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2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0098
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Naveen Sukumar, Sunil endugu, Umashanker Gupta
Advanced Non-linear topology optimization methods have been addressed as the most promising techniques for low-weight and performance design of Powertrain structures. The theoretical achievements are obtained both mechanically and mathematically. Nowadays, the great challenge lies in solving more complicated engineering design problems with multidisciplinary objectives or complex structural systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide a forum to present new developments in structural Non-linear topology optimization. The advantage of the proposed method is that structural optimization on irregular design domains can be carried out easily. Furthermore, this method integrates the stress analysis and the boundary evolution within the framework of finite element methods. In this paper, we have mainly focused on the Commercial Vehicles Powertrain component i.e. Transmission Housing.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0116
Panuwat Kangkaya
The fuel consumption in transportation field is nowadays an important reason to realize with contribute to performance of engine for powered the motor vehicle. In particular, the total energy consumption in the world depends on the remaining fossil fuels. Using new development technologies and renewable oxygenated fuels are considered the most suitable solution for sustainable future.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0118
POL-AKE BUDSAYAHEM
Today's world focus on the environment is major problem because in today's cars took to the streets for a lot which causes of carbon dioxide emitted. If the engine is running at full capacity, it is another way to reduce it. Features of the lubricant is another factor that will help the engine run more efficiently and can prolong the engine. The research focuses on the analysis of determination the nature of wear. Particle shape of the elements, measure the condition of the oil to see the degradation of the lubricant and the condition of dirt contamination, which is part of the engine, resulting in a faster degradation. Finally analyze the outcome of figure is that the various elements which affect the engine in any field.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0115
Nuwong Chollacoop, Manida Tongroon, Mongkon Kananont, Amornpoth Suebwong, Peerawat Saisirirat, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Brand new Thailand popular common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extend cab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4x2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0117
Simon A. Perez
We have a new engine development (US 5,927,236, pending 13/109,505 approved will be issued in December, PCT/IB2012/001882) that in addition to being a true Atkinson, 1 L admission/compression, 2 L expansion/exhaust with all the benefirs of reduced pumping loses also provides a positive torque beginning at 15º BEFORE tdc and at tdc we have a positive torque that is equivalent to the conventional engines torque at 16º AFTER tdc. This feature in addition to solving preignition and nock issues is the KEY to making HCCI a commercial success.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0112
Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Chun Hyiin Tan, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood
The development of a more efficient engine is an important agenda in the automotive industry and the shrinking source of fossil fuel drives the search for alternative fuels as a replacement for gasoline in car engines. Some of the problems faced by a direct injection engine used today is heat loss to the walls of the combustion chamber. The objective of the study is to determine the combustion characteristics such as the combustion temperature, enthalpy, total energy and local heat flux in a constant volume vessel which uses direct injection for various alternative fuels like methane, propane, hydrogen and compressed natural gas. Variables such as the mass flow rate of air, air temperature, ambient pressure and type of fuel are studied to determine the heat loss which occurs so that this data can be used in future researches that involve more specific applications. This study is done using computer simulations with the aid of a computational fluid dynamics software; ANSYS Fluent.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0111
Sarapon Thitipatanapong, Sathaporn Chuepeng, Poranat Visuwan PhD
Encouraging the use of alternative fuels available in Thailand is mainly due to fuel crisis within the past few decades. The government has recently drafted a renewable energy long-term plan to increase biofuel production. This has emboldened biodiesel to be used as fuel for agriculture and transportation, in particular. Diesel engines are promising for reducing carbon dioxide emissions related fuel energy consumption. Ordinarily, diesel combustion generates particulate matter (PM) in terms of smoke opacity and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in trade-off relationship. However, advanced techniques for engine technology and after-treatment devices have been abundantly developed to mitigate these hindrances. To break the trade-off emissions, an example technique is to fuel engines with biodiesel incorporated with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Among available options, nonthermal plasma (NTP) is one of the techniques that charges exhaust gas with high power electricity to reduce some emissions.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0114
Rachen Chumueang, Yossapong Laoonual, Nuwong Chollacoop
The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of injection timings on combustion characteristics and emissions of a direct injection single cylinder CI engine fueled with ethanol ED95 (hydrous ethanol blended with commercial additive). The engine was tested at maximum engine load of 5 N.m between engine speed 1600-2000 rpm. The fuel injection pressure was set up to 90 MPa for all testing conditions. The injection timing was varied between -30 CA ATDC to 0 CA ATDC. The experimental results show the combustion characteristics with the cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR). Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and specific emissions are also investigated.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0113
Tosapol Kitkosol
For the past couple of hundred years fossil fuels have been using to support human activities in many ways. However, due to the fact that fossil fuels are limited we have to consume them more efficiently. Base on EIA’s world energy consumption data (2012), 25.6% of fossil fuels were used on transportation. For gasoline internal combustion engine equipped on numbers of the transport vehicle, even with recent improved one, its thermal efficiency is generally maximized at around 35%. The rest 65% of the energy could not be converted to be any useful work and is rejected in a form of heat. Since one of the biggest heat lost in a gasoline internal combustion engine is heat rejected with exhaust gas, this research is to study possibility of recovering rejected exhaust gas thermal energy and convert the recovered energy to electricity using combined turbocharger (only turbine stage) and an alternator.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0121
Kanit Manatura
Syngas is one of the gaseous alternative fuels that can be produced by gasification of solid fuels such as coal and biomass. The quality of syngas production depends on the gasification operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, residence time, gasifying agent, air fuel ratio, equivalence ratio and size of feedstock. Many applications of syngas may be included with hydrogen production in refineries, methanol from the chemical industry, electricity from the combustion process and the fuel for internal combustion engines. In this study, the effects of the syngas addition of 10%, 30% and 50% (by volume) with diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a dual syngas-diesel engine are investigated. The engine was conducted on 6-cylinder, 6.014 L, naturally aspirated, water-cooled, no EGR, direct-injection HDDE (Heavy Duty Diesel Engine) of model year 1992 (Hino W06E) and injection timing of 8 degree CA (BTDC).
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0122
Phiranat Khamsrisuk
Nowadays the important problem of using Automobile vehicle is the cost of gasoline fuel that is very higher than its cost in ten year ago. When fossil fuel’s demand is increase so its cost is increase too, but it is opposed to its quantity and it will not enough to human’s demand. To find an alternative fuel, ethanol is the best answer because ethanol is distilled easily, not expensive and can be manufactured in Thailand. Consequently, research on using internal combustion engines fuelled with ethanol is so necessarily. This research has main objective that to study about the engine that ethanol can be used for alternative energy. The experimentally investigated the effect ignition timing in Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine (DISI) using an ethanol blend by altering the timing angle with respect to gasoline use regarding the output performance parameters such as power and efficiency. We also determined the energy distribution of the engine.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0119
Reywat Aramsiriwat, Yossapong Laoonual
The purpose of this study is to investigate the startability characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with ethanol blended with ignition improvers as fuels. The engine is modified to increase compression ratio from 18:1 to 23:1 and 28:1. Glycerol ethoxylate and biodiesel from palm oil methyl ester (POME) are considered as ignition improver blended with ethanol in various concentrations in this study. Glycerol ethoxylate is more effective on ignition quality improvement than POME. In-cylinder pressure and engine speed are key parameter to explain the startability characteristics and categorize them into four modes. The results show that increasing of ignition improver concentration enhances startability and improve IMEP due to combustion promotion.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0088
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Naveen Sukumar, Sunil endugu, Umashanker Gupta
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to replace existing Gear Shift Fork from FC Iron to ADC without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road load cases and severe environmental conditions. ADC has good mechanical and thermal properties compared to FC Iron. Feasible design has been Optimized within the given design space with an extra supporting pad for load distribution. Optimization, Stiffness, Contact pattern has been done using Optistruct, Nastran & Ansys for CAE evaluation. A 6-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation and validation of the optimized design. Advanced linear topology optimization methods have been addressed as the most promising techniques for light weighting and performance design of Powertrain structures.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0136
Deepak Mahajan, Arnab Sandilya, Lokesh Khandelwal, Sameer Srivastava
Automotive floor carpet serves the purpose of insulating air borne noises like road/tire noise, transmission noise and fuel pump noise etc. Most commonly used automotive floor carpet structure is - Molded sound barrier (PE or vinyl etc) decoupled from floor pan with an absorber such as felt. With increasing customer expectations and fuel efficiency requirements, the NVH requirements are increasing as well. The only possible way of increasing acoustic performance (Specifically Sound Transmission Loss, STL) in the mentioned carpet structure is to increase the Barrier material. This solution, however, comes at a great weight penalty. Theoretically, increasing the number of decoupled barriers layers greatly enhances the STL performance of an acoustic packaging for same weight. However, practically this solution presents problems like- ineffectiveness at lower frequencies, sudden dip in performance at modal frequencies.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0139
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Noise generated in the driveline is mainly transferred inside the passenger cabin through air (air borne noise) and through the vehicle body structure, engine mounts, cables etc. Source of the noise generation in the vehicle is mainly through the engine fluctuation (engine combustion excitations). Any change in the engine characteristics results in the change in passenger cabin noise. Also, influence of the vehicle body structure due to change in material properties also affects the NVH performance. This technical paper explains the effect of change in engine characteristics as well as change in the transfer path due to design change on the NVH performance of the gear box and subsequently the NVH performance of vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0125
Sambhaji Keshaw Jaybhay, Sudhakara Naidu, Prasanna Nagarhalli, J Saiprasad
LCV AC buses market is rapidly growing up in India; major requirement is for staff pick-up and drop, school applications and private fleet owners. The air-conditioning system is typically mounted on bus roof top and located laterally and longitudinally at center. It is an easiest and most feasible way to package air conditioning system to cater the large passenger space (32 to 40seats) with the conditioned air. This makes air conditioning duct design simple and commercially viable. Most of the LCV buses are with front engine configuration which adds more heat and noise to Driver and passenger compartment, this demands for isolation of Driver’s area from passenger area by means of partition in between. Without partition engine noise is more dominant in passenger area, but in case of with partition, blower noise of roof mounted AC system is more perceivable in passenger area.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0158
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0151
Ganesh Dharmar, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati
Abstract Recent trends in vehicle occupant protection have led to renewed interest in the perception of Roominess such as headroom, shoulder room and foot room etc. Occupants head room in vehicles is currently measured using tools, procedures and definitions described in SAE J1052 and J1100. “Head Position Contours” defined in SAE J1052 are useful in establishing accommodation requirements for head space [1]. With respect to the Indian Anthropometry database, the head position contour as per SAE J1052 will not be appropriate with Indian population. With this objective in mind a head movement envelope is generated using the software - RAMSIS Digital manikin. RAMSIS is widely used by Automobile Manufacturers for Digital Human Modeling. The head movement envelope is a collation of different movements of head during driving condition.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0122
Herman Van der Auweraer, Karl Janssens, Fabio Bianciardi, Filip Deblauwe, Kumaraswamy Shivashankaraiah
Abstract Certification of vehicle noise emissions for passenger vehicles, motorcycles and light trucks is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by international standards such as ISO362. The current procedure based on a pass-by test during wide-open throttle acceleration is believed far from actual urban traffic conditions. Hence a new standard pass-by noise certification is being evaluated for implementation. It will put testing departments through their paces with requirements for additional testing under multiple ‘real world’ conditions. The new standard, together with the fact that most governments are imposing lower noise emission levels, make that most of the current models do not meet the new levels which will be imposed in the future. Therefor automotive manufacturers are looking for new tools which are giving them a better insight in the Pass-by Noise contributors.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0127
Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta, Saurav Roy, Hemantkumar Rathi
Abstract The main emphasis for a commercial vehicle design which was focused on fuel-economy and durability does not fulfill the increasing customer expectations anymore. Commercial vehicle designers need to focus on other vehicle aspects such as steering, ride comfort, NVH, braking, ergonomics and aesthetics in order to provide car like perception to truck, bus drivers and passengers during long distance drives. Powertrain mounting system must perform many functions. First and foremost, the mounting system must maintain & control the overall motion of the powertrain, to restrict its envelope reasonably, thereby avoiding damage to any vehicle component from the potential impact. This requires the mount to be stiff. Second the mount must provide good vibration isolation to have a comfortable ride to the vehicle occupant. This requires the mount to be soft.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0131
Abhishek Verma, M. L. Munjal
Abstract In this work, the noise attenuation characteristics of a three-chamber U-bend hybrid muffler have been investigated. Acoustic performance is quantified by the Transmission Loss (TL) parameter. One-dimensional Transfer Matrix based Muffler Program (TMMP) and three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) have been used for the prediction of the TL of the muffler. Presence of perforated baffles necessitates use of the Integrated Transfer Matrix (ITM) approach for the one-dimensional analysis because the sound fields in the adjacent chambers would be multiply coupled with each other, and for the 3D FEM analysis LMS Virtual Lab software has been used. The mean flow distribution in each of these configurations has been evaluated by means of a lumped flow resistance network. The resulting values of the grazing flow and bias flow have been used to calculate the perforates' acoustic impedance.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0134
Jayant Sinha, Ajit Kharade, Shrihari Matsagar
Abstract An interior sound quality is one of the major performance attribute, as consumer envisage this as class and luxury of the vehicle. With increasing demand of quietness inside the cabin, car manufactures started focusing on noise refinement and source separation. This demand enforces hydraulic power steering pump to reduce noise like Moan and Whine, especially in silent gasoline engine. To meet these requirements, extensive testing and in-depth analysis of noise data is performed. Structured process is established to isolate noises and feasible solutions are provided considering following analysis. a) Overall airborne noise measurement at driver ear level (DEL) inside the cabin using vehicle interior microphone.b) Airborne and Pressure pulsation test by sweeping pump speed and pressure at test bench.c) Waterfall analysis of pump at hemi anechoic chamber for order tracking and noise determination.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0020
Patrick Falk, Christian Hubmann
Abstract Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0025
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2896
Krzysztof Jan Siczek
Abstract Conditions of the bacterial battery have been presented in the article. The models of different design configurations of bacterial battery and its assembly with electric circuit has been elaborated. The obtained values of voltage and currents obtained in such models has been compared with the case of similar circuit using lithium-ion battery and presented in the paper.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2869
Harald Stoffels, Kay Hohenboeken
Abstract The impact of the number of cylinders on two downsized gasoline engines on driving habits in the same passenger-vehicle type was investigated. This was carried out with two similar vehicles, equipped with an in-line three cylinder (i3) and an in-line four cylinder (i4) engine, both having same power, torque and transient-response behaviour. Both engine types were mated to six-speed manual transmissions with same gear-ratios and dual-mass flywheel characteristics. The study was performed by letting a statistically significant number of subjects driving the same route and both vehicles consecutively. The relevant data during driving were recorded simultaneously from either vehicle integrated sensors (CAN), and secondary transducers.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2405
Jiaqi Xu, Bradley Thompson, Hwan-Sik Yoon
Abstract Hydraulic excavators perform numerous tasks in the construction and mining industry. Although ground grading is a common task, proper grading cannot easily be achieved. Grading requires an experienced operator to control the boom, arm, and bucket cylinders in a rapid and coordinated manner. Due to this reason, automated grade control is being considered as an effective alternative to conventional human-operated ground grading. In this paper, a path-planning method based on a 2D kinematic model and inverse kinematics is used to determine the desired trajectory of an excavator's boom, arm, and bucket cylinders. Then, the developed path planning method and PI control algorithms for the three cylinders are verified by a simple excavator model developed in Simulink®. The simulation results show that the automated grade control algorithm can grade level or with reduced operation time and error.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2383
Takahiko Yoshino, Hiromichi Nozaki
Abstract In recent years, the conversion of vehicles to electric power has been accelerating, and if a full conversion to electric power is achieved, further advancements in vehicle kinematic control technology are expected. Therefore, it is thought that kinematic performance in the critical cornering range could be further improved by significantly controlling not only the steering angle but also the camber angle of the tires through the use of electromagnetic actuators. This research focused on a method of ground negative camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle as a technique to improve maneuverability and stability to support the new era of electric vehicles, and the effectiveness thereof was clarified. As a result, it was found that in the critical cornering range as well, camber angle control can control both the yaw moment and lateral acceleration at the turning limit.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2380
Joshua L. Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank S. Barickman, Devin H. Elsasser, Dennis A. Guenther, Gary J. Heydinger, Sughosh J. Rao
Dynamic Brake Support (DBS) is a safety system that has been applied to various passenger cars and has been shown to be effective at assisting drivers in avoiding or mitigating rear-end collisions. The objective of a DBS system is to ensure that the brake system is applied quickly and at sufficient pressure when a driver responds to a collision imminent situation. DBS is capable of improving braking response due to a passenger car driver's tendency to utilize multi-stage braking. Interest is developing in using DBS on commercial vehicles. In order to evaluate the possible improvement in safety that could be realized through the use of DBS, driver braking behavior must first be analyzed to confirm that improvement is possible and necessary. To determine if this is the case, a study of the response of truck drivers' braking behavior in collision imminent situations is conducted. This paper presents the method of evaluation and results.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4032