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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2834
James Roger Lackore, Kevin Voss
Access method design for entry and egress of medium and heavy duty truck cabs and bodies is a critical aspect of vehicle design. Occupational injuries due to entering or exiting the truck cab, or climbing onto and off of the truck body, can be a significant percentage of a fleet’s lost-time incident rate. Many vocational trucks operate in both off-road and on-road conditions, and the slip resistance of the stepping surface is an importance design aspect. Examples of vocational vehicles that involve off-road operation include dump, refuse, utility, tree-trimming, and concrete trucks. Stepping surfaces in these applications must provide a balance between traction and the ability to shed water, snow, and mud. While there are a few methods and devices for measuring walking surface slip resistance, they are either complicated, or not well suited to measuring aggressive surfaces.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2838
Dharmar Ganesh
In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location. This paper deals with how to achieve a visual hindrance free cluster position in a vehicle to protect the important information flow from the vehicle to the driver.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2870
Sanket Pawar
Displacement joystick controls are considered as most suitable for manual controls wherever proportional outputs are required with dynamic applications such as variable speed, sensitivity or position are required. These joysticks are being used widely in both open loop as well as in close loop controls. Operator applies force to either joystick itself or to its proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches. This movement is then detected by either resistive or Hall Effect sensors placed right inside joystick which is then converted into electrical signal. These joysticks along with proportional linear displacement thumb wheel switches find wide range of applications in off-road vehicles such construction and forestry vehicles, harvester machines etc. for applications like attachment speed controls, boom position control, rotation speed control etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2843
Xu Kuang, Jianqiang Wang, Keqiang Li
Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by driver behavior. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers’ economic efficiency, considering driving conditions obtained from the GPS data and an online map database. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. The 12 selected characteristic indexes represent four aspects of driving behavior including speed, acceleration, engine and accessories control. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2767
Sanjay L, Vijayakumar Chekuri, Arthanareeswaran Palaniappan
The emerging trends in commercial vehicle technology have increased the necessity for critical attribute engineering refinements. Drivability is emerging as one of the critical attributes in the automotive sector. The degree of smoothness in a vehicle’s response to the driver’s input is termed as drivability. This attribute has to be rigorously refined in order to achieve a brand specific vehicle character which will ensure a thorough product differentiation. In order to calibrate for a positive drivability feel, a methodology for evaluation of drivability is a prerequisite. The scope of this paper is aimed at detailing the methodology for evaluation of drivability attributes in commercial vehicles. Drivability is highly subjectively perceived attribute, therefore a subjective assessment technique to assess drivability attributes and sub-attributes are explained. Further, to quantify these attributes an objective measurement methodology is necessary.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2696
Shuichi Okada
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, "Build-up" is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of security as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to Hybrid vehicles with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control and regeneration brake. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of security and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2674
Dragan Aleksendric, Velimir Cirovic, Dusan Smiljanic
Customer perception of brake pedal feel quality, depends on both the customer's subjective judgment of quality and the actual build quality of the brake system. The brake performance stability represents an important aspect of a vehicle performance and its quality of use. This stability is needed especially in brake by wire system and braking system with regenerative braking. In order to provide stable braked pedal feel i.e. consistent the brake performance against the brake pedal travel, the model of the brake performance versus the brake pedal travel needs to be established. In this paper new hybrid neuro-genetic optimization model was developed for dynamic control and optimization of the disc brake performance during a braking cycle versus the brake pedal travel. Based on such model, the brake performance optimization of the passenger car has been provided against the brake pedal travel.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
From the dawn of commercial air travel until 2001, labor costs loomed as the greatest expense in commercial aviation. Though fuel costs have since taken the top spot, labor costs remain a pressing area of concern in the airline industry. Airlines have long sought to reduce the burden of labor to improve the businesses’ bottom line. One of their most frequent appeals has been to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Under-educated on the true failure rates, bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories about pilots becoming ill or falling asleep in the flight deck. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2474
Christopher W. Lum, Alexander Summers, Brian Carpenter, Angel Rodriguez, Matthew Dunbabin
In many parts of the world, uncontrolled fires in sparsely populated areas are a major concern. These small fires can quickly grow to large and destructive conflagrations in short time spans. The damage caused by these wildfires are often a function of the time elapsed between detection of the fire and deployment of firefighting resources. Fires detected relatively quickly can be more easily contained than fires that have been allowed to grow before taking corrective action. Detecting these fires has traditionally been a job for trained humans on the ground or in the air. In many cases, these manned solutions are simply not able to survey the amount of area necessary to maintain sufficient vigilance and coverage. This paper investigates the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for automated wildfire detection. The proposed system uses low-cost, consumer-grade electronics and sensors combined with various airframes to create a system suitable for automatic detection of wildfires.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholder to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend, since especially large hub airports are congested and operate at their capacity limit. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or unreliable and inefficient ground operation processes would disrupt the airport operations tremendously. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realization. Based on a clustering of aircraft interfaces, such as doors and services panels, for state-of-the-art passenger aircraft, concepts targeting to reduce the required resources and time are presented. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2472
Tom Owen
SUAV is a 4 year investigation with the aim of designing, manufacturing and integrating a 3kg Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) into an existing 10kg fixed wing UAV which is already in commercial service. The project comprises of a collaboration of 1o partners, each having a commercial or scientific interest in the design. Each partner provides specialist knowledge at system component level. This paper will present an overview of the problem space and present the methods used to generate the system level requirements. A top level overview will then be given of the resultant system design. This paper will also discuss some of the platform performance benefits and drawbacks of fuel cell operation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2536
Rinky Babul Prasad, Vinukonda Siddartha
Recent years have seen a rise in the number of air crashes and on board fatalities. Statistics reveal that human error constitutes upto 56% of these incidents. This can be attributed to the ever growing air traffic and technological advancements in the field of aviation, leading to an increase in the electronic and mechanical controls in the cockpit. Accidents occur when pilots misinterpret gauges, weather conditions, fail to spot mechanical faults or carry out inappropriate actions. Currently, pilots rely on flight manuals (hard copies or an electronic tablet) to respond to an emergency. This is prone to human error or misinterpretation. Also, a considerable amount of time is spent in seeking, reading, interpreting and implementing the corrective action. The proposed head mount assist for the pilot eliminates flight manuals, by virtually guiding the pilot in responding to in-flight necessities.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2601
Zhejun Yao, Wiltrud Weidner, Robert Weidner, Jens Wulfsberg
Despite the increasing application of automated systems, manual tasks still plays an important role in industrial production. The intelligence and flexibility of human enable quick response and adaptive production for the individual requirements and the changes in market. Moreover, some manufacturing tasks with sensible and high-value components (e.g., in electronic and aircraft production) requires attentive manual handling. Regarding the requirement of increasing productivity as well as ergonomic improvement and the aging of the employees, there is a significant need for technologies which support the staff individually by performing tasks. Human Hybrid Robot, a hybrid system with direct coupling (serial and/or parallel) of human and mechatronic elements, is a new trend in application of robotic technologies for supporting manual tasks. It realizes a synchronous and bidirectional interaction between human and mechatronic and/or mechanic elements in the same workspace.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
The diffusion of human and robotics in manufacturing system is one of the next steps in robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful there is more and more possible to achieve safer working environment. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot. In an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are studies and tests to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI-cell (Human Machine Interaction). The main object in this paper is to present how different safety system could help the HMI-cell to work properly in an industrial context, this when the operator enters the robot working area and working with a task that needs two hand. Safety defines as when its risk is judged to be acceptable.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2537
Sylvain Hourlier
The efficiency of the glass cockpit paradigm has faded away with the evolution of the aeronautical environment (traffic increase & permanence of service). Today's problem lies with "non-defective aircraft" monitored by "perfectly trained crews" still involved in fatal accidents. One explanation is, at the crew level, that we have reached a system complexity that, while acceptable in normal conditions, is hardly compatible with human cognitive abilities in degraded conditions. The current mitigation of such risk still relies on the enforcement through intensive training of an ability to manage extremely rare (off-normal) situations. These are explained by the potential combination of failures of highly complex systems with variable environment & with variable humans.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2532
Sylvain Hourlier, Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU, Xavier Servantie
As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments. Given the 6 axis accelerometer profiles that were collected, a number of potential candidate simulation platforms were selected.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2475
Francesco Cappello, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy
Accurate and robust tracking of objects is of growing interest among the computer vision scientific communities. The ability of a vision system to detect and track the objects, and accurately predict their future trajectory is critical in the context of mission- and safety-critical applications. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are not currently equipped to routinely access all classes of airspace and thus providing the pathway to coexist seamlessly with manned aircraft. Such capabilities can be achieved by incorporating both cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-And-Avoid (DAA) functions, as well an providing enhanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) services. DAA is highly dependent on the performance of CNS systems, specifically for Tracking, Deciding and Avoidance (TDA) tasks.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2485
Mark Benjamin Geiger, John Michael Ster
Powered hand tools have become essential to a range of industrial operations since their introduction in the late 1800s. However, progress often comes with risk. A range of potential hazards associated with power tool use include noise, a range of ergonomic stresses and physical safety hazards. One of the less publicized risks is hand-arm vibration, previously called Raynaud’s Syndrome of occupational origin, a neurovascular disease associated with intense and prolonged exposures to vibration – most commonly from powered hand tools. Despite initial US reports in the early 1900s, the disease has remained under-recognized in the US. European Union regulations have created an increased awareness of hand-arm vibration disease and demand for low-vibration powered hand tools, while the US has lagged in this regard. (See additional resources)* The wide range of vibration (and noise) created by alternative products performing the same function makes initial product selection critical.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2338
Dong Guo, Quan Shi, Peng Yi
Abstract In-vehicle noise is composed of a variety of tonal (frequency-related) components and the tonal components play an important role in the improvement of interior vehicle sound quality. Much research has been focused on the suppression of sound pressure level and achieved certain positive effects. However, in some operating conditions, customers still perceive the tonal components and complain about the vehicle quality even the sound pressure level is relatively low. Therefore, a better understanding of how tonal components are perceived is necessary for automotive designers. To do so, psychoacoustics results about human hearing mechanism to tonal components are comprehensively summed in this study: human hearing response to pure tone, two tones and multiple tones. Then, well-controlled testing stimuli were generated and subjective annoyance testing was conducted. The results show agreement with former researchers' findings.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2271
Yong Du Jun, Bong Hyun Park, Kang Seok Seo, Tae Hyun Kim, Myoung Jae Chae
Abstract Modern automotive seats require improvements in their design, safety, comfort including sitting and riding comfort. Among those, seat comfort is known to be difficult to evaluate because the comfort is a human feeling. As an approach to evaluate the human comfort in an objective manner, an objective measure is proposed for seat riding comfort evaluation under low frequency vibratory conditions which represents typical roll and pitch motions of driving motor vehicles. The related feeling due to this low frequency vehicle motion is termed ‘hold feeling’ because the seated body may tend to deviate from the defined seating position under such vehicle motion input. Dynamic pressure measurements have been conducted in the frequency range up to 1.0 Hz to monitor the interface pressure change behavior of the seat-subject body.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2352
Chaitanya Krishna Balla, Sudhakara Naidu, Milind Narayan Ambardekar
Abstract Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) refinement is one of the important parameters in modern vehicle development. In city traffic conditions, idling is an engine operating condition where a driver focuses attention more to his/her vehicle. Tactile vibration & noise levels inside the cab play an important role in all vehicles, especially those powered by diesel engines where combustion pressures are higher. They lead to discomfort & fatigue of passengers of even a low cost vehicle. Now its idle NVH is influenced mainly by vibration-isolation provided by power-train (PT) mounting design, This paper describes steps taken to improve the idle vibrations at a driver seat of a small commercial vehicle (SCV) with a 2-cylinder diesel engine of 800 cc through redesign of PT-mounting along with fine tuning of idle speed of the engine. A resonance was avoided between the first firing order at idling and PT rigid-body mode in pitching.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2332
Jan Deleener, Akira Sekitou, Masanori Ohta
Abstract Shift quality of a gearbox is one of the most important items contributing to the overall subjective impression of driving comfort for a vehicle with a manual transmission. Often the transmission is the only point of attention for shift quality issues with a focus on the synchronizer being the main area of optimization. This is however not always sufficient. What the driver feels at the gear lever is a result of the interaction between the gear lever, the selector system, the transmission internals and the driveline. For most of these subsystems, well established models are available which can be used in early development to get a first idea of the shift quality. However, accurately representing the physical feel of the transmission cable, connecting the gearbox and the shifter, remains a challenge.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2285
Arne Nykänen, David Lennström, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Subjects who are well aware of what to judge commonly yield more consistent results in laboratory listening tests. This awareness may be raised by explicit instructions and training. However, too explicit instructions or use of only trained subjects may direct experiment results in an undesired way. An alternative is to give fairly open instructions to untrained subjects, but give the subjects a chance to get familiar with the product and context by, for example, riding a representative car under representative driving conditions before entering the laboratory. In this study, sound quality assessments of interior sounds of cars made by two groups were compared. In one group subjects were exposed to the same driving conditions that were later assessed in a laboratory listening test by taking them on a ride in one of the cars to be assessed, just before entering the laboratory. In the other group subjects made the laboratory assessments without prior car riding.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2337
Gordon Ebbitt, Todd Remtema
Abstract Speech communication from the front seat to the rear seat in a passenger vehicle can be difficult. This is particularly true in a vehicle with an acoustically absorptive interior. Speech Transmission Index (STI) measurements can quantify the speech intelligibility, but they require specialized signal processing. The STI calculations can be simplified if it is assumed that reverberation and echoes play an insignificant role in an automobile. A simplification of a STI measurement is described that uses a stationary reference speech signal from a talker mannequin in the driver's seat to create a signal at the rear passenger positions. On-road noise measurements are used for the noise level and the calculated signal to noise ratio is used to calculate a simplified STI value that tracks closely to a full implementation of the STI method for sedans.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2216
Dong Chul Park, Eun Soo Jo, Seokgwan Hong, Michael Csakan
Abstract An important trend among vehicle NVH engineers is the production of attractive engine acceleration sound quality for the enhancement of a vehicle's image and performance. In addition, customers have increasing interest and enjoyment in customizing their cars to reflect their personal taste and preferences. The PESS (Personalized Engine Sound System) has been developed for making a unique and individually customizable vehicle concept. The system allows the customers an opportunity to create a variety of engine sounds in a single vehicle using active sound design technology. In this system, three different engine sound concepts are pre-defined, Dynamic, Sporty, and Extreme. Each of the engine sounds can then be adjusted with parameters that determine the timbre, such as main order, rumble, and high order. In addition, the pedal position during acceleration has also been used as a parameter to further personalize the experience.
2015-05-13
Technical Paper
2015-36-0006
Erik Camargo, Claudio Fernandes, Leopoldo Sprandel, Romulo Castro, Rodrigo Sousa, Leandro Roza, Marcio Ciolfi
Abstract This paper focused on pedal feeling studies at most often longitudinal decelerations for the normal daily usage of customers. Such decelerations were defined in vehicle equipped with sensors in a specific itinerary near Resende/Penedo city (southeastern Brazil) with several clients using the same vehicles. Through the decelerations acquired, one could correlate, objectively and subjectively, the pedal effort and travel that delight the customers, reaching the so called ideal pedal feeling. The mapping provides the needed input data to develop, or adapt, a vehicle to the best condition expected by consumers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Abstract Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance accuracy, image detection time, and distortion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1477
Robert Larson, Jeffrey Croteau, Cleve Bare, John Zolock, Daniel Peterson, Jason Skiera, Jason R. Kerrigan, Mark D. Clauser
Abstract Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0218
C Sreelakshmi, Krishnan Kutty
Abstract Facial expression, a significant way of nonverbal communication, effectively conveys humans' mental state, emotions and intentions. Understanding of emotions through these expressions is an easy task for human beings. However, when it comes to Human Computer Interface (HCI), it is a developing research field that enables humans' to interact with computers through touch, voice, and gestures. Communication through expression in HCI is still a challenge. In addition, there are a variety of fields such as automotive, biometric, surveillance, teleconferencing etc. in which expression recognition system can be applied. In recent years, several different approaches have been proposed fr facial expression recognition, but most of them work only under definite environmental conditions. The proposed framework aims to recognize expressions (by analyzing the facial features extracted) based on the Active Shape Model (ASM).
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4100