Display:

Results

Viewing 5581 to 5610 of 5723
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
B. G. Peters, D. Amorelli, J. T. Celentano
This paper discusses a concept of reliability, which includes the relationship of man to total system reliability, and the techniques and controls used to insure spacecraft mission success through reliability. Former maintainability concepts for weapon systems are reviewed briefly, pointing out their inadequacies for manned spacecraft. The reliability concepts for manned spacecraft which require that all systems function during a mission are examined. Examples of man's contribution to the reliability of aircraft and spacecraft systems are discussed. These concepts will permit achievement of mission success that approaches 100 percent, using hardware with a reliability of 80 percent. The method for integrating reliability concepts, step by step, into design analysis and review is discussed in detail as is the subsequent extension into test and redesign activities. The method for integrating man into the space system reveals his capability to manually override, maintain, and repair. This upgrades reliability and provides the means to assure mission success.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
James N. Anderson
Analysis of performance data for complex mechanical energy conversion and control equipment has shown that human learning is a contributing factor to reliability growth. Resolution of technical problems is delayed until the personnel involved have developed the skills enabling them to effectively do their jobs. Added to the effect of wrong decisions and inadequately performed tasks is the accompanying lack of self-confidence that may result in the failure of personnel to assume responsibility for their actions. Case histories are presented to illustrate some of the situations that cause set-backs in reliability growth, with emphasis on that part caused by the learning process.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
R. B. Wilson, J. L. Gaffney
History of X-15 performance reveals that the pilot, by unscheduled or unplanned inputs, enabled completion of almost twice as many flights as would otherwise have been completed on a routine basis. The prelaunch team (including the pilot) supported 92 successful routine launchings and overcame malfunctions to enable 10 additional launchings; 13 missions were unsuccessful because of team error. The maintenance crew was responsible for 6 failures out of 164 mission attempts. A reliability point estimate of 0.84 for the X-15 personnel subsystem is derived from these comparisons.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Paul L. Connolly
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Stanley R. Mohler, John J. Swearingen, Ernest B. McFadden, J. D. Garner
Abstract This paper presents newly discovered principles concerning human factors in emergency evacuation of aircraft following survivable accidents. A comprehensive summary and evaluation of all known emergency evacuation tests through December 1963 is presented. Human factors data resulting from tests conducted between July 1963 and February 1964 in CARI's 132,000 gal indoor ditching pool, under extreme conditions of lighting, and at Lake Tenkiller in eastern Oklahoma are presented. Also, land tests were conducted using new escape devices, including the “Telescape” device. Lack of familiarity with emergency equipment on the part of the crew, plus certain equipment design defects, doubled the escape times, and in certain instances resulted in unsuccessful escapes. Designs enabling a minimum escape time of 90 sec are recommended for future civil aircraft. The results indicate the desirability of instituting changes in crew emergency evacuation training and in passenger briefing practices.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
J. Jay Keegan
Abstract A scientific medical study of “Alterations of the Lumbar Curve Related to Posture and Seating” has shown that the cause of most postural lower back discomfort and pain when sitting is degeneration and posterior protrusion of lower lumbar intervertebral discs. Sitting at a right angle greatly flattens the lumbar spine curve and increases this disc protrusion. Seats need to be designed to allow more backward inclination of the shoulders and give support over the lower lumbar region. Other requirements for a comfortable and protective seat are presented, with application to automobile seats.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
Joseph W. Wissel
A single military specification for Human Factors does not exist at this time. Many standards and specifications which cover various parts of the field were reviewed. The Electronic Industries Association has prepared a proposed specification on Human Factors which encompasses all aspects of the field, and is applicable to the entire weapon system spectrum. Methods of interpretating existing standards for utilization by design engineers has been accomplished through the development of Human Factors Guides. The factor that may have greatest influence on the effectiveness of Human Factors specification is the shift from fixed fee contracting to incentive contracting.
Technical Paper
1964-01-01
BRUCE D. GREENSHIELDS
This paper describes the evolution of equipment and techniques leading to the development of a “Quality Index of Traffic Flow”. Four applications of the quality index were studied: The development of cost figures for different values of the index; an investigation of the relationship between density, volume and the quality indices; a test of the correlation between gasoline consumption and the quality of flow; and an attempt to discover if there is a correlation between the quality of flow and the frequency of highway accidents. At the conclusion of these studies it became possible to modify the original equipment, as a result the “Drivometer and Traffic Events Recorder” was developed. Using this equipment, a mathematical interpretation of driver’s responses to traffic events was developed and three additional studies were delineated. These included: the functional classification of streets and highways, effect of highway design and control devices on traffic flow, and testing vehicle proving grounds.
Standard
1963-12-01
This Recommended Practice is intended to outline the design, installation, testing, and field maintenance criteria for a high temperature metal pneumatic duct system, for use as a guide in the aircraft industry. These recommendations are to be considered as currently applicable and necessarily subject to revision from time to time, as a result of the rapid development of the industry.
Magazine
1963-11-01
Standard
1963-05-01
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to establish recommendations for the design, installation and testing of air vehicle vapor cycle refrigeration systems. These recommendations are representative of the refrigerant cycles.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Charles E. Nerpel
A plea for better automotive design which would benefit car drivers. Better design would include rearrangement of dashboard, a more flexible steering wheel, and improved seat adjusting tracks. The automotive designer has an obligation to provide maximum adjustment of seat, steering wheel, and pedal relationship. Ability to adjust these things to any size driver has barely increased, although the amount of different sized drivers has. Greater flexibility of these instruments would be also insure safer driving.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
H. S. Simpson
Competitive forces of business, social legislation, public opinion, and operating costs are making employers consider the human factors as a definite part of design criteria for implements, tools, or systems. Consideration of human factors in the design can reduce accidents, make the operator more comfortable, and increase his efficiency.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
Sylvester H. N. Zumbrun
No major technological breakthrough is required to design an environment within a lunar surface vehicle which will support life on the surface of the moon. Engineering aspects associated with developing habitable environment require the coordinated efforts of engineers, psychologists, and biologists, and must accommodate the capabilities and limitations of the human operator in order to provide for environmental protection, comfort, and operating efficiency. Man, considered as a system, will function as an element of the several systems in the lunar vehicle, and the lunar crew must be carefully selected and trained.
Technical Paper
1963-01-01
T. B. Sheridan
Recent mathematical descriptions of the human operator in control systems are reviewed. Available models are shown to have certain shortcomings when applied to automobile driving. It is proposed that “self-pacing” and “programed-transient” behavior are requisite to satisfactory characterization of the driver.
Standard
1962-12-01
This document supplements ARP85, to extend its use in the design of ECS for supersonic transports. The ECS provides an environment controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals and equipment. These limits include pressure, temperature, humidity, conditioned air velocity, ventilation rate, thermal radiation, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.) of the environment. The ECS is comprised of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute conditioned air to the occupied compartments. This system is defined within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 21. It interfaces with the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100), at the inlet of the air conditioning system shutoff valves.
Standard
1962-07-01
This Standard is intended to establish preferred abbreviations for use on panels, controls, instruments, displays, placards and markings. The recommendations apply to terms used in the flight deck of transport aircraft. The abbreviations, symbols and codes do not supersede those used in airworthiness regulations or aeronautical charts and documents. Where conflict is possible the operational context must be such as to resolve any ambiguity. If doubt exists, an alternative abbreviation or less truncated abbreviation should be used.
Standard
1962-06-30
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method for classifying the frequencies of analysis of solutions used in the processing of metals, such as electroplating, anodizing, and conversion coating and associated processes but usage is not limited to such applications. This document is intended to establish a periodic test plan that may be used by processors to satisfy the requirement of an Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) for a chemical processing solution periodic test plan as a control factor.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
S. E. Stuntz
The basic process of air traffic control is a complex control feedback system, with human servomechanisms at its input (traffic controller) and output (airplane pilot) ends. Controller and pilot interact via communication links, receiving and transmitting information displayed almost exclusively to the visual and auditory senses. Human abilities and limitations for handling the required data are discussed with respect to present and proposed display techniques. The effects of quantity, rate, reliability (ambiguity) and storage of data are related to air traffic control system effectiveness. The means by which this may be determined are considered from a human factors viewpoint with regard to safety, convenience, and economy.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
P. B. Specht
Human engineering is concerned with man-machine relationships, with heavy emphasis on man. Since it considers man’s wants as well as his needs, it should become an increasingly important part of present-day management responsibility. This responsibility, in turn, should be reflected in the manufacturer’s products through more thorough built-in safety design.
Technical Paper
1962-01-01
J. O. Reinecke
Although human engineering has been used to a great extent in projects concerned with man’s venture into outer space, it has been little used on such unglamorous operations as farming and roadbuilding. Vibration, pitching, rolling, noise, and color are factors to be considered in human engineering on equipment of this sort.
Standard
1962-01-01
This Aerospace Recommended Practice provides criteria for design with respect to overall safety, particularly to afford minimum risk exposure to flight attendants and passengers from injuries due to: A. Routine use of galley installations B. Galley components becoming dislodged under routine or abnormal operating conditions and under survivable crash or ditching conditions C. Malfunctions of, or defects in, galleys or associated galley equipment. NOTE: It is not the purpose of this Aerospace Recommended Practice to specify the design methods or specific design to be followed in the accomplishment of the stated objectives.
Standard
1961-08-15
Air Condiitioning System - General - Dealing with Design Features. Air Conditioning Equipment - Commercial Passenger - Delaing with features. Applicable only to commercial passenger carrying aircraft. Desirable Design Features - General information for use of those concerned in meeting requirements contained herein.
Magazine
1961-06-01
Standard
1961-06-01
This document includes requirements of installations of adequate landing and taxiing lighting systems in aircraft of the following categories: a) single engine personal and/or liaison type; b) light twin engine; c) large multiengine propeller; d) large multiengine turbojet; e) military high performance fighter and attack; and f) helicopter. The purpose of this document is to provide certain basic considerations and design criteria for installation of landing and taxiing light systems for night operation.
Standard
1961-04-01
This SAE Standard may be used for all revolving cranes wherein the capacity of the crane to support loads is based on its resistance to overturning. it is not applicable to cranes wherein the capacity of the crane is based on structural strength or available hoisting power. The purpose of this test is to determine the maximum capacity of a crane to counterbalance loads applied on its hook block. The capacity of the crane is reported in terms of the load in kilograms (pounds) and its corresponding radius in meters (feet) for a specified position of the upperstructure with respect to the mounting.
Technical Paper
1961-01-01
FLETCHER N. PLATT
Viewing 5581 to 5610 of 5723

Filter

  • Article
    476
  • Book
    20
  • Collection
    9
  • Magazine
    133
  • Technical Paper
    3994
  • Subscription
    3
  • Standard
    1088