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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1394
Alessandro Naddeo, Marco Apicella, Davide Galluzzi
General comfort may be defined as the “level of well-being” perceived by humans in a working environment. The state-of-the-art about evaluation of comfort/discomfort shows the need for an objective method to evaluate the “effect in the internal body” and “perceived effects” in main systems of comfort perception. Some medical studies show that each human joint has its own natural Rest Posture (RP); in this Rest Posture human muscles are completely relaxed or at minimum strain level: when it happens the geometrical configuration corresponds to the natural position of resting Arms/Legs/Neck etc.. From this starting point, authors developed and build, through a wide experimental campaign, the postural-comfort curves for each DOF of human upper limbs joints; the obtained comfort curves are regular and don’t show any kind of discontinuity. A software named Ca-Man has been developed in order to analyze a general posture and calculate a postural comfort index for the entire upper body.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1388
Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
We have developed a bench test method to assess the driver distraction caused by workloads of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that the method can assess not only visual-manual tasks but also auditory-vocal tasks. The workloads are evaluated from performances of both pedal tracking (PT) and detection response task (DRT) during while performing secondary tasks. We can conduct the method with simple apparatuses such as a gaming pedal and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted at three different regions and different experimenters in the US in the same procedure. We used two kinds of visual-manual tasks and two kinds of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two different levels of workload for each of all the kinds of tasks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1397
Donghee Lee, Younggeun OH
In recent years, trends are changed that a focus on the automotive seat comfort is from the initial and short-term seating feel into the long-term seating feel. However, there was no standardized test method for long-term seating comfort. The aim of this study is to identify a relationship between mechanical properties and stress of seats as one of the objective test methods for long-term evaluation. Totally, 18 samples were prepared with the four identifying factors - three levels of density, hardness and thickness of the PU foam pad, and two levels for stiffness of cushion suspension spring. It was conducted that four kinds of in-lab test and multi-dynamic driving test. Each two sort of static and dynamic comfort in-lab tests were performed to define differences and find relationships among each test samples. Three comfort experts were participated in this study to evaluate each test seats.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver’s limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1386
Devin SJ Caplow-Munro, Helen Loeb, Venk Kandadai, Flaura Winston
Inadequate situation awareness and response are increasingly recognized as prevalent critical errors that lead to young driver crashes. In order to assess a young driver’s key driving performance indicators (including situation awareness), our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia developed and validated a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) in which drivers are safely and reproducibly exposed to the most prevalent potential serious crash scenarios. Many of the standardized safety measures can be calculated in near real-time from simulator variables. Assessment of situation awareness, however, largely relies on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. The objective of this research was to develop a near real-time automated method for analyzing general direction and location of driver’s gaze in order to assess situation awareness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1389
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Ifushi Shimonomoto
The need to provide both connectivity and safety to today’s driver presents an enormous challenge to the automotive industry. A holistic solution for this challenge is to minimize driver distraction and enhance driving safety at the design phase. This creates an immediate need for techniques that can objectively evaluate the demand associated with human machine interfaces (HMIs). The study presented here assessed the feasibility of one promising approach for objective evaluation of HMIs, which compares the workload of in-vehicle tasks to the workload associated with “comparison tasks” or “benchmarking tasks.” In this study, participants drove a production vehicle (Ford Explorer 2013) while performing two types of benchmarking tasks as well as radio tasks (which used the vehicle’s embedded system). All the tests were conducted on a 3-mile oval test track. Participants performed all tasks on a straight segment of the track.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance, response time, and behavior accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1390
Venk Kandadai, Helen Loeb, Guyrandy Jean-Gilles, Catherine McDonald, Andrew Winston, Thomas Seacrist, Flaura Winston
Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Our team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia has developed a Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) to reliably assess driving performance. In addition to work we previously presented on validation of the SDA (14B-0315) and data reduction routines, called DriveLab (14-B-0314), we developed a series of software routines, called “LiveMetrics,” to effectively convert reduced data generated from the DriveLab routines into a graphical report.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1387
Richard Young
This study corrects and adjusts the risks from secondary tasks in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study. Errors were removed through an independent re-counting and re-analysis of tasks within the “case windows” used to estimate risk. The corrected crude odds ratio (OR) and Population Attributable Risk Percent (PAR%) effect sizes for crashes and near-crashes are considerably lower for almost every secondary task compared to those estimated in the original report by Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), who conducted the 100-Car Study. These corrected estimates were then adjusted for confounding from demographics, time of day, weekday-weekend, and closeness to junction by using matched baseline task counts tabulated in a later VTTI study. The adjusted OR and PAR% estimates declined even further. For many secondary tasks, the final ORs even reversed direction compared to the original ORs, from a causal to a preventive effect.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative, proposing guidelines for visual-manual tasks in vehicle-embedded systems in 2013 [1] and announcing plans for portable and aftermarket (PAD) devices guidelines in 2014 and for voice-based task guidelines in 2015. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention in detection of visual, auditory, tactile and haptic events while driving have been under investigation by the ISO Driving Distraction working group (ISO TC22/SC13/WG8 DRT Task Force).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0158
Jackeline Rios-Torres, Pablo Sauras-Perez, Ruben Alfaro, Joachim Taiber, Pierluigi Pisu
Environmental concerns and rising fuel prices are two factors promoting the development of strategies and technologies to reduce the vehicles’ fuel consumption and emissions. Such goal can be approached by different means. While an extensive list of published work attempts to address the problem by optimizing the vehicle powertrain operation, more recently, a concept known as eco-driving is also being studied. Eco-driving allows further contributing to the fuel consumption and emissions reduction by involving the driver in the optimization process. For the particular case of electric vehicles, the driving range and performance are very sensitive to driving style. Thus, an eco-driving assistant system (EDAS) may be useful as a training tool for the driver, helping achieving the goal of maximizing his vehicle range. This objective is particularly relevant for fleet operators, which can benefit from these systems by lowering their operational cost.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0418
Vijitashwa Pandey, Megan Conrad
This paper develops a design paradigm for universal products. Universal design is term used for designing products and systems that are equally accessible to people with and without disabilities. Two common challenges for research in this area are that (1) There is a continuum of disabilities making it hard to optimize product features, and (2) There is no effective benchmark for evaluating such products. To exacerbate these issues, data regarding customer disabilities and their preferences is hard to come by. We propose a copula based approach for modeling market coverage of a portfolio of universal products. The multiattribute preference of customers to purchase a product is modeled as Frank’s Archimedean Copula. The inputs from various disparate sources can be collected and incorporated into a optimal decision system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1392
Se Jin Park, Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Heeran Lee, Yu Kyung Shin, Chang Hee Jang, Soon Hyun Hwang
Driving postures is essential for evaluation of a driver workspace and also for improved seat design comfort. Data on occupant posture and body dimensions is gathered widely using portable coordinate measurement equipment, optical motion capture equipment, infrared depth sensor, and posture monitoring system. Nowadays, a number of 3D scanners are available on the market, which mainly used to enable anthropometry in an entirely new way. This study captures the comfortable driving postures for Koreans using 3D scanning measuring techniques. Subjects consisted of twenty healthy individuals (10 males and 10 females) ranging in age from 20 to 40 years and were carefully selected to include in three different weight groups (> 59 kg, 60 ~ 79 kg and < 80 kg). Driving postures were captured using a handheld portable 3D scanner (model: Artec LTM). A total of 18 land markers were attached (car seat: 9 markers; subject: 9 markers).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1357
James A. Crowley
In the area of Human Factors and Usability research a desired output of many studies is identification of what value a specific Design Parameter should be set at to minimize customer dissatisfaction. A Customer Loss Function is a simple way to graphically display the probability customers will be dissatisfied at different levels of a given design parameter, due to a given failure mode. Many design parameters however, have two distinct but related Failure Modes (customer disatisfiers), typically representing two ends of the parameter (i.e. too much/too little; too hot/too cold; too fast/too slow). Each of these Failure modes is represented by its own unique Customer Loss Function. This paper will introduce a technique to combine these two One-Sided Loss Functions into a comprehensive Two-Sided Loss Function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1588
Ibrahim A. Badiru, Michael W. Neal
The goal of this paper is to discuss the steps for an engineering organization to understand and execute customer optimized handling characteristics for routine driving maneuvers. Vehicle handling character plays a critical role in the overall customer driving experience. The automotive industry has standardized a wide array of objective tests and metrics to quantify handling performance. At major OEM’s, a new vehicle program begins with the development of objective targets based on competitive benchmarking, market trends, and past experience. As the program progresses from the concept stage to final production calibrations, development progressively relies more heavily on the subjective judgment of trained experts to establish handling characteristics that may please the customer. This process is time-tested and has been successful in producing a broad range of vehicles from numerous manufacturers that are both safe and meet the expectations of the buying public.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0606
Jiaquan Chen, Min Qin, Lingge jin, Liu Tao, Yongfeng jiang, Yin-ping Chang
An automotive vehicle should be designed to satisfy the wants of customers. The key is how to convert voices of customer into engineering languages. In other wards, transfer the wants of the customers into the right technical characteristics of a vehicle. A questionnaire sample for customer wants is processed, combining KANO model with QFD, to calculate the importance of customers wants. Simultaneously, the attribute of the property is distinguished. Due to the information gained is uncertain and questionnaire sample size might be small, a gray correlation analysis method is introduced to solve the correlation of the wants of customers and the technical characteristics. Then, TRIZ and QFD are combined to get invention principles of conflicting technical characteristics. Finally, the evaluation information of expert language is analyzed by the free mixed-language approach to obtain the final importance weights of technical characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1396
Xiangjie Meng, Xin Tao, Wenjun Wang, Chaofei Zhang, Bo Cheng, Bo Wang, Chengpeng Zhou, Xiaoping Jin, Chao Zeng, John Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen
: Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to be a causative factor associated with low back pain; however, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. It is hypothesized that vibration causes vibration in the muscles at resonant frequencies, leading to increased muscle activity and muscle fatigue during prolonged driving. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1400
Ambarish Goswami
The number of seniors will rise rapidly. Exoskeleton devices can help seniors regain their lost power, balance, and agility , improving their quality of life. Exoskeleton devices and control strategies assist human gait. A common strategy is to use oscillator-based controllers. Such a controller "locks in" with the gait and helps the subject walk faster. Such strategies are limited to gait assist only and are less effective in more general movements. These controllers can be detrimental in critical cases such as when the leg needs to execute a fast reactive stepping to stop a fall. We present a control strategy for a hip exoskeleton, which assists human leg motion by providing motion amplification at the hip joint. The controller is “neutral” because it assists any leg motion. This helps in more general activities. Specifically, it can also help avoid falls by assisting reactive stepping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1393
Misun Kwon, Sangdo Park, Chanho Jeong, Taehoon Lee, Sanghark LEE, Hoonbok Lee, Jinho Seo
In the era of diversification, car is not only a means of transportation, but also a place of leisure & refreshment. As more and more people drive cars, their demand is growing in a quality & quantity manner. Also industrial development facilitates a development of high class interiors in a car in and out of the world. And consumers prefer their convenience & comfort leading to an increase in demand for a premium car. Above all, car seat is a part where human body touches for the longest time, thereby having impact on consumes' preference for convenience & comfort. In this context, we designed a rear seat convenience system for premium car based on an assessment and comfort analysis according to consumers' tendency and character. Through this system, we aims to enhance the convenience & comfort of seat, and eventually improve passengers' satisfaction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1398
Herbert Reynolds, Ph.D.
Seat design has long searched for a mathematical solution, but the solution has to satisfy human factors in the population, task and government standards. In the automobile, the population defines boundary conditions for seat design and adjustments to fit small to large driver body sizes. The task, however, focuses on vision for vertical rise of the seat for vision and reach for horizontal travel of the seat. The steering wheel and pedals have a relationship with all seated drivers that must meet human factor guidelines for driver performance and comfort. Government standards, however, have imposed a 50 year old tool on vision, reach and seat design through the use of the H-point machine (SAE J826). As a result, seat design has been omitted from interior design with the assumption that the H-point machine will ensure compliance with standards and regulations for the population of drivers.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0117
Simon A. Perez, Henrique J. Perez
We have a new engine development (US 5,927,236, pending 13/109,505 approved will be issued in December, PCT/IB2012/001882) that in addition to being a true Atkinson, 1 L admission/compression, 2 L expansion/exhaust with all the benefirs of reduced pumping loses also provides a positive torque beginning at 15º BEFORE tdc and at tdc we have a positive torque that is equivalent to the conventional engines torque at 16º AFTER tdc. This feature in addition to solving preignition and nock issues is the KEY to making HCCI a commercial success.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0112
The development of a more efficient engine is an important agenda in the automotive industry and the shrinking source of fossil fuel drives the search for alternative fuels as a replacement for gasoline in car engines. Some of the problems faced by a direct injection engine used today is heat loss to the walls of the combustion chamber. The objective of the study is to determine the combustion characteristics such as the combustion temperature, enthalpy, total energy and local heat flux in a constant volume vessel which uses direct injection for various alternative fuels like methane, propane, hydrogen and compressed natural gas. Variables such as the mass flow rate of air, air temperature, ambient pressure and type of fuel are studied to determine the heat loss which occurs so that this data can be used in future researches that involve more specific applications. This study is done using computer simulations with the aid of a computational fluid dynamics software; ANSYS Fluent.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0139
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Abstract Noise generated in the driveline is mainly transferred inside the passenger cabin through air (air borne noise) and through the vehicle body structure, engine mounts, cables etc. Source of the noise generation in the vehicle is mainly through the engine fluctuation (engine combustion excitations). Any change in the engine characteristics results in the change in passenger cabin noise. Also, influence of the vehicle body structure due to change in material properties also affects the NVH performance. This technical paper explains the effect of change in engine characteristics as well as change in the transfer path (material property) on the NVH performance of the gearbox and subsequently the NVH performance of vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0151
Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space [1]. With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0025
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0020
Patrick Falk, Christian Hubmann
Abstract Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4037