Globalization has intensively driven focus of car manufacturers on comfort and ergonomics. Luxuries are becoming essential features of product mix. Customer’s expectations and desires are changing because of cut throat competition and increasing variety of options. In order to sustain in marketplace OEM has to be competitive while providing features and options with appropriate quality. Vigorously changing dimensions and definitions of comfort level, luxury and aesthetics driven the intense focus of OEM’s on customer touch points, customer touch points are those components of vehicle which customer accesses while driving the vehicle and they play vital role in generating drive feel of vehicle. Customers drive feel about the vehicle is most complex and critical factor and is of subjective nature. Now days drive feel is an important aspect of product differentiation. Gear shift feel is very crucial touch point in overall drive feel of vehicle.
Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
Elicitation Practices That Can Decrease Vulnerability to Off-Nominal Behaviors: Lessons from Using the Causal Component Model
When specifying an embedded system-to-be, a key consideration is how the embedded system will interact with its operating environment. Of particular concern, is the system's vulnerability to Off-Nominal Behaviors (ONB) from human interaction. ONB vulnerability can result in human operators placing the system in an undesired state through an unforeseen sequence of events. This, in turn, can have an adverse effect on the system’s quality. Reducing ONB vulnerability can be challenging because human behavior can be unpredictable and stakeholders have a natural tendency to assume the system will be used in a predictable, nominal, manner. One approach to reducing ONB vulnerability is to specify the system as "fool-proof" as possible, during the requirements phase, where access to domain experts is at its most convenient.
The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a demonstration study to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustic environment of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5dB to be measured.
Advanced Hydraulic Systems for Active Vibration Damping and Forklift Function to Improve Operator Comfort and Machine Productivity of Next Generation of Skid Steer Loaders
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
Abstract It is well known that the ride quality of trucks is much harsher than that of automobiles. Additionally, truck drivers typically drive trucks for much longer duration than automobile drivers. These two factors contribute to the fatigue that a truck driver typically experiences during long haul deliveries. Fatigue reduces driver alertness and increases reaction times, increasing the possibility of an accident. One may conclude that better ride quality contributes to safer operation. The secondary suspensions of a tractor have been an area of particular interest because of the considerable ride comfort improvements they provide. A gap exists in the current engineering domain of an easily configurable high fidelity low computational cost simulation tool to analyze the ride of a tractor semi-trailer. For a preliminary design study, a 15 d.o.f. model of the tractor semi-trailer was developed to simulate in the Matlab/Simulink environment.
Abstract Gesture control has been increasingly applied to automotive industry to reduce the distraction caused by in-vehicle interactions to the primary task of driving. The aim of this study is to find out if gestures can reasonably be used to control in-car devices. Since there exists a big cultural difference of gesture between different countries because of its particularity, a set of gestures which support intuitive human-machine interaction in an automotive environment is searched. The results show a gesture dictionary for a variety of on-board functions, which conforms to Chinese drivers’ driving habits. Furthermore, this paper also describes a driving simulator test to evaluate the usability of gesture from different aspects including the effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, memorability and security. Static driving simulator is considered as an excellent environment for the in-car secondary task as its high safety level, repeatability and reliability.
Abstract Based on the emergency lane change cases extracted from the China naturalistic driving data, the driving steering behavior divides into three phases: collision avoidance, lateral movement and steering stabilization. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the distribution of the duration time, the relationship between steering wheel rate and deflection were analyzed in three phases. It is shown that the steering behavior essentially is composed of steering primitives during the emergency lane-change. However, the combination of the steering primitives is different according to the specific steering constraints in three phases. In the collision avoidance phase, a single steering primitive with high peak is used for the fast steering; in the lateral movement and stabilization phase, a combination of two or even more steering primitives is built to a more accurate steering.
Abstract This research is based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, and briefly analyzed its communication protocol with reference to the layered model of Open System Interconnect Reference Model (OSI). Subsequently, a data acquisition system was designed and developed including a Vehicle Communication Interface (VCI) and a laptop. After the overall architecture was built, the communication mechanism of the VCI was studied. Furthermore, the lap top app was built using the layered design followed by the implementation of a scheme for data collection and experimentation involving the test driving of a real car on road. Finally, the driving style was identified by means of fuzzy reasoning and solving ambiguity based on fuzzy theory; via training the acceleration sample and forecast using the excellent learning and generalization ability of Support Vector Machine (SVM) for high-dimensional, finite samples.
Abstract With the development of automotive HMI and mobile internet, many interactive modes are available for drivers to fulfill the in-vehicle secondary tasks, e.g. dialing, volume adjustment, music playing. For driving safety and drivers’ high expectation for HMI, it is urgent to effectively evaluate interactive mode with good efficiency, safety and good user experience for each secondary tasks, e.g. steering wheel buttons, voice control. This study uses a static driving simulation cockpit to provide driving environment, and sets up a high-fidelity driving cockpit based on OKTAL SacnerStudio and three-dimensional modeling technology. The secondary tasks supported by HMI platform are designed by customer demands research. The secondary task test is carried out based on usability test theory, and the influence on driving safety by different interactive modes is analyzed.
The manufacturer's new truck generation can be equipped with side-curtain airbags integrated into the headliner molding above the doors.
Volvo and Uber executives provide insights into their collaboration to develop next generation autonomous driving (AD) cars aimed at reaching full SAE Level-5 standard.
The dangers of faulty car airbags recently have become all too clear. The product-liability issues associated with airbags and the largest, most costly automotive recall in history make it essential to characterize them thermally at high speeds and with high levels of sensitivity and accuracy.
This document provides guidance for laser operators and aviation authorities to determine the performance criteria that laser hazard control measures shall meet for the operation of an outdoor laser system in navigable airspace. The document does not cover systems intended to deliberately aim and or track lasers at aircraft such as FAA approved purposes, including visual warning systems, search and rescue, etc. Aircraft operations to be protected include all types that can be reasonably expected to operate in the affected area, which are traveling at speeds and altitudes defined in the Performance/Functional Requirements section. This document does not address all possible aircraft operations, (e.g., the operation of stealth, high-speed (> Mach 1), unmanned aircraft systems, aircraft above 60 000 feet MSL, etc.), including aircraft operating under a waiver from FAA regulations.
Special report: Lightweighting Uncovering the next actions in the industry's grand mass-reduction campaign. CAE's next leap forward With 3D simulations skyrocketing, engineers are looking forward to highly-optimized toolsets to keep pace with complexity. SAE Convergence 2016 Preview Meet the disruptors, network with peers and learn about the latest tech solutions that are rapidly changing the auto industry. "Military-grade" aluminum Jaguar, Exa say simulation to eliminate prototypes by 2020 OEMs expand testing of FEV variable-compression ratio engine Growth of FCVs and EVs tied to infrastructure Bolt EV seat design cuts weight, delights tall passengers Rolls-Royce reveals a Vision of its future Volvo bets on new PowerPulse, not 48V, to attack turbodiesel 'lag' SEAT to spearhead VW's new platform and 48V technology Dr. Jay Baron of CAR discusses vehicle lightweighting and predicts the outcome of the crucial CAFE mid-term review.
This document provides the rationale used by the Navigation Function Accessibility Subcommittee (the Subcommittee) for the development and content of a SAE J2364 Recommended Practice: Navigation and Route Guidance Function Accessibility While Driving. It provides both the reasoning for the overall recommended practice as well as each of its elements.
1.1 Minimum criteria are provided for steps, stairways, ladders, walkways, platforms, handrails, handholds, guardrails, and entrance openings which permit ingress to and egress from operator, inspection, maintenance or service platforms on off-road work machines parked in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 1.2 This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to off-road self-propelled work machines used in specialized mining machinery categories as defined in SAE J1116. 1.3 The minimum criteria are based on one unladen person using the access system at any one time. 1.4 Purpose This document establishes criteria for access systems primarily to aid in minimizing accidents and injury to personnel getting on, off, or moving about while servicing or preparing to operate off-road machines.
Location of Crew and Passenger Oxygen Masks, Portable Oxygen System, and Protective Breathing Equipment
Various emergency situations may require the dispensing of oxygen to all occupants of aircraft during flight. During an emergency event, depending on the aircraft operational flight capability, all cabin occupants must be serviced by a mask presentation system connected to an operational oxygen source. Several regulations specify the functional characteristics and requirements of the oxygen systems for aircraft in support of different missions. These should be referred to for the exact functional performance requirements. It is not the intent of this document to ensure conformance with these regulations, but only to recommend general concepts for the location of the oxygen masks and oxygen system outlets for proper accessibility by the aircraft occupants, whether cabin occupants or crew members. Different requirements may apply when the mission of the pressurized aircraft or the operational altitude of the aircraft is not in excess of FL250.
The scope of this document is to provide review of recent history of loss-of-control accidents during airline revenue operations.
This recommended practice describes a process for testing the comprehension of static (i.e., fixed or non-dynamic) symbols for all ground vehicles, for both OEM and aftermarket products. With advancing display technology, it is now possible to display dynamic symbols (e.g., a spinning beach ball to show that a process is ongoing, or a diagram showing energy distribution in hybrid vehicles). Such graphics are outside of the scope of this recommended practice, though extensions of this process may be useful for testing them. However, several symbols which occupy the same space on a display may change state without movement (e.g. play/pause button); these are within the scope of this recommended practice. The process described in this recommended practice includes criteria that are used to identify how well the perceived meaning matches the intended meaning for a representative sample of drivers.
This document describes how the program achieves its objective: to educate and train currently qualified commercial pilots with multi-engine and instrument ratings for First Officer and eventually Captain positions with the regional and/or the major airlines. This document provides an overview of a selection process, an academic curriculum, and a flight training program which will develop industry-recognized competencies and instill the knowledge, skills and attitudes known as professional standards.
This standard is intended to serve as a guide in the coordination of system design to promote uniformity of the nomenclature and description of the operator devices.
Technology of an Emotional Engine Sound Designing for Active Sound Control Using Order Balance and Musical Instrument Sound
Abstract This paper discusses approaches to emotionally improve the driving sound based on Active Sound Design (ASD). In the first step, target sound design methods are suggested in order to represent the vehicle’s concept and brand image via a driving sound. In this method, formant filter and musical chords are applied to the target sound synthesis. In the second step, a technique to make a target sound realistic in ASD system is discussed, which enables to stimulate the customers' emotion. In this technique, the process to simulate a musical instrument sound for a vivid driving sound and synthesize the sound with FIR filter is studied. Finally, the improved driving sound is demonstrated in ASD system.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements and technical guidance for evaluation of life-cycle cost, productivity, and safety/health factors related to power hand tool selection. It applies approaches to selection of quieter and lower vibration hand-held powered tools, with optimal ergonomic features, for the prevention of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), hearing loss and repetitive motion injuries. It suggests use of noise and vibration data provided by vendors to be verified and supplemented by information available through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and European Union databases. Inclusion/exclusion of data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are the only production models that meet this standard. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production models that meet this standard.
Silicon suppliers are stepping up to help facilitate progress in the road to autonomous driving. NXP Semiconductors has unveiled its BlueBox, which handles sensor fusion, analysis and complex networking.
The information contained in this document is based on line experience with current systems. It should be used as a basis for ongoing research and development including the human factors aspects of future flight management systems and their interaction with the ATC environment.
Safety Considerations of Carry-On Baggage Relating to the Emergency Evacuation of Transport Category Aircraft
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides information and recommended guidelines for handling carry-on baggage prior to emergencies and during the emergency evacuation of transport category aircraft. Recommendations are provided on limiting the size, amount, and weight of carry-on baggage brought into the cabin, improved stowage of carry-on baggage to minimize hazards to passengers in flight and during emergency evacuations, and procedures to ensure carry-on baggage is not removed during an emergency evacuation.
This specification is intended to be used as a general standard for industry use for design and construction of air transport galley equipment and inflight food service systems.
The standard would include requirements for HSI management [planning, execution, coordination (internal and external) documentation, administration and quality control], including collaboration among HSI domains, coordination between HSI and other disciplines to optimize total system performance, optimize human performance, and minimize personnel-driven risks and customer ownership costs.
Base-engine value engineering for higher fuel efficiency and enhanced performance Continuous improvement in existing engines can be efficiently achieved with a value engineering approach. The integration of product development with value engineering ensures the achievement of specified targets in a systematic manner and within a defined timeframe. Integrated system engineering for valvetrain design and development of a high-speed diesel engine The lead time for engine development has reduced significantly with the advent of advanced simulation techniques. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping.