Elicitation Practices that can Decrease Vulnerability to Off-Nominal Behaviors: Lessons from using the Causal Component Model
When specifying an embedded system-to-be, a key consideration is how the embedded system will interact with its operating environment. Of particular concern, is the system's vulnerability to Off-Nominal Behaviors (ONB) from human interaction. ONB vulnerability can result in human operators placing the system in an undesired state through an unforeseen sequence of events. This, in turn, can have an adverse effect on the system’s quality. Reducing ONB vulnerability can be challenging because human behavior can be unpredictable and stakeholders have a natural tendency to assume the system will be used in a predictable, nominal, manner. One approach to reducing ONB vulnerability is to specify the system as "fool-proof" as possible, during the requirements phase, where access to domain experts is at its most convenient.
With the development of the society, automobiles have been widely used in various classes of the society, while some issues came out such as traffic safety, environmental pollution and energy shortages and became increasingly serious. It reported that good driving behaviors can be applied to driving assistance, active safety, fuel economy improvement and others aspects to alleviate this problem. This thesis proposed that by way of data acquisition and identification of driving behaviors based on vehicle bus, it can be identified the driver’s driving habit and accelerating intentions through these information without additional sensors. Firstly, K line and CAN line, which are known by the current mainstream vehicle bus, are selected as the research object, then we analyzing communication protocol of bus data link layer, data transport layer and application layer according to the OSI model.
Today’s drivers have to deal with a growing amount of information coming from in-vehicle infotainment systems. The interaction between the driver and the system is critical because it might distract the driver from the primary task of driving. To make the in-car interactions more convenient and intuitive, gestures and gesture recognition are terms increasingly arisen in discussions of human-computer interaction, and application trials of gesture control have appeared more and more in automotive industry. The aim of this study is to find out if gestures can reasonably be used to control in-car devices. Since there exists a big cultural difference of gesture between different countries because of its particularity, a set of gestures which support intuitive human-machine interaction in an automotive environment is searched. The results show a gesture dictionary for a variety of on-board functions, which conforms to Chinese drivers’ driving habits.
This paper aims to determine how vehicle driver steering behavior seen in the emergency lane change event. Through the emergency lane change cases extracted from the China naturalistic driving data, the driver’s steering characteristics can be obtained and analyzed. Then the driving steering behaviors divides into avoidance and stabilization steering phases, and the different steering characteristics were found. It’s shown that during the avoidance phase, the steering generally follow the bell-shaped profiles of steering angle rate, and a linear relationship was found between the maximum steering wheel rate and steering wheel angle, which indicates a constant movement time for the avoidance steering. However, during the stabilization phase, the steering angle rate can be described using two or more overlapping bell-shaped profiles, something which relates to the different steering strategies in the avoidance phase.
With the development of automotive HMI and mobile internet, many interactive modes are available for drivers to fulfill the in-vehicle secondary tasks, e.g. dialing, volume adjustment, music playing. Considering the secondary tasks are always fulfilled simultaneously with the main task – driving itself, efficiency and safety are very important factors for the secondary tasks. Besides, drivers have high expectation for user experience of the new interactive modes. Thus, it is urgent to effectively evaluate which is the most suitable interactive mode with good efficiency, safety and good user experience for each secondary tasks, e.g. steering wheel buttons, voice control, in-air gestures, etc. This study uses a static driving simulation cockpit to provide driving environment, and sets up a high-fidelity driving cockpit based on OKTAL SacnerStudio and three-dimensional modeling technology. The secondary tasks supported by HMI platform are designed by customer demands research.
The scope of this document is to provide review of recent history of loss-of-control accidents during airline revenue operations.
This recommended practice describes a process for testing the comprehension of static (i.e., fixed or non-dynamic) symbols for all ground vehicles, for both OEM and aftermarket products. With advancing display technology, it is now possible to display dynamic symbols (e.g., a spinning beach ball to show that a process is ongoing, or a diagram showing energy distribution in hybrid vehicles). Such graphics are outside of the scope of this recommended practice, though extensions of this process may be useful for testing them. However, several symbols which occupy the same space on a display may change state without movement (e.g. play/pause button); these are within the scope of this recommended practice. The process described in this recommended practice includes criteria that are used to identify how well the perceived meaning matches the intended meaning for a representative sample of drivers.
This document describes how the program achieves its objective: to educate and train currently qualified commercial pilots with multi-engine and instrument ratings for First Officer and eventually Captain positions with the regional and/or the major airlines. This document provides an overview of a selection process, an academic curriculum, and a flight training program which will develop industry-recognized competencies and instill the knowledge, skills and attitudes known as professional standards.
This standard is intended to serve as a guide in the coordination of system design to promote uniformity of the nomenclature and description of the operator devices.
Technology of an Emotional Engine Sound Designing for Active Sound Control Using Order Balance and Musical Instrument Sound
Abstract This paper discusses approaches to emotionally improve the driving sound based on Active Sound Design (ASD). In the first step, target sound design methods are suggested in order to represent the vehicle’s concept and brand image via a driving sound. In this method, formant filter and musical chords are applied to the target sound synthesis. In the second step, a technique to make a target sound realistic in ASD system is discussed, which enables to stimulate the customers' emotion. In this technique, the process to simulate a musical instrument sound for a vivid driving sound and synthesize the sound with FIR filter is studied. Finally, the improved driving sound is demonstrated in ASD system.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers the requirements and technical guidance for evaluation of life-cycle cost, productivity, and safety/health factors related to power hand tool selection. It applies approaches to selection of quieter and lower vibration hand-held powered tools, with optimal ergonomic features, for the prevention of Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), hearing loss and repetitive motion injuries. It suggests use of noise and vibration data provided by vendors to be verified and supplemented by information available through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and European Union databases. Inclusion/exclusion of data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are the only production models that meet this standard. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production models that meet this standard.
Silicon suppliers are stepping up to help facilitate progress in the road to autonomous driving. NXP Semiconductors has unveiled its BlueBox, which handles sensor fusion, analysis and complex networking.
The information contained in this document is based on line experience with current systems. It should be used as a basis for ongoing research and development including the human factors aspects of future flight management systems and their interaction with the ATC environment.
Safety Considerations of Carry-On Baggage Relating to the Emergency Evacuation of Transport Category Aircraft
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides information and recommended guidelines for handling carry-on baggage prior to emergencies and during the emergency evacuation of transport category aircraft. Recommendations are provided on limiting the size, amount, and weight of carry-on baggage brought into the cabin, improved stowage of carry-on baggage to minimize hazards to passengers in flight and during emergency evacuations, and procedures to ensure carry-on baggage is not removed during an emergency evacuation.
This specification is intended to be used as a general standard for industry use for design and construction of air transport galley equipment and inflight food service systems.
The standard would include requirements for HSI management [planning, execution, coordination (internal and external) documentation, administration and quality control], including collaboration among HSI domains, coordination between HSI and other disciplines to optimize total system performance, optimize human performance, and minimize personnel-driven risks and customer ownership costs.
Base-engine value engineering for higher fuel efficiency and enhanced performance Continuous improvement in existing engines can be efficiently achieved with a value engineering approach. The integration of product development with value engineering ensures the achievement of specified targets in a systematic manner and within a defined timeframe. Integrated system engineering for valvetrain design and development of a high-speed diesel engine The lead time for engine development has reduced significantly with the advent of advanced simulation techniques. Cars poised to become 'a thing' Making automobiles part of the Internet of Things brings both risks and rewards. Agility training for cars Chassis component suppliers refine vehicle dynamics at the high end and entry level with four-wheel steering and adaptive damping.
This standard defines implementation requirements for the electrical interface between: a. aircraft carried miniature store carriage systems and miniature stores b. aircraft parent carriage and miniature stores c. surface based launch systems and miniature stores The interface provides a common interfacing capability for the initialization and employment of smart miniature munitions and other miniature stores from the host systems. Physical, electrical, and logical (functional) aspects of the interface are addressed.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes guidelines for the operation of automotive keyless ignition systems with the goal of helping to minimize user instigated errors. For the purpose of this Recommended Practice, user instigated errors may include: • the inability to start and stop the vehicle propulsion system, • exiting the vehicle with the automatic transmission in a non-parking gear, • exiting the vehicle while the vehicle propulsion system is enabled, • exiting the vehicle while the vehicle propulsion system is disabled, but the accessory or electrical systems are active. To help minimize these errors, this Recommended Practice contains design recommendations pertaining to uniform labeling, operating logic, indication of vehicle ignition/control status, and physical control characteristics of keyless ignition systems. This Recommended Practice applies to keyless ignition controls permanently mounted in passenger cars, MPVs, and trucks 10 000 GVWR and under.
Despite the greater efficiencies of engine brake designs, increasing gross weights, lower rolling resistance, and engine downsizing have driven the need for more auxiliary braking power on heavy trucks and buses. Jacobs Vehicle Systems' response is the High Power Density (HPD) engine brake.
ZF TRW recently announced through its joint venture, Brakes India Ltd, that it has won the first business award for its Electric Park Brake (EPB) system in India. Launching with a major global vehicle manufacturer, the technology will start production in 2017, marking the first launch of its kind for the Indian market, the supplier claims.
There is no "silver bullet" for automotive cyber security. A broad-based approach, including cloud and infrastructure protection must be established, and maintained as a continuing operation.
Experts see a loss of motorist trust if cyber attacks are possible. Common command for automotive service is one example of dangers that must be addressed.
Advanced vehicle technology meets the Internet of Things, privacy concerns and, of course, greater regulation in the 2020 decade.
Automakers are increasingly employing digital crash test dummies made of zeroes and ones to take the big hits in virtual vehicles.
Annual New York Auto Show Traffic Safety Symposium points to high fatality and injury rate among teens, while University of Bridgeport design school students propose technology solutions and Ford discusses impaired driving simulator "suits.
This SAE standard specifies a method and the device for use in determining the position of the Seat Index Point (SIP) for any kind of seat. This SAE document provides a uniform method for defining the location of the SIP in relation to some fixing point on the seat.
In-Vehicle Driving Posture Reconstruction from 3D Scanning Data Using a 3D Digital Human Modeling Tool
Abstract Driving posture study is essential for the evaluation of the occupant packaging. This paper presents a method of reconstructing driver’s postures in a real vehicle using a 3D laser scanner and Human Builder (HB), the digital human modeling tool under CATIA. The scanning data was at first converted into the format readable by CATIA, and then a personalized HB manikin was generated mainly using stature, sitting height and weight. Its pelvis position and joint angles were manually adjusted so as to match the manikin with the scan envelop. If needed, a fine adjustment of some anthropometric dimensions was also preceded. Finally the personalized manikin was put in the vehicle coordinate system, and joint angels and joint positions were extracted for further analysis.
Abstract The development of suspension systems has seen substantial improvements in the last years due to the use of variable dampers. Furthermore, the efficiency increase in the subsystems within the automotive chassis has led to the use of regenerative solutions, in which electric machines can be employed as generators to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated. However, the harvesting capability of regenerative suspensions is often limited by friction and inertial phenomena. The former ones waste mechanical energy into heat, while the latter ones hamper the shock absorption by locking the suspension when subject to dynamic excitation. Besides a suitable design and sizing of components, recent research works highlight the use of the so-called motion rectifier to improve energy recovery by constraining the motion of the electric motor to a single sense of rotation.
Target setting and structural design of an EPS-in-the-Loop test bench for steering feeling simulation
Abstract The adoption of Electrical Power Steering (EPS) systems has greatly opened up the possibilities to control the steering wheel torque, which is a critical parameter in the subjective and objective evaluation of a new vehicle. Therefore, the tuning of the EPS controller is not only becoming increasing complicated, containing dozens of parameters and maps, but it is crucial in defining the basic DNA of the steering feeling characteristics. The largely subjective nature of the steering feeling assessment means that EPS tuning consists primarily of subjective tests on running prototypes. On account of that, this paper presents an alternative test bench for steering feeling simulation and evaluation. It combines a static driving simulator with a physical EPS assisted steering rack. The end goal is to more accurately reproduce the tactile feedback to the driver by including a physical hardware in lieu of complicated and difficult to obtain software models.