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1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720140
Philip W. Davis, Jonathan S. Lutz, Andrew Warner
Instrumentation has been developed to track and record dynamically an automobile driver's voluntary and involuntary eye motions with no encumbrance to the driver's head or eye. This portable eye-tracking system makes possible field studies of the driver's: 1. angle of gaze referenced to the scene. 2. involuntary eye motions as possible indications of physiological state (fatigue, intoxication, etc.). 3. pupil response.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720144
Albert Zavala, Robert C. Sugarman, Roy S. Rice
This paper discusses the value and the need for the simulation of relevant driver information processing and control functions. The emphasis is on relevance of simulation to ensure that such a simulation would have the practical utility of helping to reduce some accidents. An overall review is given of accident rate study findings, results of manual control studies, and conclusions based on psychomotor performance skills research. From this review, it can be pointed out that most people who drive a car, even as they are learning to drive, already know how to operate each of the various controls and switches and pedals found in a car. However, the sequence in which these should be operated, and the conditions under which they are operated are the critical factors to be learned and overlearned.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720143
George L. Smith
This paper reviews research done by the Systems Research Group at The Ohio State University on the information-seeking behavior of automobile drivers. The effect of sleep deprivation, long-term driving, and low levels of alcohol intoxication on driver eye-movement patterns is discussed. The adaptive behavior which results from loss of peripheral information processing capability under stress is manifested through wider dispersion and less preview by the tired drivers and tunnel vision by the intoxicated drivers. The loss of this information can be expected to result in unsafe performance.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720003
W. F. Lins, H. Dugoff
This paper describes two motion simulators and their application to research in whole-body vibration. One is a four-degree-of-freedom device capable of producing vertical, pitch, roll, and yaw motions. The other is a single-degree-of-freedom device that produces motion in the horizontal direction. Both have been used to acquire information on whole-body and visual response to vibration. Frequency response plots of some of the acquired data are presented. Procedures for assessing the severity of human vibration responses in terms of absorbed power are described and discussed. Brief descriptions are presented of studies that made use of the equipment and methodology dicusssed. The first is a concept evaluation of a proposed vehicle for use on the lunar surface. The second is a hardware evaluation of two seating devices for use in a wheeled vehicle in severe terrain environment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720001
L. F. Stikeleather, G. O. Hall, A. O. Radke
Some new vehicle ride vibration data are presented. The Janeway recommended limit, Pradko/Lee absorbed power, and Mil-Std-1472A (proposed ISO tolerance criteria) provide formats for the data presentation. A brief literature review of the subjective tolerance question is included. The importance of seating systems which attenuate vehicle vibration is demonstrated.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720914
John Carter
A review of the long-standing highway truck ride problem and conventional solutions emphasizes an increased usage of suspension seats to isolate the driver from predominant cab vibration. A novel new suspension seat (Hydra-Flex) features an articulated linkage which conforms to similar kinematics as natural motion of the human body. Further, this linkage inherently provides an action which cancels the characteristic back-slapping motion of truck cabs. Numerous inherent advantages over conventional designs of suspension seats are disclosed, and these features are attributed to the “bionics” principle which is involved.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720821
Francis C. Bosso, Alfred G. Ratz, Stephen F. Sullivan
This paper discusses fully-developed digital control systems used in vibration testing. The fundamentals of control are presented, along with a discussion of the final systems evolved. Of particular importance is the need to fully exploit the new levels of automation and safety available when computers are used. Performance is demonstrated using the results of operational tests.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720322
B. Underhill, B. McCullough
Aircraft seats that merely hold the occupants rigidly in place have been satisfactory when considering horizontal or lateral decelerations; but they have not proved sufficient when accidents occur resulting in large vertical deceleration. This deficiency led to the concept of an energy-absorbing seat, which would utilize the space between the seat bottom and the floor to absorb impact energy and reduce accelerations, thereby increasing occupant survival potential. To establish the seat design strength requirements, a maximum tolerable “g” load was chosen, and the maximum vertical velocity was calculated based on the available arresting distance. The effect of varying passenger weight was investigated, and a weight was chosen for design purposes. This then defined the load-deflection requirements of the seat. Other requirements established that weight and cost be kept to a minimum and that conventional materials and fabrication processes be used.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720202
Peter Kyropoulos
The history and technical background of the Subcommittee Human Factors Engineering Committee on Control Identification of the SAE is reviewed. Recommendations are presented for a proposed SAE Information Report on Recommended Practice on Identification of Controls for Passenger Cars, with particular emphasis on guidelines for the development of new identifications.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720201
William J. Burger
Cyclopean eye positions of a small selected sample of drivers were measured relative to vehicle reference points while they performed usual driving activities in several late model vehicles. One vehicle was modified to obtain enhanced lateral and rear visibility. Results indicate that 1) during driving eye position shifts substantially to the rear of static eye position, 2) shoulder belts restrict eye excursions even during straight ahead driving, 3) a periscopic type mirror eliminates eye position shift and reduces variability during lane changes when compared to standard rear vision devices, 4) there is no consistent change in eye position over extended periods of driving, and 5) driving environment does not significantly affect average eye position.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720204
Henry S. R. Kao, Thomas B. Malone, Richard L. Krumm
This paper reports an analysis of the degree of control/display (C/D) standardization in location, operation, and coding characteristics for 1971 automobiles. For C/D location commonality, between-manufacturer and within-manufacturer and between-car-type designs were compared. For operation and coding analysis, a selected group of C/D was used. With 90% of domestic and 76% of imported cars surveyed, a great variability of C/D designs was found for all three measures. The second part of the study experimentally evaluated four alternate control concepts for passenger car three-beam headlight systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720199
David C. Hammond, Ronald W. Roe
This report presents the results of the SAE Human Factor Committee Driver Control Reach Study conducted in June-August 1971. Over 100 test subjects were measured on three test fixtures representing a sports car, a typical passenger car, and a heavy truck. Finger grasp reach was recorded to 40 locations in front of the driver. The report presents the background information for a forthcoming SAE Recommended Practice on Driver Arm Reach.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720200
David C. Hammond, Ronald W. Roe
Results of previous SAE drivers' eye-location studies have been used to develop a fixed seat eyellipse and contours that describe drivers' head locations. Centroid data from these and other eye-location studies are used as a means of locating the SAE eyellipse according to seat back angle. Part I comprises the discussion of these data. Studies recently completed provided data on drivers' eye locations for varied vehicle packages ranging from sports cars to heavy trucks. The results are summarized in Part II as a series of tables, which include statistical definitions of tangent cutoff eyellipses. Part III of this report describes a method for positioning a fixed seat eyellipse according to seat back angle. A method is also shown for measuring headroom relative to seat back angle.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720264
James M. Miller
The Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970 may have much importance to the truck cab designer. The levels of noise, heat, and carbon monoxide to which the truck operator is exposed may be a health and safety hazard. While current standards for these hazards have not been directly applied to commercial carriers, it is predicted that they will be in the near future. Some current research in the noise and carbon monoxide areas in particular is cited; legal standards for these are projected for the designer's use. The inclusion of air conditioning as standard equipment in large trucks may be a realistic way to meet new standards.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720262
R. E. McAfee
Driver environment encompasses physical room, control placement, visibility, interior noise level, occupant protection, and temperature control. All of these factors have an effect on a driver's temperament and fatigue level. Reduction of adverse effects contribute to a driver's alertness. This paper outlines International Harvester's approach to total driver environment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720233
L.J. Nevada
A study has been made of motor vehicle driver environment in order to determine the most desirable design features and the optimum grouping of electrical controls conducive with minimum conscious thought and physical effort in location and operation under any given set of conditions. Consideration is given to the psychological aspects of control operating noise level and action “feel,” to styling and standardization of layout with the ultimate objective of driver fatigue reduction, and to a worthwhile contribution in road safety improvement.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720232
Robert B. Kerchaert, James L. Sauter
A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators. How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720231
James L. Sauter, Robert B. Kerchaert
For the instrument panel designer, good visibility means providing clear, legible, and easy-to-understand instruments and controls free from obstructions, shadows, and inadequate lighting. Unfortunately, most of these provisions are subjective in nature and it is ultimately the designer or group of designers who must decide what is “good visibility.” In order to remove some of this subjectivity, a study was undertaken by Chrysler Corp. to find a more objective approach to measuring visibility. In particular, this study dealt with measuring in a quantitative manner the readability of letter patterns used on instruments, controls, and indicators. This report, which covers the main results of the study, deals with the effects of such diverse factors as driver age, illumination, and letter size on a driver's perception time-the time it takes for a driver to take his eyes off the road and read a target on his instrument panel.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720964
Edward B. Becker
Procedures to determine the center of mass and the moments of inertia in three dimensions of previously defined anatomical segments are presented. As an illustration, these procedures are applied to the human head and head-and-neck. The results of measurements made on six human heads and three head-and-necks are presented and discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720293
Peter Kyropoulos
This paper is essentially a set of instructional notes intended for the use by those who want to familiarize themselves with the methodology of human factors as applied to the design of truck cabs. Careful study and use of the references is required if the notes are to be useful. The need for constructing mock-ups and for experiments using typical users as test subjects is repeatedly emphasized. The basic elements of anthropometrics are reviewed. Seeing is treated as the first step in the decision-making process. It is the most important channel of communication between the driver, the vehicle, and the surrounding road and traffic. Similarly, control location and identification is a problem in communication between driver and vehicle. Control forces, seating, and environmental requirements of comfort and alertness are reviewed. Simulation and simulators are treated here as an essential part of experimental aspects of human factors design. The role of mathematical models is examined.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720005
H. T. E. Hertzberg
After a brief description of relevant buttock structure, the author presents summary data on buttock size, tuberosity locations, and other dimensions needed for improved seat design, as measured from a sample of 35 young males chosen to approximate the range of USAF flying personnel. Summary load patterns for two angles of seat back (pelvic inclination) are shown, and suggestions to reduce the discomfort of long-continued sitting are made. Curves and data for successful USAF seat surfaces are presented. Citing recent increases in American body size, the author calls for an anthropometric survey on a national sample in which numerous data needed for automotive and other industrial design would be acquired.
1971-11-01
Standard
AIR1223
Liquid supply systems for breathing oxygen for the crew and/or passengers of transport aircraft require design and installation considerations, which are detailed herein. AIR 825, Oxygen Equipment for Aircraft, contains general information on determination of breathing oxygen requirements and equipments for the crew and passengers of transport category aircraft. This document covers the more specific requirements for either a 70 or 300 psig liquid oxygen system. The standard 70 psig nominal pressure is recommended for use except in cases of excessive pressure drop, flow requirements, and some continuous flow regulators which may require the 300 psig nominal pressure system. AS 861, Minimum General Standards for Oxygen Systems and AIR 822, Oxygen Systems for General Aviation Aircraft, also contain general applicable information.
1971-10-01
Standard
J994A_197110
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
1971-09-01
Standard
AS1224
This standard defines the minimum requirement for the design, construction and performance of continuous flow oxygen masks for crew and passengers of general aviation civil aircraft. This standard includes the following types of continuous flow oxygen masks. A. Open port dilution rebreathing masks. B. Valved or restrictive phase dilution rebreathing masks. C. Valved or restrictive phase dilution reservoir masks. D. Open port or restrictive dilution mask without rebreathing or reservoir bag.
1971-07-30
Standard
AS1225
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum standards of design, construction, and performance for two types of permanently installed, high pressure 12,800 kPa (1850 psig) and 13,800 kPa (2000 psig) oxygen system cylinder fill valves used in commercial aircraft. Refer to Purchaser's Specification for requirements which are beyond the scope or level of detail provided in this document. One valve has an adjustable pressure sensitive closing valve to automatically control the final pressure for a correct amount of oxygen in the system. The second valve incorporates an automatic shutoff feature designed to limit system overpressurization in the event maihntenance personnel do not stop system filling at the correc pressure. The intent of the fill valves is to control the rate of fill to limit the rise in temperature caused by compression heating to acceptable values, prevent oxygen back flow and prevent the ingestion of foreign matter that could cause contamination of the system.
1971-07-01
Standard
ARP1178
Because of the necessity of advising all crew members instantly and simultaneously of an existing or impending cabin evacuation, this recommended practice has been prepared. The development of large aircraft with remote flight compartments, cabin attendant stations, and galleys have made the necessity of such a warning system more evident. This recommended practice establishes criteria for the development and installation of an aircraft emergency signal system to permit any crew member to inform all other crew members that an emergency evacuation situation exists and that an evacuation has been or should be immediately started. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this ARP to specify the design method, mechanism or equipment to be used in the accomplishment of the objectives set forth herein.
1971-07-01
Standard
AS1214
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers all types of manually operated high pressure Oxygen line shut off valves utilizing either metallic or nonmetallic valve seats for use in general and commercial type aircraft.

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