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1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710849
D. H. Robbins, R. G. Snyder, J. H. McElhaney, V. L. Roberts
Abstract A study has been conducted as an initial step in determining the differences observed between the motions of a living human impact sled test subject and a dummy test subject. The mechanism which is proposed for accomplishing this is the HSRI Two-Dimensional Mathematical Crash Victim Simulator. A series of measurements were taken on human test subjects, including classical and nonclassical anthropometric measurements, range of motion measurements for the joints, and maximum foot force measurements. A series of mathematical expressions has been used to predict body segment weight, centers of gravity, and moments of inertia using the results of the various body measurements. It was then possible to prepare a data set for use with the mathematical model.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710848
Richard G. Snyder, Don B. Chaffin, Rodney K. Schutz
Abstract The object of this study has been to develop a quantitative description of the mobility of the human torso, including the shoulder girdle, neck, thoracic and lumbar vertebral column, and pelvis. This has been accomplished by a systematic multidisciplinary investigation involving techniques of cadaver dissection and measurement, utilizing cineradiofluoroscopy for joint center of rotation location, anthropometry, radiography, and photogrammetry for selected positions and motions of living subjects, and computer analysis. Positional and dimensional data were obtained for 72 anthropometric dimensions on 28 living male subjects statistically representative of the 1967 USAF anthropometric survey of 3542 rated officers, including bone lengths of the extremities and vertebral landmarks. Normal excursion of these limbs was measured in the living, utilizing the landmarks established in initial cadaver dissection.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710514
J. N. Macduff
The frequency response and unit impulse response of man was determined by transient testing and subsequent data processing. In all cases, the response is that of the head for input at the feet or chair base. Vertically, man responds much like a uniform rod. Laterally, the response is similar to that of a nonuniform beam in bending. Many of the figures presented here are reproduced by the kind permission of the publishers of “Sound and Vibration.”
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710415
Walter R. Lavalli, John R. Berry
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710543
Rudolf G. Mortimer
Drivers carried out a lane-changing and passing maneuver using convex and plane exterior mirrors alone or in combination with a plane interior mirror. The data showed that the addition of the plane interior mirror compensated for judgmental errors found when convex mirrors were used alone. When the speed difference was 15 mph between the overtaking car and the subject's car, subjects accepted gaps that were too short irrespective of the exterior mirror type. The data suggested that exterior convex mirrors of radii greater than 30 in. may be used reasonably safely by drivers and would have the advantage of providing a considerably increased field-of-view compared to currently used exterior mirrors.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710306
J. B. Large, D. N. May
This paper reviews research work in the United Kingdom on the objective effects of the sonic boom on humans and structures, and the subjective response of humans. Works in these areas, both before and during the Concorde aircraft's supersonic overflights, is described and appropriate references cited.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710487
Alan E. Diehl
A simple mathematical model was developed to estimate benefit-to-cost ratios of alternative safety devices. The “Benefit” is the expected decrease in accident losses, while “Cost” includes the expense of the device plus maintenance and useful load penalty. This model permits the manufacturers and operators to select the most effective items. Realizing that the majority of accidents involve pilot error, the strong and weak points of contemporary cockpit design are described. Several human engineering improvements are proposed.
1970-12-01
Standard
ARP1088
The purpose of this ARP is to recommend certain basic considerations which the design engineer should observe when designing a visual warning indicating system. This ARP is intended to cover the warning, caution and advisory indicating system required for aerospace vehicles. This ARP sets forth recommendations for the design and installation of indicating systems. It is recognized that many types of warning indicators and systems are available for the designer to use. This ARP does not recommend any specific system but outlines basic design and installation requirements.
1970-11-30
Standard
ARP842B
This recommended practice sets forth the design objectives for handling qualities applicable to transport aircraft operating in the subsonic, transonic and supersonic speed range. These objectives are not necessarily applicable to rotor or VTOL aircraft.
1970-11-01
Standard
AIR1169
The scope of this document is to provide a list of documents of types pertaining to the effects of oxygen on ignition and combustion of materials. Consolidating these references in one place makes it easier to find documents of this type as these references are difficult to locate.
1970-11-01
Standard
AS1197
To establish requirements for construction, performance and testing of continuous flow oxygen regulators. This document supersedes in part AS 463, 12-15-56, which is cancelled.
1970-10-01
Standard
J680A_197010
The location and operation of instruments and controls herein described are recommended for adoption by manufacturers of trucks and truck-tractors in new or revised designs in order to avoid confusion when drivers shift from one truck to another, to promote safety and convenience, and to simplify design, production, and servicing. This recommended practice shall apply to all on-highway trucks and truck-tractors equipped with power brake systems and having a GVW rating of 26 000 lb or more. Of prime importance in this recommended practice is the basic premise that all controls requiring operation while the vehicle is in motion be located so that the driver can manipulate them with his right hand and keep his left hand on the steering wheel. Controls operated only when the vehicle is not in motion, such as the ignition key, starter switch, and engine shutdown, may be located at the left side of the instrument panel and be manipulated with the driver's left hand.
1970-10-01
Standard
J195_197010
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a series of engineering guidelines for the design of an automatic vehicle speed control, and to define the minimum control performance which a device must provide in order to be classified an automatic vehicle speed control. An automatic vehicle speed control is a device capable of maintaining selected vehicle speeds in the presence of changing road load conditions. This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to apply only to the design of an automatic vehicle speed control. It is not intended to encourage or discourage the installation of automatic vehicle speed controls on any class of vehicles, nor is it intended to influence the requirements of engine speed governors.
1970-10-01
Standard
AIR64A
This publication formalizes the applicable design concepts considered acceptable for "draw-through" cooling of electronic (avionic) equipment installed in subsonic and supersonic commercial jet transports. Methods other than draw-through cooling are covered in AIR 728A for high Mach number aircraft.
1970-08-01
Standard
AIR1151
To bring to the attention of the aircraft designer and user the problems that can result from the fight crew experiencing glare. To improve visibility conditions for the flight crew by minimizing conditions which contribute to glare.
1970-08-01
Standard
ARP695A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides design and installation criteria intended to enhance overall safety by mitigating exposure of cabin crew and passengers to risks from: a. Routine use of galley systems. b. Galley components or equipment becoming dislodged under routine or abnormal operating conditions and under survivable crash or ditching conditions. c. Malfunctions of, or defects in, a galley system or associated galley equipment. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice to specify the specific designs or design methods to be followed in the accomplishment of stated objectives.
1970-07-01
Standard
ARP496A
The scope of this Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to establish the criteria for aircraft installations which shall ensure rapid and effective use of emergency flotation equipment in the event of ditching.
1970-07-01
Standard
J185_197007
Minimum criteria are provided for steps, stairways, ladders, walkways, platforms, handrails, handholds, guardrails, and entrance openings which permit ingress to and egress from operator, inspection, maintenance or service platforms on off-road work machines parked in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to off-road self-propelled work machines used in construction, general purpose industrial, agricultural (agricultural tractors only), forestry and specialized mining machinery categories as defined in SAE J1116 JUN86. It also pertains to specialized off-road machines used in mining such as shovels, draglines, and drills not identified in SAE J1116 JUN86. The minimum criteria established herein is based on one unladen person using the access system at any one time.
1970-06-01
Standard
J182_197006
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a procedure for locating the three-dimensional reference system on a motor vehicle as built. For complete motor vehicle dimensional checks, a method is required for locating the three-dimensional reference system on a motor vehicle so that points of interest (for example, driver eye location, seating reference point, centerline of motor vehicle, etc.) can be determined.
1970-05-01
Standard
J670B_197005
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
1970-03-01
Standard
ARP987
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700357
E. Fiala
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700356
Peter Kyropoulos, Ronald W. Roe
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700358
Howard W. Stoudt, Ross A. McFarland
A recent survey is described in which a series of anthropometric measurements were taken which are related to automobile design. In the first phase of the research 1,000 seated subjects were used to obtain 22 static measurements, most of which were indexed to two different reference points, the SAE H point and the accelerator heel point. In the second phase of the research measurements of functional arm reach to 117 points within the seated workspace were obtained on 100 subjects. Examples of the static and dynamic data obtained are given in both tabular and graphic form. Discussions are included of the measurements taken, the reasons for their selection, the measuring techniques employed, the statistical analyses used, and the potential applications of the data.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700234
Christopher L. Lair
Dark colors make a small space seem smaller. Light colors make it appear larger. Blue and green suggest a tranquil surrounding and red causes one to anger more easily. These are human reactions to confined interiors. The first part of this paper examines human-environment interactions which are present in aircraft. The second part discusses sorting and classifications of factors by the engineer.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700397
Ronald R. Mourant, Thomas H. Rockwell
Although novice drivers learn to control automobiles with a few hours of practice, the development of their visual information seeking habits takes many months. Films of novice driver eye movements suggested that there are stages of visual learning. Techniques need to be developed to teach drivers where to look before they actually start driving.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700365
V. Wyss
Heart rate, blood pressure and e.c.g. tracings were investigated on 84 subjects (20 average drivers, 12 seniors, 32 test drivers and 20 women) driving their own cars over six different test routes (fast and slow town driving; fast and slow motorway driving; up- and down-hill driving). While blood pressure and e.c.g. tracings show no significant variations, heart rate increases from 71 ± 8 beats/min (at rest)to 90 ± 11 beats/min (max 145 beats/min) and shows irregular but continuous variations from ±8-10% to ±50% of the immediately preceding value within 6-8 to 30-50 seconds. The intervening nervous, humoral and metabolic factors (O2 consumption during driving) are also discussed.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700362
Ross A. McFarland, Roland C. Moore
The use of ergonomics in the design of vehicular equipment is presented. It is proposed that the wider use of the principles and methods of this discipline might aid in the more effective integration of the driver and his equipment. It has been shown that the effectiveness of any man-machine system depends upon the integration of the biological characteristics of the operator with the mechanical design of the equipment and working areas. The initial phase of a program in ergonomics should always consist of an advance analysis of the equipment, including a survey of the nature of the task, the work surroundings, the location of controls and instruments, and the way the operator performs his duties. In highway safety the application of human engineering principles has been shown to be of great importance in the design of windshields, rear view mirrors, and vehicle lighting, and other visual aids to the drivers.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700360
C. Tarriere, R. Rebiffe, J. Hamon, G. Mauron
The authors contemplate an improved utilisation of the frontal survival space between the front seat passenger and the occupant enclosure. They propose a belt design and a crash seat transversally pivoted at the base with rotational shock absorber to better apportion between the two the deceleration forces on the passenger.

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