Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 6139
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1782
Kyoung-Jin Chang, Dong Chul Park
Abstract This paper discusses approaches to emotionally improve the driving sound based on Active Sound Design (ASD). In the first step, target sound design methods are suggested in order to represent the vehicle’s concept and brand image via a driving sound. In this method, formant filter and musical chords are applied to the target sound synthesis. In the second step, a technique to make a target sound realistic in ASD system is discussed, which enables to stimulate the customers' emotion. In this technique, the process to simulate a musical instrument sound for a vivid driving sound and synthesize the sound with FIR filter is studied. Finally, the improved driving sound is demonstrated in ASD system.
2016-04-25
Article
ZF TRW recently announced through its joint venture, Brakes India Ltd, that it has won the first business award for its Electric Park Brake (EPB) system in India. Launching with a major global vehicle manufacturer, the technology will start production in 2017, marking the first launch of its kind for the Indian market, the supplier claims.
2016-04-19
Article
There is no "silver bullet" for automotive cyber security. A broad-based approach, including cloud and infrastructure protection must be established, and maintained as a continuing operation.
2016-04-19
Article
Experts see a loss of motorist trust if cyber attacks are possible. Common command for automotive service is one example of dangers that must be addressed.
2016-04-18
Article
Advanced vehicle technology meets the Internet of Things, privacy concerns and, of course, greater regulation in the 2020 decade.
2016-04-11
Article
Automakers are increasingly employing digital crash test dummies made of zeroes and ones to take the big hits in virtual vehicles.
2016-04-07
Article
Annual New York Auto Show Traffic Safety Symposium points to high fatality and injury rate among teens, while University of Bridgeport design school students propose technology solutions and Ford discusses impaired driving simulator "suits.
2016-04-06
WIP Standard
J1163
This SAE standard specifies a method and the device for use in determining the position of the Seat Index Point (SIP) for any kind of seat. This SAE document provides a uniform method for defining the location of the SIP in relation to some fixing point on the seat.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0164
Jamy Li, Xuan Zhao, Mu-Jung Cho, Wendy Ju, Bertram F. Malle
Abstract Autonomous vehicles represent a new class of transportation that may be qualitatively different from existing cars. Two online experiments assessed lay perceptions of moral norms and responsibility for traffic accidents involving autonomous vehicles. In Experiment 1, 120 US adults read a narrative describing a traffic incident between a pedestrian and a motorist. In different experimental conditions, the pedestrian, the motorist, or both parties were at fault. Participants assigned less responsibility to a self-driving car that was at fault than to a human driver who was at fault. Participants confronted with a self-driving car at fault allocated greater responsibility to the manufacturer and the government than participants who were confronted with a human driver at fault did.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0340
Tina Hull, Monika A. Minarcin
Abstract Applications using industrial robotics have typically led to establishing a safeguarded space encompassing a wide radius around the robot. Operator access to this hazard zone was restricted by a combination of means, such as hard guarding, safeguarding, awareness means, and personal protective equipment. The introduction of collaborative robots is redefining safeguarding requirements. Many collaborative robots have inherently safe designs that enable an operator and a robot to work within a shared, collaborative workspace. New technology in industrial robotics has opened up opportunities for collaborative operation. Collaborative operation could include either industrial or collaborative robots, depending on its application. The current defined modes of collaborative operation are hand guiding; speed and separation monitoring; safety-rated monitored stop; and, power and force limiting.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Abstract Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0396
Prasad S. Mehta, Jennifer Solis Ocampo, Andres Tovar, Prathamesh Chaudhari
Abstract Biologically inspired designs have become evident and proved to be innovative and efficacious throughout the history. This paper introduces a bio-inspired design of protective structures that is lightweight and provides outstanding crashworthiness indicators. In the proposed approach, the protective function of the vehicle structure is matched to the protective capabilities of natural structures such as the fruit peel (e.g., pomelo), abdominal armors (e.g., mantis shrimp), bones (e.g., ribcage and woodpecker skull), as well as other natural protective structures with analogous protective functions include skin and cartilage as well as hooves, antlers, and horns, which are tough, resilient, lightweight, and functionally adapted to withstand repetitive high-energy impact loads. This paper illustrates a methodology to integrate designs inspired by nature, Topology optimization, and conventional modeling tools.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1147
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu, Xiaojuan Zhao, Xiaohua Wu, Yongtong Zhang
Abstract To improve the comprehensive performance of vehicles equipped with stepped automatic transmission (SAT), the optimization of gearshift schedule should take into account various performance such as power performance, fuel economy, etc. In addition, the SATs would become more acceptable if the optimized gearshift schedule could also be individualized to reflect the driver’s expectation on vehicle performance to a reasonable extent. For the purpose of ensuring the comprehensive performance and improving the individual-ability (i.e., the ability to adapt to different driver’s performance expectation) of vehicles equipped with SAT, a linear weighted method has been proposed to construct a performance evaluation function, which applies different weights to represent driver’s expectation on performance by using these weights to multiply the normalized value of each sub-performance index.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1303
Haiqing Xu, Chang Jin, Hong Zhou, Yi Zhou
Abstract On the study of reducing the disturbance on driver’s attention induced by low frequency vehicle interior stationary noise, a subjective evaluation is firstly carried out by means of rank rating method which introduces Distraction Level (DL) as evaluation index. A visual-finger response test is developed to help evaluating members better recognize the Distraction Level during the evaluation. A non-linear back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is then modeled for the prediction of subjective Distraction Level, in which linear sound pressure RMS amplitudes of five Critical Band Rates (CBRs) from 20 to 500Hz are selected as inputs of the model. These inputs comprise an input vector of BPANN. Furthermore, active noise equalization (ANE) on DL is realized based on Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) algorithm that controls the gain coefficients of inputs of trained BPANN.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1304
Tadayoshi Fukushima, Hitoshi Takagi, Toshio Enomoto, Hiroyuki Sawada, Tomoyuki Kaneda
Abstract Interior noise caused by exterior air flow, or wind noise, is one of the noise-and-vibration phenomena for which a systematic simulation method has been desired for enabling their prediction. One of the main difficulties in simulating wind noise is that, unlike most other noises from the engine or road input, wind noise has not one but two different types of sources, namely, convective and acoustic ones. Therefore, in order to synthesize the interior sound pressure level (SPL), the body sensitivities (interior SPL/outer source level) for both types of sources have to be considered. In particular, sensitivity to the convective input has not been well understood, and hence it has not been determined. Moreover, the high-frequency nature of wind noise (e.g., the main energy range extends up to 4000 Hz) has limited the effective application of CAE for determining body sensitivities, for example, from the side window glass to the occupants’ ears.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1124
Luca Castellazzi, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Alessandro Piu, Enrico Galliera
Abstract The term driveability describes the driver's complex subjective perception of the interactions with the vehicle. One of them is associated to longitudinal acceleration aspects. A relevant contribution to the driveability optimization process is, nowadays, realized by means of track tests during which a considerable amount of driveline parameters are tuned in order to obtain a good compromise of longitudinal acceleration response. Unfortunately, this process is carried out at a development stage when a design iteration becomes too expensive. In addition, the actual trend of downsizing and supercharging the engines leads to higher vibrations that are transmitted to the vehicle. A large effort is therefore dedicated to develop, test and implement ignition strategies addressed to minimize the torque irregularities. Such strategies could penalize the engine maximum performance, efficiency and emissions. The introduction of the dual mass flywheel is beneficial to this end.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1121
Fang Liao, Weimin Gao, Yan Gu, Fei Kang, Yinan Li, Cheng Wang
Abstract Noise signals of the driver’s right ear include those of engine, environment, chassis dynamometer, loaded gears and unloaded gears when they are recorded in full vehicle on chassis dynamometer in semi-anechoic room. Gear rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear caused by unloaded gear pairs can’t be identified or quantified directly. To solve the problems, relative approaches are used to identify and quantify the gear rattle noise signals. Firstly, the rattle noise signals of the driver’s right ear are filtered by human ear characteristic functions and steady noise signals are extracted by regression and smoothing processes. The noise signals are regressed at 200ms interval in the hearing critical frequency bands and smoothed in the flanking frequencies. Then, the noise relative approaches are obtained by subtracting the steady noise signals from the filtered noise signals, which are the transient noise signals of the unloaded gear pairs inducing the rattle noise.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0004
Ganesh Dharmar, Rambabu Radakrishnan, Subramanian Premananth, Sarath Padattil
Abstract Achieving comfortable Ingress-Egress (I/E) is a major ergonomic challenge for Occupant packaging engineers during vehicle design. Vehicles should be designed so that the targeted drivers are able to comfortably get in and out of it. Simulating occupant ingress/egress motion for vehicle involves many constraints and capturing actual behavior of human motion is cumbersome. In recent years, there are number of studies to investigate occupant ingress/egress motion and to understand perceived discomfort, influence of specific design parameters, age impact etc. These studies majorly used techniques like real time motion capturing in a vehicle mockup, comparison of joint torques developed during the ingress/egress motions etc., to identify the occupants discomfort aspects. This paper aims to capture the ingress/egress influencing parameters and incorporating the parameters in vehicle architecture layout during concept phase itself considering various anthropometric measurements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0014
Shun Yang, Weiwen Deng, Haizhen Liu, Rui He, Lei Qian, Wenlong Sun, Ji Gao
Abstract Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
Abstract This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems. In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle. Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead. The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0084
Paul Weindorf, James Krier, Carl Evans
Abstract An optical configuration has been developed which offers a seamless appearance where the display aperture is less visible in the “off” condition and is minimized in the “on” condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0114
Chris Schwarz, Timothy Brown, John Lee, John Gaspar, Julie Kang
Abstract Distracted driving remains a serious risk to motorists in the US and worldwide. Over 3,000 people were killed in 2013 in the US because of distracted driving; and over 420,000 people were injured. A system that can accurately detect distracted driving would potentially be able to alert drivers, bringing their attention back to the primary driving task and potentially saving lives. This paper documents an effort to develop an algorithm that can detect visual distraction using vehicle-based sensor signals such as steering wheel inputs and lane position. Additionally, the vehicle-based algorithm is compared with a version that includes driving-based signals in the form of head tracking data. The algorithms were developed using machine learning techniques and combine a Random Forest model for instantaneous detection with a Hidden Markov model for time series predictions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0115
Dev S. Kochhar, Hong Zhao, Paul Watta, Yi Murphey
Abstract Lane change events can be a source of traffic accidents; drivers can make improper lane changes for many reasons. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of a passive method of predicting lane changes based on three physiological signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration signals, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Specifically, we discuss methods for feature selection, feature reduction, classification, and post processing techniques for reliable lane change prediction. Data were recorded for on-road driving for several drivers. Results show that the average accuracy of a single driver test was approx. 70%. It was greater than the accuracy for each cross-driver test. Also, prediction for younger drivers was better.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0110
Mohammad Huq, Douglas McConnell
Abstract Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) runs with a set of parameters that determine how the ACC performs. Some of these parameters are tunable to some degree through HMI and the rest are pre-determined. The proposed Behavior Trainable ACC (BTACC) is able to learn all these parameters from driving behavior of the driver. To develop BTACC adapted to the driver’s driving behavior, the ACC keeps collecting driving data such as set speed, acceleration, deceleration, headway settings, etc., of the vehicle over time and keeps updating the related parameters. After training is over, the driver is able to drive the vehicle in BTACC mode, when the vehicle would drive itself according to driving behavior of the driver, young or elderly, and thus, provide the drivers with a higher level of safety and comfort. BTACC can be embedded with an existing ACC module so that the drivers may choose either ACC or BTACC.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0111
Hiroaki Tanaka, Daisuke Takemori, Tomohiro Miyachi
Abstract Establishing drivers’ trust in the automated driving system is critical to the success of automated vehicle. The focus of this paper is how to make drivers drive automated vehicles with confidence during braking events. In this study, 10 participants drove a test vehicle and experienced 24 different deceleration settings each. Prior to each drive, we indicated to each participant the expected brake starting and stopping position. During each drive, participants would first maintain a set speed, and then stop the vehicle when they see a signal to apply the brakes. After each drive, we asked the participants’ perceived safety about the deceleration setting he/she just experienced. The results revealed that ‘jerk’ have significant influence on drivers’ perceived safety.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0118
Shinji Niwa, Mori Yuki, Tetsushi Noro, Shunsuke Shioya, Kazutaka Inoue
Abstract This paper presents detection technology for a driver monitoring system using JINS MEME, an eyewear-type wearable device. Serious accidents caused by human error such as dozing while driving or inattentive driving have been increasing recently in Japan. JINS MEME is expected to contribute to reducing the number of traffic deaths by constantly monitoring the driver with an ocular potential sensor. This paper also explains how a driver’s drowsiness level can be estimated from information on their blink rate, which can be calculated from the ocular potential.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0119
Preeti J. Pillai, Veeraganesh Yalla, Kentaro Oguchi
Abstract This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 6139

Filter