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1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720200
David C. Hammond, Ronald W. Roe
Results of previous SAE drivers' eye-location studies have been used to develop a fixed seat eyellipse and contours that describe drivers' head locations. Centroid data from these and other eye-location studies are used as a means of locating the SAE eyellipse according to seat back angle. Part I comprises the discussion of these data. Studies recently completed provided data on drivers' eye locations for varied vehicle packages ranging from sports cars to heavy trucks. The results are summarized in Part II as a series of tables, which include statistical definitions of tangent cutoff eyellipses. Part III of this report describes a method for positioning a fixed seat eyellipse according to seat back angle. A method is also shown for measuring headroom relative to seat back angle.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720264
James M. Miller
The Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970 may have much importance to the truck cab designer. The levels of noise, heat, and carbon monoxide to which the truck operator is exposed may be a health and safety hazard. While current standards for these hazards have not been directly applied to commercial carriers, it is predicted that they will be in the near future. Some current research in the noise and carbon monoxide areas in particular is cited; legal standards for these are projected for the designer's use. The inclusion of air conditioning as standard equipment in large trucks may be a realistic way to meet new standards.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720262
R. E. McAfee
Driver environment encompasses physical room, control placement, visibility, interior noise level, occupant protection, and temperature control. All of these factors have an effect on a driver's temperament and fatigue level. Reduction of adverse effects contribute to a driver's alertness. This paper outlines International Harvester's approach to total driver environment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720233
L.J. Nevada
A study has been made of motor vehicle driver environment in order to determine the most desirable design features and the optimum grouping of electrical controls conducive with minimum conscious thought and physical effort in location and operation under any given set of conditions. Consideration is given to the psychological aspects of control operating noise level and action “feel,” to styling and standardization of layout with the ultimate objective of driver fatigue reduction, and to a worthwhile contribution in road safety improvement.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720232
Robert B. Kerchaert, James L. Sauter
A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators. How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720231
James L. Sauter, Robert B. Kerchaert
For the instrument panel designer, good visibility means providing clear, legible, and easy-to-understand instruments and controls free from obstructions, shadows, and inadequate lighting. Unfortunately, most of these provisions are subjective in nature and it is ultimately the designer or group of designers who must decide what is “good visibility.” In order to remove some of this subjectivity, a study was undertaken by Chrysler Corp. to find a more objective approach to measuring visibility. In particular, this study dealt with measuring in a quantitative manner the readability of letter patterns used on instruments, controls, and indicators. This report, which covers the main results of the study, deals with the effects of such diverse factors as driver age, illumination, and letter size on a driver's perception time-the time it takes for a driver to take his eyes off the road and read a target on his instrument panel.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720964
Edward B. Becker
Procedures to determine the center of mass and the moments of inertia in three dimensions of previously defined anatomical segments are presented. As an illustration, these procedures are applied to the human head and head-and-neck. The results of measurements made on six human heads and three head-and-necks are presented and discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720293
Peter Kyropoulos
This paper is essentially a set of instructional notes intended for the use by those who want to familiarize themselves with the methodology of human factors as applied to the design of truck cabs. Careful study and use of the references is required if the notes are to be useful. The need for constructing mock-ups and for experiments using typical users as test subjects is repeatedly emphasized. The basic elements of anthropometrics are reviewed. Seeing is treated as the first step in the decision-making process. It is the most important channel of communication between the driver, the vehicle, and the surrounding road and traffic. Similarly, control location and identification is a problem in communication between driver and vehicle. Control forces, seating, and environmental requirements of comfort and alertness are reviewed. Simulation and simulators are treated here as an essential part of experimental aspects of human factors design. The role of mathematical models is examined.
1971-11-01
Standard
AIR1223
Liquid supply systems for breathing oxygen for the crew and/or passengers of transport aircraft require design and installation considerations, which are detailed herein. AIR 825, Oxygen Equipment for Aircraft, contains general information on determination of breathing oxygen requirements and equipments for the crew and passengers of transport category aircraft. This document covers the more specific requirements for either a 70 or 300 psig liquid oxygen system. The standard 70 psig nominal pressure is recommended for use except in cases of excessive pressure drop, flow requirements, and some continuous flow regulators which may require the 300 psig nominal pressure system. AS 861, Minimum General Standards for Oxygen Systems and AIR 822, Oxygen Systems for General Aviation Aircraft, also contain general applicable information.
1971-10-01
Standard
J994A_197110
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
1971-09-01
Standard
AS1224
This standard defines the minimum requirement for the design, construction and performance of continuous flow oxygen masks for crew and passengers of general aviation civil aircraft. This standard includes the following types of continuous flow oxygen masks. A. Open port dilution rebreathing masks. B. Valved or restrictive phase dilution rebreathing masks. C. Valved or restrictive phase dilution reservoir masks. D. Open port or restrictive dilution mask without rebreathing or reservoir bag.
1971-07-30
Standard
AS1225
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum standards of design, construction, and performance for two types of permanently installed, high pressure 12,800 kPa (1850 psig) and 13,800 kPa (2000 psig) oxygen system cylinder fill valves used in commercial aircraft. Refer to Purchaser's Specification for requirements which are beyond the scope or level of detail provided in this document. One valve has an adjustable pressure sensitive closing valve to automatically control the final pressure for a correct amount of oxygen in the system. The second valve incorporates an automatic shutoff feature designed to limit system overpressurization in the event maihntenance personnel do not stop system filling at the correc pressure. The intent of the fill valves is to control the rate of fill to limit the rise in temperature caused by compression heating to acceptable values, prevent oxygen back flow and prevent the ingestion of foreign matter that could cause contamination of the system.
1971-07-01
Standard
ARP1178
Because of the necessity of advising all crew members instantly and simultaneously of an existing or impending cabin evacuation, this recommended practice has been prepared. The development of large aircraft with remote flight compartments, cabin attendant stations, and galleys have made the necessity of such a warning system more evident. This recommended practice establishes criteria for the development and installation of an aircraft emergency signal system to permit any crew member to inform all other crew members that an emergency evacuation situation exists and that an evacuation has been or should be immediately started. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this ARP to specify the design method, mechanism or equipment to be used in the accomplishment of the objectives set forth herein.
1971-07-01
Standard
AS1214
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers all types of manually operated high pressure Oxygen line shut off valves utilizing either metallic or nonmetallic valve seats for use in general and commercial type aircraft.
1971-04-01
Standard
J919A_197104
This SAE Standard describes the instrumentation and procedures to be used in measuring sound levels at the operator station for self-propelled sweepers as defined in SAE J2130 and self-propelled off-road work machines in categories 1, 2, 4, and 5, of SAE J1116. This SAE document is applicable to machines that have operator stations where the operator can either stand or sit and will be either transported by, or walk with the machine during its operation. The sound levels obtained using this procedure are repeatable and representative of the higher range of sound levels generated by machines under actual field operating conditions. Due to variability of field operating conditions, this data is not intended to be used for operator noise exposure evaluations. Measurement and calculation of the operator's sound exposure should follow SAE J1116.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710849
D. H. Robbins, R. G. Snyder, J. H. McElhaney, V. L. Roberts
Abstract A study has been conducted as an initial step in determining the differences observed between the motions of a living human impact sled test subject and a dummy test subject. The mechanism which is proposed for accomplishing this is the HSRI Two-Dimensional Mathematical Crash Victim Simulator. A series of measurements were taken on human test subjects, including classical and nonclassical anthropometric measurements, range of motion measurements for the joints, and maximum foot force measurements. A series of mathematical expressions has been used to predict body segment weight, centers of gravity, and moments of inertia using the results of the various body measurements. It was then possible to prepare a data set for use with the mathematical model.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710848
Richard G. Snyder, Don B. Chaffin, Rodney K. Schutz
Abstract The object of this study has been to develop a quantitative description of the mobility of the human torso, including the shoulder girdle, neck, thoracic and lumbar vertebral column, and pelvis. This has been accomplished by a systematic multidisciplinary investigation involving techniques of cadaver dissection and measurement, utilizing cineradiofluoroscopy for joint center of rotation location, anthropometry, radiography, and photogrammetry for selected positions and motions of living subjects, and computer analysis. Positional and dimensional data were obtained for 72 anthropometric dimensions on 28 living male subjects statistically representative of the 1967 USAF anthropometric survey of 3542 rated officers, including bone lengths of the extremities and vertebral landmarks. Normal excursion of these limbs was measured in the living, utilizing the landmarks established in initial cadaver dissection.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710514
J. N. Macduff
The frequency response and unit impulse response of man was determined by transient testing and subsequent data processing. In all cases, the response is that of the head for input at the feet or chair base. Vertically, man responds much like a uniform rod. Laterally, the response is similar to that of a nonuniform beam in bending. Many of the figures presented here are reproduced by the kind permission of the publishers of “Sound and Vibration.”
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710415
Walter R. Lavalli, John R. Berry
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710543
Rudolf G. Mortimer
Drivers carried out a lane-changing and passing maneuver using convex and plane exterior mirrors alone or in combination with a plane interior mirror. The data showed that the addition of the plane interior mirror compensated for judgmental errors found when convex mirrors were used alone. When the speed difference was 15 mph between the overtaking car and the subject's car, subjects accepted gaps that were too short irrespective of the exterior mirror type. The data suggested that exterior convex mirrors of radii greater than 30 in. may be used reasonably safely by drivers and would have the advantage of providing a considerably increased field-of-view compared to currently used exterior mirrors.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710306
J. B. Large, D. N. May
This paper reviews research work in the United Kingdom on the objective effects of the sonic boom on humans and structures, and the subjective response of humans. Works in these areas, both before and during the Concorde aircraft's supersonic overflights, is described and appropriate references cited.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710487
Alan E. Diehl
A simple mathematical model was developed to estimate benefit-to-cost ratios of alternative safety devices. The “Benefit” is the expected decrease in accident losses, while “Cost” includes the expense of the device plus maintenance and useful load penalty. This model permits the manufacturers and operators to select the most effective items. Realizing that the majority of accidents involve pilot error, the strong and weak points of contemporary cockpit design are described. Several human engineering improvements are proposed.
1970-12-01
Standard
ARP1088
The purpose of this ARP is to recommend certain basic considerations which the design engineer should observe when designing a visual warning indicating system. This ARP is intended to cover the warning, caution and advisory indicating system required for aerospace vehicles. This ARP sets forth recommendations for the design and installation of indicating systems. It is recognized that many types of warning indicators and systems are available for the designer to use. This ARP does not recommend any specific system but outlines basic design and installation requirements.
1970-11-30
Standard
ARP842B
This recommended practice sets forth the design objectives for handling qualities applicable to transport aircraft operating in the subsonic, transonic and supersonic speed range. These objectives are not necessarily applicable to rotor or VTOL aircraft.
1970-11-01
Standard
AIR1169
The scope of this document is to provide a list of documents of types pertaining to the effects of oxygen on ignition and combustion of materials. Consolidating these references in one place makes it easier to find documents of this type as these references are difficult to locate.
1970-11-01
Standard
AS1197
To establish requirements for construction, performance and testing of continuous flow oxygen regulators. This document supersedes in part AS 463, 12-15-56, which is cancelled.

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