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2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0442
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0437
Rudolf Mortimer, Errol Hoffmann, Aaron Kiefer
Abstract Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0881
Mitsuru Enomoto, Michiko Kakinuma, Nobuhito Kato, Haruo Ishikawa, Yuichiro Hirose
Abstract Design work for truck suspension systems requires multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameters that cannot be solved in a simple way. This paper proposes a process-based systematization concept for ride comfort design using a set-based design method. A truck was modeled with a minimum of 13 degrees of freedom, and suspension performance under various vehicle speeds, road surface conditions, and load amounts was calculated. The range of design parameters for the suspension, the range of performance requirements, and the optimal values within these ranges were defined based on the knowledge and know-how of experienced design engineers. The final design of the suspension was installed in a prototype truck and evaluated. The performance of the truck satisfied all the objectives and the effectiveness of the set-based design approach was confirmed.
2014-03-31
Standard
J2972_201403
This Information Report contains a definition of road vehicle hands-free operation. This definition applies to driver inputs to a wireless communications device used for person-to-person wireless communications while driving. This report applies to both original equipment manufacturers’ and aftermarket devices. The definition does not apply to outputs, e.g., visual or haptic feedback, from a communication system or device, regardless of the modality of human-machine interface. It also does not apply to parallel or redundant manual control operating modes.
2014-03-25
Article
The company is continuing to develop foundation tools for future autonomous driving by advancing the fundamentals of sensing, planning, and then acting to guide vehicle response. Mimicking a human-like response is requiring new algorithm and systems engineering that better exploits existing sensors.
2014-03-24
Technical Paper
2014-01-2006
Peerapat Phondeenana, Raksit Thitipatanapong, Sanya Klongnaivai, Nuksit Noomwongs, Sunhapos Chantranuwathana
Abstract Driver behavior is one of the most important factors in safe mobility. In general, various driver maneuvers can be determined from acceleration of the vehicle. Physically, the acceleration and brake can be detected with longitudinal acceleration while turning and lane change can be detected with lateral acceleration. Normally, IMU (inertia measurement unit) has been designated to get these data. However, the IMU is not convenience to install in the vehicles especially as aftermarket parts. Nowadays, navigation system technologies have been much improved, both on availability and accuracy with combination of multiple navigation satellite systems. Normally, it's called Multi-GNSS (multiple global navigation satellite system). In particular, the satellite navigation systems available in this work are GPS, GLONASS, and QZSS. With decimeter precision and the update rate scale up to 10-Hz, the GNSS can be a viable alternative for driver behavior detection.
2014-03-21
Magazine
Downsizing: the heat is off Ian Adcock discovers why a material developed in the nuclear industry could prove a real boon for OEMs as they look to downsize engines. Lightweight champions Could an alloy with the strength of steel, but as light as aluminium, prove to be a game changer for the automotive industry? Ian Adcock investigates. Road fatalities: eliminating the human factor In a new series on vehicle safety, Ian Adcock looks at the need for more driver intervention systems.
2014-03-19
Article
Ford is using a highly engineered lens with 16 precision optical surfaces and 80 facets in the upcoming 2015 F-150's headlamp to re-create as much as possible a daytime quality of light after the sun goes down. The automaker says no other light-duty pickup truck on the road today uses LED headlamps.
2014-03-19
Article
Amid its recall of 1.62 million vehicles for faulty ignition switches, linked to 12 fatalities, General Motors Co. on March 18 announced the creation of a new position, Vice President, Global Vehicle Safety.
2014-03-19
Article
J2601 and J2799 spell out pressure levels and other parameters for hydrogen fueling, helping pave the way for commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles.
2014-03-11
Article
When electronic systems take control of an autonomous car, they need to perform perfectly every time. That’s prompting developers to build fault tolerance into systems.
2014-03-10
Article
Changes in networking are likely to occur as safety systems are linked together to further reduce accidents and pave the way for autonomous driving. Many developers feel that the bandwidth of CAN (Controller Area Network) systems won’t meet emerging demands, so they’re moving toward Ethernet and FlexRay.
2014-03-10
Article
Engineers at NASCAR's Research & Development Center in Concord, NC, recently performed three separate window net and window net mounting tests and used them to design an improved window net mounting system for the 2013 season.
2014-03-10
Article
The continued use of composite materials in aerospace has revealed other challenges that need to be addressed while the solutions to material and manufacturing cost are reduced. Before the widespread use of the material in transportation vehicles can be realized, safety challenges surrounding the material must be addressed.
2014-03-10
Article
The company’s laser-diode high beams have three times the luminosity of LED-type high beams, but don't hit oncoming drivers like a Sci-Fi movie death ray.
2014-03-10
Article
LifeBelt is a webbing strap placed in the seat base, just below the seating surface, which is continuous with the standard seat belt and is loaded when the seat belt loads. Its effect is to form a loop around the upper leg area which encloses the pelvis and prevents submarining.
2014-03-07
Article
Potential lithium-ion battery electrolyte replacement being researched at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill is non-flammable.
2014-03-06
Article
Mainstream media outlets heavily touted vehicle-to-vehicle/-infrastructure (referred to as V2X) communications after a recent NHTSA endorsement. Often overlooked are technical challenges that still must be overcome before V2X can make any real impact.
2014-03-04
Article
TRW Automotive's steering-wheel concept being shown at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show supports semi and fully automated driving via several multifunctional features including hands on/off detection. The steering wheel is featured in Rinspeed's steer-by-wire XchangE electric vehicle concept.
2014-03-04
Magazine
Touch-less control coming to cars Use of proximity and gesture-recognition systems in auto cockpits could rise fifty-fold within a decade. Forming a strong bond Multi-material vehicles are becoming more prevalent as automakers attempt to reduce vehicle weight and boost fuel efficiency. Selecting the proper adhesive is critical when bonding dissimilar materials. SAE 2014 World Congress preview special section: 'Creating New Possibilities' Host company Hyundai and Tier 1 Strategic Partner, Delphi, established "Creating New Possibilities" as the theme for this year's premier engineering event taking place April 8-10 in Detroit's Cobo Center. This special Congress preview section uncovers some of those possibilities, featuring insights from the event's executive leadership; details of a Delphi/Hyundai advanced engine program; highlights from the technical program in the areas of powertrain, materials, testing and simulation, electronics, interiors, and body/chassis; and more.
2014-03-03
Article
At the Geneva International Motor Show this week, Nissan is introducing a rearview mirror that incorporates an LCD monitor. When put into the market, the unit will enable drivers to turn the conventional mirror into an LCD monitor.
2014-02-27
Standard
ARP4169B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses the desired characteristics of night vision goggle (NVG) filters that can be used with incandescent, electroluminescent (EL) and light emitting diode (LED) light sources to achieve NVG compatible lighting of aerospace crew stations. This document also discusses the parameters that need to be considered when selecting a night vision goggle/daylight viewing (NVG/DV) filter for proper contrast enhancement to achieve readability in daylight. The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of NVG compatible lighting that will meet the requirements of MIL-L-85762A and MIL-STD-3009.
2014-02-26
Article
Technical sessions focused on interiors at the SAE 2014 World Congress span the designated technology areas, including electronics, materials, and safety/testing. One example in the electronics area, to take place April 8 at 9:30 a.m., covers multi-media systems. As part of the discussion, Takata researchers will present new touchscreen concepts such as a smart display surface that could benefit steering-wheel design.
2014-02-25
Article
Its redesigned body structure includes sides with wide use of high-strength steel. The SUV receives Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's Acceptable rating in small overlap front test, Good ratings in other crash tests, and Advanced rating for optional precollision system with automatic braking.
2014-02-25
Article
Mitsubishi Electric Corp. has introduced a human-machine interface (HMI) that it says predicts a driver’s needs to safely and easily operate complex HMI tasks in one or two steps and in no more than 15 s.
2014-02-25
WIP Standard
ARP6295
The scope of this document is to provide recommended practices for the development and implementation of competency-based training programs for air carrier pilots. The recommended practices contained within this document are intended primarily for the guidance of passenger and cargo air carriers, and training providers.
2014-02-13
Standard
ARP1894B
The scope of this document is to provide a guideline for the preparation of a plan for testing of in-service chemical oxygen generators to confirm their design useful life. The test program should also allow determination with a sufficient level of confidence, whether generators are suitable for further use (i.e., life extension, or if the useful life limit has been reached).
2014-02-13
Standard
ARP6467
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) includes the minimum human factors requirements and recommendations for the flight deck display of data linked Aeronautical Information (AI), specifically Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs). The goal of human factors is to make it easy for users to do things right and hard to do them wrong. The guidance in this ARP supports this goal by defining minimum requirements and recommendations that focus on the text and potential graphics for NOTAMs as well as the human’s interaction with these on the flight deck. In this ARP “flight deck” includes both single pilot flight decks as well as multi-pilot flight decks. The FAA defines NOTAMs as any information concerning the establishment, condition, or change in any component of, or hazard to, the National Airspace System.
2014-02-12
Article
The methodology enables material selection and design optimization of energy absorbers for pedestrian protection based on a simple laboratory test and FE model, eliminating the need for extensive vehicle testing.
2014-02-11
Article
Security is becoming a major factor for automakers, driven by several of the dominant industry trends. Connectivity and increasing volumes of software are among the factors prompting many design teams to partner with security specialists.
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