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1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730793
J. C. Guignard
The recent work of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 108, Mechanical Vibration and Shock, Subcommittee 4 (ISO/TC 108/SC4, Mechanical Vibration and Shock Acceptable to Man) has established guidelines (Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 2631) for the evaluation of human response to whole-body vibration in the range of 1-80 Hz. These guidelines, which are subject to revision and to extension of the frequency range in the light of new and better data, provide a current consensus as to the limits of acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration in vehicles, buildings, and workplaces, according to selected criteria: comfort, working efficiency, and protection from injury. The limits are expressed in terms of acceleration as a function of direction and frequency of vibration and daily duration of exposure.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730470
A. M. Mayyasi, P. E. Pulley, A. E. Swarts
The control logic of a single-footed automobile controller is described. Intended for use by handicapped drivers, the controller can control the transmission control sequence, turn signals, steering wheel, brakes, horn, etc. The single-footed controller was developed basically for the amputee with one good leg. The mechanics and logic of the SFC can be modified into several types of “lap board” controls for use by paraplegics or quadriplegics.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730471
P. H. Newell, W. A. Hyman, T. A. Krouskop, M. McDermott,
Some of the mobility problems faced by the spinal cord injury patient are presented in this paper. Existing automobile hand controls for the handicapped are discussed and current efforts at evaluation and standardization of this equipment are described. Design constraints are outlined for the development of new equipment to allow the more severely handicapped to drive.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730469
A. M. Mayyasi, P. E. Pulley, A. E. Swarts
Research in the development of assistive devices (power brakes, power steering, automatic transmission, etc.) is geared to close the gap between the handicapped and the normal operator. This objective is accomplished by providing additional assistive devices that will not interfere with the normal operation of the vehicle, but will enable the disabled individual safely to operate the same vehicle. This is achieved by considering the anthropometric and biomechanical constraints of the impaired driver. The pistol-grip controller is discussed in detail. It is intended to control manipulation of the steering wheel, brakes, lights, horn, windshield wiper, windows, etc.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730472
DAVID H. HARDEN, DAVID M. TENNISWOOD
Finger operated driver controls which connect directly to the carburetor and power brake servo valve offer driving ability to the handicapped not able to operate conventional hand controls. Mechanical servo connections eliminate the need for pushrod and lever connections to the foot pedals. Use of a set of control modules with the direct connections offers all drivers a safe and versatile control system requiring much less effort and range of motion. Safety results from smooth positive control action and from an auxiliary power backup system. Versatility results from the direct connections and low effort and travel required by this new system. Optimum “feel” is obtained by proper combination of the force and displacement feedback loops built into the system connections. Addition of optional modules for control of lights, wipers, seats, etc., enable this modular concept to offer completely independent automobile travel to handicapped people previously unable to drive an automobile.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730510
Don Robert Taylor, F. Del Coates
A team of industrial design students designed and built a prototype urban taxi that overcomes several disadvantages of contemporary production taxis including: inadequate interior driver and passenger space, bulky exterior dimensions, and inconvenience to physically handicapped passengers. The vehicle employs a diesel powerplant in the interest of operating economy, reliability, and decreased air pollution. The body, consisting of flat panels fastened to a simple steel rollcage, is suited to low volume production and simple maintenance. Aesthetically, the vehicle was designed to harmonize visually with the urban environment.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730606
SUMMARY The field of view required to see various classes of objects from automotive vehicles was investigated by Ford Motor Company in a series of research projects that included literature surveys, analytical studies, human factors tests and photographic road-traffic surveys. This study was concerned with field of view 360 degrees around the vehicle to the following classes of objects:
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730018
R. S. Rice
Among the most pressing needs in the development of rational approaches for vehicle handling quality evaluation is a method for relating the driver's actions with the car's performance capability. This paper describes a concept which provides a graphic and objective measurement of this relationship, including the effect of road surface conditions on overall system behavior. Based on a continuous plot of the vector acceleration of the vehicle in the horizontal plane, the resultant figure, which is called a g-g diagram, is shown to be useful for characterizing the vehicles's envelope of performance, the variation of this envelope with tire-road surface conditions, the accessibility of various operating points to the driver in performing a task, performance margins utilized by the driver in normal operation, and for several other applications.
1972-06-01
Standard
J708C_197206
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to define test conditions, give a description of the tests to be made, specify data to be obtained, show formulas and calculations, define terms, and establish a uniform method of reporting so that performance data obtained on various makes and models of tractors, tested in accordance with this document, will be comparable regardless of where the test is made. It is obvious, because of the many present day tractor models available in a number of types with numerous items of special or optional equipment, that the scope of this document must be limited to obtaining and reporting only the most significant of widely used performance data.
1972-06-01
Standard
J941C_197206
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the location of drivers' eyes inside a vehicle. Elliptical (eyellipse) models in three dimensions are used to represent tangent cutoff percentiles of driver eye locations. Procedures are provided to construct 95th and 99th percentile tangent cutoff eyellipses for a 50/50 gender mix, adult user population. Neck pivot (P) points are defined in Section 6 to establish specific left and right eye points for direct and indirect viewing tasks described in SAE J1050. These P points are defined only for the adjustable seat eyellipses defined in Section 4. This document applies to Class A Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, and Light Trucks) as defined in SAE J1100. It also applies to Class B vehicles (Heavy Trucks), although these eyellipses have not been updated from previous versions of SAE J941. The appendices are provided for information only and are not a requirement of this document.
1972-05-01
Standard
ARP1161
The purpose of this ARP is to present a practical set of requirements for the lighting systems which provide illumination for crew station areas and displays and for the characteristics of displays which affect their readability. It is intended that it be used as a guide by those involved with the design, use, or procurement of lighting systems for commercial and non-military aircraft or aerospace vehicles. The ARP covers the recommended requirements for the lighting and characteristics of instruments; information plates and displays; emergency, cautionary, advisory and status displays; circuit breaker and toggle switch positions; and the recommended requirements for the utility lighting system.
1972-03-01
Standard
J670C_197203
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720718
Robert Pish, Cecil R. Sparks
Recent legislative pressures directed toward protection of hearing acuity have placed an increased urgency on the agricultural industry's noise-reduction program. Hampered, however, by a serious lack of definitive data in dealing with hearing loss, the industry must put added pressure and priority on obtaining such data. This paper outlines the required measurement standards and data needed to accomplish this action.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720719
W. E. Splinter, M. L. Mumgaard, G. W. Steinbruegge, L. F. Larsen
Sound level at the operator station and at a bystander position 7.5 m from the center line of the vehicle has been measured at the Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory on 67 agricultural tractors. Sound values at 100, 75, and 50% drawbar load are reported. Results indicate that farm tractor manufacturers have made significant progress in reducing sound levels to acceptable values.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720006
Jiro Kohara, Tokio Sugi
A manikin that can simulate the final stable posture of a seated human being has been developed in order to evaluate seat comfort quantitatively and to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of seats. J-SAE 3DM, a manikin with the dimensions of a Japanese 50th percentile person made to imitate the SAE three-dimensional manikin standardized in SAE J826 was employed as the original; three additional joints were installed on its back pan to make it flexible. In this paper, the authors' view of seat comfort, on which their study was based, is summarized. Then the progress of development and various experimental results showing the usability of the final model are outlined.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720004
K. H. Eberhard Kroemer
This paper attempts to serve three purposes: 1. To summarize the open scientific literature on muscular force applicable to pedals, and on the efficiency of foot motions on or between pedals depending on the body support and the body posture of the seated operator. 2. To discuss the applicability of such studies in automobile (or other equipment) design, especially to the design, selection, and arrangement of foot-operated controls. 3. To point out that for most conventional vehicles and equipment, modes of seating, and of pedal arrangement and operation follow largely common experience and tradition, and only partly scientific findings. For new man-machine systems, new solutions seem possible.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720136
Trevor Owen Jones
This paper is an expansion of a previously presented paper “Ignition Interlocks for Intoxicated Drivers,” with additional data analysis which exposed the basic problems resulting from the operation of automobiles by intoxicated drivers in the United States. Several approaches to the development of ignition interlock systems are discussed. The Phystester,* an ignition interlock developed by General Motors and based on a predriving performance test of short duration, is discussed. Plans for evaluation of its effectiveness are presented, and available data from experiments involving both sober and intoxicated subjects are included. Integration of the Phystester in the operation of the vehicle and additional functional uses of the device are also discussed. Results of the Michigan Breath Testing Program, 1970-1971, are provided as an Appendix.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720138
E. Donald Sussman, Philip W. Davis, Andrew Warner
As the evidence of the contribution of intoxicated drivers to vehicular fatalities continues to mount, interest has grown in the development of novel counter-measures. One approach now being considered involves the use of a device installed in the automobile which automatically determines if the driver is intoxicated and prevents the driver from operating the vehicle when intoxication is determined. In this paper such devices are discussed with particular consideration given to the method of determining intoxication, the point in time when the determination is made and their applications. The paper also discusses the Transportation Systems Center's research program directed to dealing with this problem.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720141
James F. O'Hanlon
This was an investigation of the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and driver performance, and a preliminary test of an Experimental Alertness Indicator (EAI)- a device for measuring HRV. Three drivers drove on a round-the-clock basis for 5 days over a 364 mile (586 km) circuit on a California highway. HRV and driver error frequency were recorded and analyzed to determine effects of driving time, rest breaks, traffic event frequency, and other variables. The results showed that HRV increased markedly with driving time, HRV recovered after rest, HRV might have reflected features of the highway's geometric configuration, HRV dropped substantially after the occurrence of events which realerted the drivers, and HRV was little influenced by traffic event frequency per se. It was concluded that HRV is related to driver alertness/fatigue and that the EAI has promise of being useful for estimating the level of driver alertness.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720140
Philip W. Davis, Jonathan S. Lutz, Andrew Warner
Instrumentation has been developed to track and record dynamically an automobile driver's voluntary and involuntary eye motions with no encumbrance to the driver's head or eye. This portable eye-tracking system makes possible field studies of the driver's: 1. angle of gaze referenced to the scene. 2. involuntary eye motions as possible indications of physiological state (fatigue, intoxication, etc.). 3. pupil response.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720144
Albert Zavala, Robert C. Sugarman, Roy S. Rice
This paper discusses the value and the need for the simulation of relevant driver information processing and control functions. The emphasis is on relevance of simulation to ensure that such a simulation would have the practical utility of helping to reduce some accidents. An overall review is given of accident rate study findings, results of manual control studies, and conclusions based on psychomotor performance skills research. From this review, it can be pointed out that most people who drive a car, even as they are learning to drive, already know how to operate each of the various controls and switches and pedals found in a car. However, the sequence in which these should be operated, and the conditions under which they are operated are the critical factors to be learned and overlearned.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720143
George L. Smith
This paper reviews research done by the Systems Research Group at The Ohio State University on the information-seeking behavior of automobile drivers. The effect of sleep deprivation, long-term driving, and low levels of alcohol intoxication on driver eye-movement patterns is discussed. The adaptive behavior which results from loss of peripheral information processing capability under stress is manifested through wider dispersion and less preview by the tired drivers and tunnel vision by the intoxicated drivers. The loss of this information can be expected to result in unsafe performance.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720003
W. F. Lins, H. Dugoff
This paper describes two motion simulators and their application to research in whole-body vibration. One is a four-degree-of-freedom device capable of producing vertical, pitch, roll, and yaw motions. The other is a single-degree-of-freedom device that produces motion in the horizontal direction. Both have been used to acquire information on whole-body and visual response to vibration. Frequency response plots of some of the acquired data are presented. Procedures for assessing the severity of human vibration responses in terms of absorbed power are described and discussed. Brief descriptions are presented of studies that made use of the equipment and methodology dicusssed. The first is a concept evaluation of a proposed vehicle for use on the lunar surface. The second is a hardware evaluation of two seating devices for use in a wheeled vehicle in severe terrain environment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720001
L. F. Stikeleather, G. O. Hall, A. O. Radke
Some new vehicle ride vibration data are presented. The Janeway recommended limit, Pradko/Lee absorbed power, and Mil-Std-1472A (proposed ISO tolerance criteria) provide formats for the data presentation. A brief literature review of the subjective tolerance question is included. The importance of seating systems which attenuate vehicle vibration is demonstrated.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720914
John Carter
A review of the long-standing highway truck ride problem and conventional solutions emphasizes an increased usage of suspension seats to isolate the driver from predominant cab vibration. A novel new suspension seat (Hydra-Flex) features an articulated linkage which conforms to similar kinematics as natural motion of the human body. Further, this linkage inherently provides an action which cancels the characteristic back-slapping motion of truck cabs. Numerous inherent advantages over conventional designs of suspension seats are disclosed, and these features are attributed to the “bionics” principle which is involved.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720821
Francis C. Bosso, Alfred G. Ratz, Stephen F. Sullivan
This paper discusses fully-developed digital control systems used in vibration testing. The fundamentals of control are presented, along with a discussion of the final systems evolved. Of particular importance is the need to fully exploit the new levels of automation and safety available when computers are used. Performance is demonstrated using the results of operational tests.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720322
B. Underhill, B. McCullough
Aircraft seats that merely hold the occupants rigidly in place have been satisfactory when considering horizontal or lateral decelerations; but they have not proved sufficient when accidents occur resulting in large vertical deceleration. This deficiency led to the concept of an energy-absorbing seat, which would utilize the space between the seat bottom and the floor to absorb impact energy and reduce accelerations, thereby increasing occupant survival potential. To establish the seat design strength requirements, a maximum tolerable “g” load was chosen, and the maximum vertical velocity was calculated based on the available arresting distance. The effect of varying passenger weight was investigated, and a weight was chosen for design purposes. This then defined the load-deflection requirements of the seat. Other requirements established that weight and cost be kept to a minimum and that conventional materials and fabrication processes be used.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720202
Peter Kyropoulos
The history and technical background of the Subcommittee Human Factors Engineering Committee on Control Identification of the SAE is reviewed. Recommendations are presented for a proposed SAE Information Report on Recommended Practice on Identification of Controls for Passenger Cars, with particular emphasis on guidelines for the development of new identifications.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720201
William J. Burger
Cyclopean eye positions of a small selected sample of drivers were measured relative to vehicle reference points while they performed usual driving activities in several late model vehicles. One vehicle was modified to obtain enhanced lateral and rear visibility. Results indicate that 1) during driving eye position shifts substantially to the rear of static eye position, 2) shoulder belts restrict eye excursions even during straight ahead driving, 3) a periscopic type mirror eliminates eye position shift and reduces variability during lane changes when compared to standard rear vision devices, 4) there is no consistent change in eye position over extended periods of driving, and 5) driving environment does not significantly affect average eye position.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720204
Henry S. R. Kao, Thomas B. Malone, Richard L. Krumm
This paper reports an analysis of the degree of control/display (C/D) standardization in location, operation, and coding characteristics for 1971 automobiles. For C/D location commonality, between-manufacturer and within-manufacturer and between-car-type designs were compared. For operation and coding analysis, a selected group of C/D was used. With 90% of domestic and 76% of imported cars surveyed, a great variability of C/D designs was found for all three measures. The second part of the study experimentally evaluated four alternate control concepts for passenger car three-beam headlight systems.

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