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Viewing 5581 to 5610 of 5800
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680105
WILLIAM A. DEVLIN
The effect of pillar size on vision obscuration in the forward field of view is discussed. The SAE J941a Eyellipse has become an accepted design tool and is one of the first of its kind to be used in automotive driver work space design. A review of this recommended practice will include a brief reminder of its value and also of its limitations. An expansion of the tools limitations covering a driver head turned consideration is included. A review of a study in process for developing an Eyellipse for use in truck packaging is also included.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680091
Richard A. Lee, Fred Pradko
A method to determine analytically the response of the human being to vibration is developed. This method uses a parameter called absorbed power. The advantage of absorbed power as a measurement criterion is that it has physical significance. It places vibration severity on an absolute scale and is applicable in the time or frequency domain.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680090
Bruce D. Van Deusen
This paper reviews experiments for determining human response to vibration and interprets them in the vehicle vibration context. It reviews the author's research and compares it with findings of other investigators. From the results of vehicle tests, it is concluded that properly weighted “acceleration variance” is a meaningful measure of vehicle vibration. For a single vehicle subjected only to surface profile changes, a single number summed over all frequencies can be used. For two or more vehicles with different vibrational characteristics, acceleration variance must be computed in several frequency bands to yield correction factors that define the nature of the vibration.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680555
Gordon H. Robinson
Accidents and their causation in man-machine control systems are defined using the automobile and driver as an example. The complex tasks performed by the automobile driver are delineated, and arguments are put forward that the driver’s ability to switch from one task to another, his control of attention, is crucial to the system performance.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680601
Curtis L. Shufflebarger
This report is oriented to: 1. Research and development in highway transportation under sponsorship of the Bureau of Public Roads. 2. Traffic operations and control aspects of highway transportation. 3. Importance of combining vehicle engineering and human engineering along with highway engineering in programs to improve the service, effectiveness, and safety of highway traffic operations. As these new traffic systems, or improvements in the performance of highway transportation emerge, they will require new and far reaching decisions not only for highway users and administrators but for industry as well. Along with decisions there must also be commitments and investments of a scope and magnitude not experienced before. This report describes how new traffic systems are developing, what they consist of, and how they will be of benefit. It treats major features of new traffic systems which very directly involve vehicle and human engineering.
1968-02-01
Magazine
1967-10-31
Standard
ARP582A
This ARP covers the general requirements and test procedures for illuminating systems for integrally lighted aircraft instruments in order to provide (a) uniformity of illumination within each instrument, (b) legibility of instrument presentation under daylight or integral light, and (c) uniformity of illumination between instrument displays.
1967-09-01
Magazine
1967-08-01
Standard
J941A_196708
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the location of drivers' eyes inside a vehicle. Elliptical (eyellipse) models in three dimensions are used to represent tangent cutoff percentiles of driver eye locations. Procedures are provided to construct 95th and 99th percentile tangent cutoff eyellipses for a 50/50 gender mix, adult user population. Neck pivot (P) points are defined in Section 6 to establish specific left and right eye points for direct and indirect viewing tasks described in SAE J1050. These P points are defined only for the adjustable seat eyellipses defined in Section 4. This document applies to Class A Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, and Light Trucks) as defined in SAE J1100. It also applies to Class B vehicles (Heavy Trucks), although these eyellipses have not been updated from previous versions of SAE J941. The appendices are provided for information only and are not a requirement of this document.
1967-07-01
Standard
J73
1967-07-01
Standard
J994_196707
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
1967-04-01
Standard
J985_196704
The design and location of rear viewing mirrors or systems, and the presentation of the rear view to the driver can be best achieved if the designer and the engineer have adequate references available on the physiological functions of head and eye movements and on the perceptual capabilities of the human visual system. The following information and charts are provided for this purpose. For more complete information of the relationship of vision to forward vision, see SAE SP-279.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670664
Vernon L. Grose
Reliability and maintainability of both terrestrial and space systems have too long been needlessly sacrificed because man's role within each system has been an afterthought. To overcome this short-sighted approach, man's capabilities as well as limitations must be clearly understood at the outset of system development by those who are responsible for design. This paper presents the results of recent research in human engineering which should aid system designers to optimize man's role as a control element in space systems. In particular, five human characteristics necessary for spacecraft control are shown to exceed the capabilities of any known or planned machines. The maximum role of which man is capable should be defined for each particular space system. When this maximum role is known, then tradeoffs become possible between human and automatic control.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670720
Jack W. Dunlap
Human engineering has demonstrated its utility in all phases of the design process. Examples illustrating the contributions of human engineering in the conceptual, design, and evaluation phases are discussed. Human engineering techniques are employed to test the feasibility of design concepts involving man-machine interactions. Methodologies and techniques are useful in making direct inputs to the design process during both the design and evaluation phases.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670719
Richard M. Michaels, Burton W. Stephens
This paper describes some of the considerations underlying human engineering in system design. The emphasis will first be on how the engineering psychologist looks at human behavior as a basis of designing man-machine systems. Second, the purpose is to define some of the major methods that are employed in human engineering as part of this systems engineering function.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670718
William Wokoun, Sylvester E. Kalen
Human engineering is “engineering for human use.” Because the human being cannot be redesigned, his equipment must be designed around his attributes and his environment. This paper illustrates the importance of human engineering in a simple example of the adding machine, with all the questions which should enter into its design. The goals of human engineering are: easy operation, faster operation, fewer errors, fewer accidents, less complicated requirements for operators, less training, all ultimately resulting in the need for fewer men to do a job. Examples of attaining these goals are given.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670642
W. B. Rossnagel
Governmental assurance documentation bibliography updated; new tabulation effective as of April 1, 1967. Latest revision indicated in all instances, but no attempt was made to list supplements or amendments. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) published annually in three parts (alphabetic, numerical, and listing of Federal Supply Classification following unclassified documents.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670496
Sylvester E. Kalen
The goal of the United States Army human factors engineering in Army research, development, test, and evaluation programs is assuring that the fully-equipped soldier can operate and maintain Army materiel in all environments. To this end, the United States Army Human Engineering Laboratories have published several human engineering standards that assist and guide contractor human factors programs, provide design principles and criteria for the design engineers, and serve as a tool the human factors engineering specialist can use in evaluating the materiel he is helping to develop. This paper briefly discusses three of the standards.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670620
Robert V. Katter
Managers of complex human factors efforts have the problem of managing their management information. This requires tools for monitoring and assuring both the flow and application of current information to the solutions of technical problems. The challenge posed by the amount and diversity of both information and requirements for information has outstripped the capacity of current methods for handling and managing such information. Some core problems involve lack of between-persons agreement regarding the judgment, evaluation, and characterization of information. There is evidence that behavior-oriented experimental research of the human factors variety can help to solve such core problems. Three examples of such empirical study projects are described.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670618
James J. Keenan
The changing, growing, and, hopefully, improving application of the behavioral sciences and related disciplines to the conceptualization, development and use of complex work systems demands adequate conceptualization about human performance. A useful framework for understanding the varieties of human performances in the complex system or formal work organization is presented. The approach here is interactionist, structuring human performance along the lines of the principal interactions of the human with the system environment and positing a fundamental “Performance Grid.” Multi-dimensional models are also discussed as basic to the systematic development of measurable aspects of human performance.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670619
Daniel B. Jones
A major problem for Human Factors is implementing effective human performance consideration into system design; presenting the data in engineering, not psychological, terms. The most usual basic engineering requirement is for information which can be handled in mathematical terms. Mathematical description of human performance is difficult because of the non-linear and time-varying characteristics of man. The human factors mathematical data needed for system Conceptual Phase engineering solutions are generalized models, rules of thumb, or sovereign factors. During the Design Phase human task performance, and especially task complexity, should be quantified. During System Acquisition Phase, operation failure and error analyses must include valid human error probability determination. Methods of meeting these requirements are suggested.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670637
H. Dagen, R. Saum
This paper presents the results of a survey conducted by the G41 Reliability Committee of the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also included in a closely related study of an ARINC Research Corporation investigation of the relationship between acceptance-test reliability and operational reliability. The basic statistical technique used in the ARINC Research study was multiple regression analysis. In investigating the relationships, a number of factors were used other than the inherent hardware reliability (as indicated by the results of AGREE tests). These factors included: equipment descriptors, data collection methods, and a combined environmental mission and application descriptor. These factors were considered as a means of increasing precision in estimating expected field operational results.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670314
P. Vidal, J. M. Toulotte
Human reaction to a shock or vibration input is graphically demonstrated in the horizontal plane. Subjects are displaced while standing on a calibrated platform. Learning times to regain equilibrium are improved if subjects can watch graphical plot of their reactions.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670309
Roy F. Brissenden
This paper outlines the major factors involved in designing simulators that have “practical” fidelity without being overdesigned. A closed-loop logic for the development and use of simulation is set forth. The simulation approach is developed around three basic design categories -- the basic computer and servomechanism technology, the human engineering criteria, and control information. The control-information category is discussed extensively, and respresentative fixed- and moving-base research simulators in use at the Langley Research Center are presented to describe specific display designs and motion-cue effects.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670304
Frank H. Borlace
This paper deals with concepts of motion systems which have not been fully utilized for training flight simulators, and which promise to provide a more accurate motion system representation. An examination of the vestibular system is made and the information it gives to the pilot is shown to be of a “phase advance nature” Some programming considerations of motion systems are presented. The desirability of custom designing the motion system to aid in training the pilot for specific tasks is also discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670291
Lawrence E. Reed
The relative simplicity of early systems was such that human requirements (skills) were easily interchanged within and between systems. Current complex aerosystems are accompanied by an increased need for closer consideration of the human component. The amounts of information generated and the compressed developmental schedules have led the specialist to rely heavily on his own expertise when existing data are not known to exist or are inaccessible. As such, the input to early identification of requirements and the integration of these requirements into training programs has suffered. In 1963, the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, initiated a joint research program to explore, and where possible, develop techniques for handling and processing human factors task data (task analysis/maintenance analysis).
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670295
C. R. Harper, G. J. Kidera
It was noticed in 1964 that many accidents occur when jetliners enter severe air turbulences. Studies revealed that pilot performance is compromised in many ways. To prevent this, flight crews should be properly restrained during all phases of flight. They should trust the gyrohorizon as the only reliable attitude indicator, and they should be aware of the fact that “railroad track” turbulences may terminate in unusually severe turbulences. Also, the most reliable and readable artificial horizon should support the pilot.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670022
Donald F. Livermore
When a stationary automobile is on a horizontal road, the car and its suspension linkages are in static equilibrium under the actions of gravity loading, road reactions, and internal spring forces. When this same system is acted on by steady cornering and/or axial acceleration loads, in addition to gravity loading, the equilibrium configuration of the suspension will be changed substantially from its gravity-load-only condition, affecting the driving characteristics of the automobile. This paper presents a general computer-based method for determining displacement relations and equilibrium configurations of mechanisms which are restrained by springs and subjected to steady external loading. The method is illustrated by its application to several suspension systems of varying complexity.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670043
Elmer A. Herider, William F. Le Fevre
This is a two part paper on the considerations involved in truck seating design. The first part discusses physiological factors of seating comfort which are essentially static in comparison to requirements for vibration isolation discussed in the second part. Basically, a truck driver’s seat should be designed to furnish the most in driver seating comfort within bounds of reasonable cost. Improved safety is gained by reducing muscular and nervous tensions which, in turn, reduce physical fatigue. The ability of the chair to isolate the driver from vibrations influences riding comfort. While the proper chair design can isolate high frequency, low amplitude vibrations the lower frequency, high amplitude chassis pitch vibrations can best be controlled by proper vehicle suspension systems, thus providing optimum riding comfort.
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