avoidance driving skills is being developed. It is structured to provide students the opportunity to practice selecting and implementing effective crash avoidance strategies in response to realistic conflict situations that often precede actual accidents. Two new teaching techniques have been developed to provide this realistic experience in dealing with both single-car (the student driver's) and two-car situations. These techniques are used to administer a seven-module driver training course that has also just been developed.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770876
G. J. Blaauw, J. Godthelp, J. Moraal
Driving behavior may be described as the result of a process during which performance is optimized to meet several task demands at the same time. In order to fulfill this task it is assumed that the driver has the disposal of a multivariate internal criterion that governs the rules for optimization. In the present study it was investigated how different task demands interact, particularly in combination with driving experience, the latter factor being indicative for driving skill development. The results showed that driving experience as a main experimental factor interacted significantly with task demands for lateral and longitudinal control. Besides, a controversy in the literature concerning differences in steering-wheel reversals between experienced and inexperienced drivers can be explained by this interaction.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770186
I. A. R. Galer
Almost every private motor car in the U.K. is equipped with seat belts for the front seat occupants. Surveys have shown that belt usage rates seldom exceed 37% overall. A research program is described that sought to establish why car seat belt usage is low; the reactions of people to seat belts and other forms of occupant restraint; and ways in which usage may be increased. The major conclusion was that belt usage can only practicably be increased to high levels, by the introduction of legislation requiring usage; other concomitant solutions were however offered.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770245
Anders Hallén
This paper describes and presents the results of a test to establish the comfortable hand control reach capability of Swedish drivers while sitting in their normal driving position. The comfortable hand control reach and the maximum restrained reach as described by ISO/SAE are compared. Also described is the way the test subjects adjusted the fully adjustable driver's seat to preferred seat position.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770247
Stefan Habsburg, Lorna Middendorf
Evaluations of 20 seating environments were conducted using rating scales, subjective probabilities, and adjective check lists with a representative driver population to develop reliable indices of psychological seating comfort. Concurrent measurable physiologic variations were also recorded to determine relationship patterns. Primary psychological descriptors were identified for each seating environment. Subjective data was compared with physiological data and SAE seat dimensioning findings. Multivariate canonical correlation analyses of 32 variables are reported, as are subjective profiles for each seating environment.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770244
Ronald R. Mourant, Tong-Kun Pak, Effat Moussa Hamouda
Drivers' eye location data was collected in three vehicle (Vega, 1973 Buick, and Chevrolet Van) and in three environments (laboratory buck, static and on-the-road) for each vehicle type. In each environment data was collected for 50 subjects who were stratified by height and sex. A specially constructed remote coordinate system in connection with T.V. cameras was used for data collection. Drivers' eye locations were found to vary as a function of vehicle type. For the Buick and Van there were differences between data collected in the laboratory buck and on-the-road. There were no differences in data collected in the static environment and on-the-road for any vehicle type.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770250
Currell L. Pattie, Richard L. Gray
The concept of a semi-reclining driver's seat for an advanced tank is based primarily on the need to provide a low tank silhouette in order to decrease the probability of enemy detection, and to present as small a target as possible. An initial seat field test was performed with four Army and nine Chrysler tank drivers. The test data indicated that the seat configuration provided a satisfactory compromise between silhouette and driver comfort. A supplementary laboratory experiment indicated improvement in comfort-discomfort ratings and favorable reactions to the overall driver's station as a function of increased legroom. Rigorous operational evaluations using experienced Army armor personnel reaffirmed the validity of the seat concept.
1977-02-01
Technical Paper
770252
Chester W. Klann
As part of a continuing Ford Motor Company program to improve the seating packages of production cars, a simplified in-plant method was developed to check seating variations in production vehicles. The method also provided information helpful in determining causal factors when any irregularities were found. Equipment necessary for checking was designed to be easily transported to any site.

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