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1980-03-01
Standard
J1012_198003
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform test procedure for evaluating performance of operator enclosure pressurization systems for construction, general-purpose industrial, agricultural, forestry, and specialized mining machinery as categorized in SAE J1116 for off-road, self-propelled work machines. The purpose of this document is to outline a procedure which will provide a uniform measurement of operator enclosure pressurization.
1980-03-01
Standard
J819_198003
This SAE Standard applies to all self-propelled construction and industrial machines using liquid-cooled internal combustion engines. The purpose of this code is to provide a procedure to determine the cooling system reserve capacity under the conditions existing when tested.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800334
T. H. Rockwell, Robert S. Miller
This paper begins with a discussion of the various types of risk behavior found in automobile driving. A model is proposed which describes a perceptual approach to risk acceptance in specific driving manuevers. Risk acceptance in lane merging within freeway construction zones is discussed and exemplified by field observations of merging in construction zones. The short gaps accepted led to an experimental study to examine gap acceptance thresholds and driver gap estimation capabilities. Studies were conducted both staticly and dynamicly at 55 miles per hour. Subjects elect short gaps (under 100′) and gaps with less than 1 3/4 seconds at 55 miles per hour. Shorter rear gaps are accepted than front gaps. Gaps are grossly underestimated in both static and dynamic experiments. No difference was found for left vs. right merges and use of mirror vs. direct vision for rear gap estimation. The experimental data was consistent with field observations.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800383
Fred Kelly, Ronald Huston
A summary of the state-of-the-art of current research efforts in robotics is presented. Various aspects of robotics research are discussed including kinematics, geometry, controls, locomotion, sensing, and artificial intelligence. It is found that in each of these areas there exist important research needs and research opportunities. It is shown that much remains to be done before industry, and society in general, will begin to enjoy the full benefit of this important technology.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800385
Patricia F. Waller, Robert G. Hall
Literate and illiterate drivers were compared on the basis of their driving histories and characteristics of their crashes. Illiterate drivers had significantly more crashes and convictions than the general driving public. When compared to matched control drivers, illiterate drivers still had more convictions and crashes. Their crashes tended to be in older vehicles that were more likely to have reported defects. They were also more likely to be driving trucks. Recommendations are presented for a comprehensive coordinated approach to encouraging acquisition of literacy skills which in turn may be reflected in improved driving performance.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800447
C. N. Abernethy
Recently, the U.S. Coast Guard has established vessel traffic service (VTS) centers in four harbors. These centers are operated by watchstanders who provide an information gathering and dissemination service to mariners. As part of a program to explore ways of improving this service, computer models of watchstander interaction with equipment and communications with vessel and tug pilots were developed based on field observations and frequencies and durations of activities. The General Purpose Systems Simulator (GPSS) software package was chosen for programming and simulation of these stochastic models. These models were then constructed, programmed, simulated and verified. This technique has applications in the study of operator workload and system performance under conditions of changes in equipment, procedures and personnel.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800448
R. Wade Allen, Henry R. Jex
This paper discusses recent developments and application of driving simulators. Simulation of driving via films has been used for a number of years as a driver education tool. More recently, interactive simulators have been developed for research and training applications. Improvements are accelerating due to a combination of ongoing research needs, and general state of the art advances in hardware and software technology. Modern simulator requirements are reviewed from the point of view of both driver characteristics (vision, audition, proprioception, vestibular motion sensation) and task demands (e.g., steering and speed control, risk perception, decision making, general workload level). A variety of simulator applications are summarized, including comparison with subsequent field tests. These applications include studies involving drunk driving and risk taking, reduced visibility and delineation, and signing.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800450
Bertram W. Cream, F. Thomas Eggemeier
This paper addresses an ongoing research program that describes and provides guidance on the effectiveness, costs, advantages and disadvantages of simulation training for Air Force flying personnel. In the current climate of drastically reduced fuel availability, alternatives must be available to train aircrew members operational mission essential skills. Air Force use of simulation has increased over the past few years. Such a trend is expected to accelerate in the future. In the past, the majority of R&D funding has gone towards development and improvements in simulation engineering technology. Consequently, there have been numerous improvements, however, less attention has been directed towards the ways these improvements could be used by operational training personnel. As a result, the current data base is insufficient to allow making tradeoff decisions concerning training methods, effectiveness and costs. Such issues are addressed by this study and are reported here.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800196
A. E. Rosenberg, J. L Flanagan, S. E. Levinson, L R. Rabiner
We describe several computer-implemented systems for automatic speech recognition. The systems are designed for specific communication tasks in which the human talker and machine interact in a disciplined dialog. One speaker-dependent system recognizes individual spoken words and provides information on airline flight schedules. The same system, combined with a programmed syntax analyzer, recognizes whole sentences that are chosen from a sub-set of natural English. Another system provides automated telephone directory assistance by recognizing voiced-spelled names and speaking back the requested telephone number. Still another system recognizes digits spoken by any speaker, and provides the capability for automatic voice dialing. All the speech recognition systems utilize dynamic programming to match spoken input with stored reference templates.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800332
B. Shackel
In 1961 the Consumers’ Association in Britain set up a car test unit, and in 1962 the first car test reports were published. These later became the ‘Motoring Which?’ quarterly supplement to ‘Which?’ magazine. The methods and general sequence of the CA car testing procedure are first outlined. The Human Factors contribution to this testing programme is then described. The contribution broadly takes two forms. First, human factors reference data and guidance are provided to assist with the planning and interpretation of the objective measurement programme run by the test unit. Second, an extensive Human Factors Questionnaire (HFQ) programme is organised, and the results are reported, quarterly for every group of test cars. The initial planning of the Human Factors contribution is described; then the essential features of the HFQ programme, and its successive stages of development over the years to the current form with computerised analysis and output are reviewed.
1980-02-01
Standard
J376_198002
The purpose of this recommended practice is to establish the minimum performance criteria for systems used to measure and display to the operator, and/or other responsible persons, the weight of the load being lifted. It is not the intent of this recommended practice to define the requirements and use of weight measuring devices used in commerce or other industries. This SAE Recommended Practice applies to cranes equipped with load indicating devices used in lifting crane service.
1980-02-01
Standard
J782_198002
This recommended practice is a source of information for body and trim engineers and represents existing technology in the field of on-highway vehicle seating systems. It provides a more uniform system of nomenclature, definitions of functional requirements, and testing methods of various material components of motor vehicle seating systems.
1980-02-01
Standard
J1083_198002
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to construction, general purpose industrial, forestry, and specialized mining machinery as categorized in SAE J1116. It describes the machine components and systems that should be disconnected, secured, or otherwise rendered inoperative. Deterrent systems or devices covered by this recommended practice are to be used when the machine is shut down per the manufacturer's shut down instructions. It is not the intent of this recommended practice to protect the machine or the authorized machine operator, or to protect against abuse, destructive vandalism, or theft. Purpose This recommended practice is a guide for locking or otherwise rendering inoperative the starting, control, and parking release systems to deter unauthorized machine or working tool movement while the machine is shut down.
1980-01-01
Standard
J1013_198001
This SAE Standard defines a method for the measurement of the whole body vibration to which the seated operator of off-highway self-propelled work machines is exposed while performing an actual or simulated operation. It applies to vibration transmitted to the operator through the seat. There are not equivalent ISO Standards. In the main body of this document, conditions are defined for measuring and recording whole body vibration of the seated operator of off-highway self-propelled work machines. The specification of instruments, analytic methods, and description of site and operating conditions allows the measurements to be made and reported with an acceptable precision. The procedure includes means of weighing the vibration level at different frequencies as specified in ISO2631. A standard format for reporting spectral data is recommended. The definitions, instruments, and analytic methods also apply to simulated tests for operator vibration as performed in laboratories.
1980-01-01
Standard
J1163_198001
This SAE standard specifies a method and the device for use in determining the position of the Seat Index Point (SIP) for any kind of seat. This SAE document provides a uniform method for defining the location of the SIP in relation to some fixing point on the seat.
1979-06-01
Standard
J115A_197906
SAE J115 specifies the relevant ISO standards for application to safety signs for use on off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116.
1979-04-01
Standard
J919C_197904
This SAE Standard describes the instrumentation and procedures to be used in measuring sound levels at the operator station for self-propelled sweepers as defined in SAE J2130 and self-propelled off-road work machines in categories 1, 2, 4, and 5, of SAE J1116. This SAE document is applicable to machines that have operator stations where the operator can either stand or sit and will be either transported by, or walk with the machine during its operation. The sound levels obtained using this procedure are repeatable and representative of the higher range of sound levels generated by machines under actual field operating conditions. Due to variability of field operating conditions, this data is not intended to be used for operator noise exposure evaluations. Measurement and calculation of the operator's sound exposure should follow SAE J1116.
1979-04-01
Standard
J1257_197904
This recommended practice applies to mobile construction type cranes with cantilevered, telescopic booms when used in lifting crane service.
1979-04-01
Standard
J1166A_197904
This SAE Standard sets forth the procedures to be used in measuring sound levels and determining the time weighted sound level at the operator's station(s) of specified off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to the following work machines which have operator stations as specified in SAE J1116: Crawler Loader Wheel Loader Dumper Tractor Scraper Grader Crawler Tractor with Dozer Wheel Tractor with Dozer Pad Foot Wheel Compactor with Dozer Backhoe Hydraulic Excavator Log Skidder Excavator and Wheel Feller-Buncher Pipelayer Roller/Compactor Trencher Sweeper The instrumentation requirements and specific work cycles for these machines are described. The method used to calculate the time weighted average sound level at the operator station(s) is specified for Leq(5), or optional exchange rates, during continuous operation in a work cycle. A method to relate the time weighted average sound level at the operator station(s) to operator sound exposure is also provided.
1979-03-01
Standard
J154_197903
This SAE Standard defines the minimum normal operating space envelope for clothed seated (SAE J899 seat configuration) and standing operators (95th percentile operator, SAE J833). This document applies to off-road, self-propelled work machines used in construction, general purpose industrial, agricultural, and forestry as identified in SAE J1116. Purpose This document defines dimensions for the minimum normal operating space envelope around the operator for operator enclosures (cabs, ROPS, FOPS) on off-road machines.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790850
Walter P. Wieland, Wolf Poesl
The historical evolution of the spherical roller bearings is discussed briefly. The difrent internal and external designs common in today's market are evaluated regarding their load carrying ability, roller guidance, and friction. It can be shown that all these criteria have to be evaluated simultaneously with a view towards the application conditions expressed by the load magnitude, load angle, load direction changes, speed, speed changes and mounting conditions. It can also be shown that the method of guiding the rollers by means of a retainer or by means of an integral center flange are equally valid and equally efficient methods under most application conditions. In cases of extreme application conditions, however, it is evident that the positive guidance of the rolling elements through an integral centerflange will result in lower friction, i.e. better running conditions.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790383
Paul Green
Two experiments were conducted to develop symbols for seven automobile controls and displays (heater, air conditioner, fresh air vent, radio volume, radio tuning, exterior lamp failure, and tire pressure) and answer several related questions. In the first, 43 drivers drew pictures they thought should be used as symbols for the items in question. Based on their suggestions the author designed several candidate symbols for each function. In the second, 62 drivers rated how well each candidate's intended meaning was understood. For many functions a “best” symbol was found, often one which differed from that currently used by the automobile manufacturers.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790054
Richard A. Nedbal
A new microcomputer family simplifies the system design of display panels and dashboards by minimizing the parts count. Both high voltage and low voltage drive capability together with analog inputs and outputs enable efficient human communication while simultaneously performing system control and computations.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790011
Robert M. Nicholson
This paper reviews some of the progress that has been made in recent years in the transportation field by behavioral scientists and human factors engineers. The major areas covered are public transportation systems, railroad systems, highway systems, and personal transportation systems. The report suggests what future problems may be encountered in these areas that will need the attention of human factors specialists.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790514
Dale Jackson
Two, broad, alternative philosophies are described for engineering managers who wish to improve the performance of their subordinates. Each of those alternatives is subdivided into more specific courses of action. Those actions are characterized according to their probable effects on the attitudes and responses of subordinates. Contributions are taken from transactional analysis, effectiveness training, nonverbal communication and positive reinforcement.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790498
Susanne M. Gatchell
In order to quantify the effects of part proliferation on assembly line operators' decision making capabilities, a research study was conducted. Using a Choice Reaction Time technique, 16 operators were tested to determine their reaction times and error rates when selecting parts. These operators were from four training levels (trained, relief, untrained/job and untrained/plant) and had to decide between 4, 7 or 10 major parts. Results show that operators with 10 parts made 46% more errors and needed 13% more decision time than operators with 4 parts. Furthermore, the relief and untrained/job operators made three times more errors than the trained operators. The untrained/plant operators had over five times more errors than the trained operators. These results indicate that all operators could make a selection when working with 10 major parts. However, their reaction times and error rates increased as the number or parts increased from 4 to 10.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790317
Stephan Konz
A computer program has been developed which predicts an individual's physiological responses to various combinations of environment and exercise. The user enters information concerning the individual (height, weight, age, etc.), the environment (dry bulb temperature, air velocity, etc), the task (sit, walk, metabolic rate, etc) and the simulation (for 50 min, output every 10, etc). The program then predicts body temperatures, heart rate, sweat rate, comfort, etc and prints it out at the desired times. An important feature of the program is that variables can change during the simulation. For example, the task can change from sit to walk, the temperature from 30 C to 45 C, etc. The article gives an overview of the program and compares predictions vs data for some situations.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790122
Frederick H. Rohles, Stan B. Wallis
From 1973 to 1977 a series of laboratory tests involving almost 3000 people were conducted to determine the factors that contribute to the thermal comfort of automobile passengers while using air conditioning under summer heat loads. Four studies will be reviewed. In the first study, 2200 subjects were exposed for 45 min. to an environment of 110°F/40% in a 1973 Ford Vehicle buck for the purpose of evaluating the effects of the register size, the air flow rate and the discharge air temperature on comfort. The results showed that while the register size does not affect the time to reach a comfortable condition, the time to reach comfort in the front seat varies from 4 minutes with an air flow of 400 cfm (50°F discharge air at 10 minutes) to 18 minutes with 150 cfm (60°F discharge air); in the rear seat, the corresponding times were 8.5 and 39 minutes.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790385
Alexander A. Alexandridis, Brian S. Repa, Walter W. Wierwille
The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure of a typical passenger vehicle on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in the moving-base driving simulator at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts. The lower weights and moments of inertia of future passenger vehicles can be expected to change the effect of wind gusts making the evaluation of aerodynamic and control response characteristics on closed-loop wind disturbance regulation a matter of increased interest.
1979-02-01
Technical Paper
790384
Lawrence W. Schneider, Charles K. Anderson, Paul L. Olson
A sample population of 51 male and 57 female subjects ranging in age from 18 to 78 years was assembled and tested in six different vehicles for preferred seat positions under non-driving and driving conditions. Volunteer subjects were selected by age, stature, and weight criteria in order to match the U.S. adult population to the extent practical. Preliminary analyses of these data suggest that on a total sample basis there is little difference between seat positions selected under non-driving and driving conditions, but that individuals may show significant differences. The small differences in group mean positions observed in this study may be due to a seat belt and/or an initial seat position factor. Post-drive seat position results were analyzed in a variety of ways to identify factors that may influence a person's preferred seat position.

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