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2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9152
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2015-01-9153
André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
Abstract The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include auditory-vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of auditory-vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1429
Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Monica Jones, Byoung-Keon Park, Matthew Reed
This paper reports on the development and validation of an automated seat-dimension extraction system that can efficiently and reliably measure the SAE J2732 (2008) seat-dimensions from 3D seat scan data. The automated seat-dimension extraction process in the system consists of four phases: (1) import 3D seat scan data along with seat reference information such as H-point location, seatback and cushion angles, (2) identify centerline and lateral cross-section lines on the imported 3D seat scan data, (3) identify landmarks on the centerline and cross-section lines based on the SAE J2732 definitions, and (4) measure seat-dimensions using the identified landmarks. To validate the automated seat measurements, manually measured dimensions in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment and automatically extracted ones in the current system were compared in terms of mean discrepancy and intra- and inter-observer standard deviations (SD).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1434
Salvatore Trapanese, Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti
The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car, in the early stages of design process, is still an open issue. Modern instruments like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomics parameters for car drivers through the use of detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car-interiors and by the multi-body approach for evaluating movements and interactions. Nevertheless, it is not enough because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to parameters that are very difficult to be evaluated in the early stage of design and need “hard-prototypes” that, often, are too expensive to be realized. In the latest 30 years, several researchers tried to develop methods to objectivize the comfort performance but most of them are based on questionnaires, marketing researches, physiological and biomechanical analyses, and need devices or interactions that modify the perceived comfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0158
Toshio Ito, Arata Takata, Kenta Oosawa
Automation of automobile can be expected to improve safety, comfort and efficiency, and developed in every countries. Automated driving is introducing according to automated levels from 0 to 5 (0:no automation, 1:driver assistance, 2:partial automation, 3:conditional automation, 4:high automation, 5:full automation). Currently, feasible automation level is considered to be Level 2 or 3, and take-over from automated system to human manual driving is needed when the automated system overs at these levels. In this situation, required time for take-over is an important issue. This study focus on describing driving simulator experimental results of required time for take-over. The experimental scenario is that the automated system finds an object ahead when automated driving on the high way and issues take-over request to the driver. The subject driver is under the following driver situations : hands-on or hands-off to the steering, and strong or weak distractions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1441
Jonathan Frank Antin, Justin Owens, James Foley, Kazutoshi Ebe, Brian Wotring
The theory of neuroplasticity posits that the brain continues to change as we age. Thus, cognitive or brain training has been offered as a way for seniors to remain cognitively engaged. Recent research has found substantial reductions in crash rates for seniors who underwent particular brain training protocols; however, specific behaviors or performance metrics which may have contributed to these findings were not examined. The current study is the first to document detailed measures of driver behavior that could support an improvement in driving safety following cognitive training. Fifty-five volunteers participated in one of two cognitive training programs (or were part of a control group). One training program was a commercially available computer-based approach. The other was a novel in-vehicle approach developed by Toyota engineers which employed an implicit learning paradigm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1444
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Kathy Lococo
The objective of this research was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Drivers with improper seat position selection may affect their capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as the steering wheel, accelerator pedal, brake pedal, clutch pedal, and gear selector lever as well as impact one’s safety during a crash event. Because of the stature changes that are associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of a gender and age terms. The hypothesized terms would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1433
Gregory Schaupp, Julia Seeanner, Casey Jenkins, Joseph Manganelli, Sarah Hennessy, Constance Truesdail, Lindsay Swift, Paul Venhovens, Johnell Brooks
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users who drive from their driver’s seat and not from their wheelchair. The goal of this study was to identify typical ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of wheelchair users transferring into and out of the driver’s seat. While motion databases exist for the ingress and egress of able-bodied drivers, this study provides insight on drivers with physical disabilities. Twenty-five YouTube videos of wheelchair users who transferred into and out of their own sedans were analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1440
Julia Seeanner, Johnell Brooks, Mary Mossey, Casey Jenkins, Paul Venhovens, Constance Truesdail
While motorcycle safety frequently focuses on topics like helmet use and engineering aspects such as anti-lock braking systems, little research has investigated aging motorcyclists’ use of technologies (i.e., texting, navigation systems, etc.) or the characteristics of older motorcyclists (defined as above the age of 40) who use them. This study sought to provide an overview of the types of technologies that motorcyclists use while riding, problems or concerns about those technologies, and motorcyclist demographics by surveying a convenience sample of typical motorcyclists in the United States. The sample included 91 riders (78 males and 13 females) between the ages of 20 and 71 years (mean= 50.5, SD= 10.8). Surveyed motorcyclists answered questions about riding experience and training, technologies they use while riding, ease and frequency of use of those technologies, issues with the technologies, as well as riding behaviors and habits.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
The paper is focused on both the the subjective and the objective ride comfort of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride confort was performed. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective drivers' feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1439
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 36 younger drivers (25-50, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1443
Nazan Aksan, Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Benjamin Lester, Jeffrey Dawson, Matthew Rizzo
We examined relative effectiveness of heads-up visual displays for lane departure warning (LDW) 36 middle-aged drivers (25-50 years, mean = 36 years) and 36 older drivers (65-90 years, mean =77). The LDW included yellow "advisory" visuals in the center screen when the driver started drifting toward the adjacent lane. The visuals turned into red "imminent" when the tires overlapped with the lane markers. The LDW was turned off if the driver activated the turn signal. The visuals could be easily segregated from the background scene, making them salient but not disruptive to the driver's forward field of view. The visuals were placed adjacent to the left and right lane markers in the lower half of the center screen.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1422
Tarek Ouali, Nirav Shah, Bill Kim, David Fuente, Bo Gao
This paper introduces a new method for driving style identification based on vehicle communication signals. The purpose of this method is to classify a trip, driven in a vehicle, into three driving style categories: calm, normal or aggressive. The trip is classified based on the vehicle class, the type of road it was driven on (urban, rural or motorway) and different types of driving events (launch, accelerating and braking). A representative set of parameters, selected to take into consideration every part of the driver-vehicle interaction, is associated to each of these events. Due to the usage of communication signals, influence factors, other than vehicle speed and acceleration (e.g. steering angle or pedals position), can be considered to determine the level of aggressiveness on the trip. The conversion of the parameters from physical values to dimensionless score is based on conversion maps that consider the road and vehicle types.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1451
Mingyang Chen, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma, Lin Li
In china there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. Driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied in this paper. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis. The results show that driver brake parameters under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist obey log-normal distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1430
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Hee Su sin, Dong Hag Seo, Hyu Hyeong Nam, Jeong Cheol Lee
Seating comfort is associated with the various factors and one of the principal components of a vehicle environment which can affect passenger’s comfort is vibration. The seat design plays a vital role in the vibration isolation as it is directly in contact with human body. Vibration isolation properties of a seat depend upon its dynamic parameters such as cushion, spring stiffness, and damping of seat suspension. In recent years, automotive seat designers are paying more attention for the improvement of seat cushion properties. This paper provides information about a new automotive seat concept which use double-wall 3D air mat in cushion along with foam cushion. The air-mats base fabrics are interlinked with numerous spacer threads to make a 3D structure. An optimization-based method is used to determine the optimal seat dynamic parameter for cushion (particularly for double-wall 3D air mat) based on minimizing occupant’s body discomfort.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0084
Paul Weindorf, James Krier, Carl Evans
Abstract: An optical configuration has been developed which offers a seamless appearance where the display aperture is not visible in the "off" condition and is minimized in the "on" condition. Introduction: As electronic displays such as TFT's are utilized increasingly in automotive instrument clusters, there is a desire from the OEMs to hide the display opening and present a "seamless" appearance to the user such that the user cannot see any apertures or margin gaps to the display. Background: The most relevant prior art is demonstrated by the BMW instrument cluster. In the BMW application, the Bayer LM296 film with a neutral density transmission factor of 25% is placed over a printed applique. Improved Solution Description: The principles behind the improved seamless solution are: 1. Reduce the reflections of the display opening by using a moth-eye film on the rear surface of the neutral density applique and providing a smooth AR surface on the display polarizer. 2.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1432
Alexander Siefert
A particular challenge in the development of passenger cars is within prognosis of the vibration comfort. The range of requirements is broad as the excitation varies between cobblestones up to California roads. A further demand is the driver expectation which is different for a pickup or for a sports car. There exist several approaches for assessing the vibrations of occupants while driving. On the one side the comfort is evaluated by integral quantities as the SEAT value taking into account a weighting based on the human body sensitivity. Another approach is the dimension of perception, developed by BMW, which is similar to psychoacoustics as the frequency range is separated with respect to appearing vibration phenomena. In the centre of all activities is the seat transmissibility in the frequency range, describing the relation between the input at the seat slides and the output at the interface of human body and trim.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1438
Alexander Siefert
You plan on buying a new car? You have searched the internet, set a financial limit and are now heading towards your preferred dealer - and take a seat in the car of your choice! This first impression of seating comfort and package design is a decision making criteria when selecting a new car. All OEMs are aware of this and quite a lot of companies use the „passenger comfort“ issue to stand out from their competitors. But how can we objectively evaluate passenger comfort? This complex criterion is dominated by a mixture of several aspects as posture, pressure distribution, internal tissue loads or handling of steering wheel or gear shift. A method to evaluate are hardware tests with human subjects, who are sensitive to all of these aspects. But the reproducibility of subjective tests for comparing design variants is a questionable issue and the costs for each test cycle using new prototypes are very high.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1536
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
The vehicle crash pulse severity is a measure of how severely the vehicle crash pulse has an effect on the occupant injury. The objective of this research is to evaluate the assessability of vehicle crash pulse severity in frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) tests. In this study, the existing metrics derived from vehicle crash pulse in the frontal impact are reviewed and categorized into 4 groups in the way of how occupant responses are considered. Then the severity of vehicle crash pulses of the frontal NCAP tests was evaluated by existing metrics. A total of 60 frontal NCAP test data collected from the MY 2012 vehicle test program are analyzed. The linear regression analyses and sled test simulations are conducted to identify their correlation to other metrics and dummy injuries. The results show that some of existing metrics are able to assess crash pulse severity in frontal NCAP tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1448
Rong Chen, Rini Sherony, Hampton C. Gabler
The effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) or similar crash warning/mitigation systems is highly dependent on driver acceptance. If a FCW system delivers the warning too early, it may distract the driver or annoy the driver and cause him/her to deactivate the system. In order to design a system activation threshold that matches driver expectations, system designers must understand when drivers would normally apply the brake. One of the most widely used metrics to establish FCW threshold is Time to Collision (TTC). TTC measures the time remaining before two vehicle would collide if they continued at their current speeds. One limitation of TTC is that it assumes constant vehicle velocity. Enhanced Time to Collision (ETTC) is potentially a more accurate metric of perceived collision risk due to its consideration of vehicle acceleration. This paper will compare and contrast the population distribution of ETTC and TTC at brake onset in normal car-following situations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1436
K. Han Kim, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, Matthew Reed
Automotive seats are commonly described by one-dimensional measurements, including those documented in SAE J2732. However, 1-D measurements provide minimal information on seat shape. A 3-D scanner may provide high-resolution details, but due to inconsistent vertex and polygon compositions, indexing and comparing geometries across different seats are extremely difficult. The goal of this work was to develop a statistical framework to analyze and model the surface shapes of seats by using similar techniques that have been used for modeling human body shapes. The 3-D contour of twelve driver seats of sedans and pickup trucks were scanned and aligned, and 332 landmarks were identified using a semi-automatic process. A template mesh of 18,306 vertices was morphed to match the scan at the landmark positions, and the remaining nodes were automatically adjusted to match the scanned surface. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the resulting homologous meshes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1487
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Chaoyang Chen, Hui Zhao, Helen YU
At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different braking stage, which leads to different posture of lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision but it was not fully investigated. In this study, a simulated collision scene was constructed and the posture and muscle activation of lower extremity at the collision moment were studied. 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the simulated collision test and muscle activation of 8 major muscles in both right and left legs were measured. Muscle activation of lower extremity in different postures was analyzed. It was found that the driver’s right leg was possible to be on the brake, in the air or even on the accelerator at the collision moment. The left leg was on the floor all along. Significant differences of right leg’s muscle activation were found between different postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1147
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu, Xiaojuan Zhao, Xiaohua Wu, Yongtong Zhang
To improve the comprehensive performance of vehicles equipped with stepped automatic transmission (SAT), the optimization of gearshift schedule should take into account various performance such as power performance, fuel economy, etc. In addition, the SATs would become more acceptable if the optimized gearshift schedule could also be individualized to reflect the driver’s expectation on vehicle performance to a reasonable extent. For the purpose of ensuring the comprehensive performance and improving the individual-ability of vehicles equipped with SAT, a linear weighted method has been proposed to construct the a performance evaluation function, which applies different weights to represent driver’s expectation on performance by using these weights to multiply the normalized value of each sub-performance index.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0014
Shun Yang, Weiwen Deng, Haizhen Liu, Rui He, Lei Qian, Wenlong Sun, Ji Gao
Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0080
Hiroyuki Miyake
This paper explains a performance enhancement of the lane guidance function in car navigation systems.In order to achieve intuitive lane guidance, a function is considered that displays lane guidance on an image of the front scene that matches what drivers actually see outside the vehicle.Therefore, two developed items were lane accurate positioning based on image recognition and augmented reality visualization that renders lane guidance images overlaid on the scenery of the road ahead.The eye glance time to the navigation screen has been reduced in a comparison test with a conventional lane guidance method. It is confirmed that this lane guidance function is more intuitive than the conventional method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1357
Junyi Chen, Bangshui Jiang, Shutao Song, Hongyan Wang, Xuguang Wang
Driving posture study is essential for the evaluation of the occupant packaging. This paper presents a method of reconstructing driver’s postures in a real vehicle using a 3D laser scanner and Human Builder (HB), the digital human modeling tool under CATIA. The scanning data was at first converted into the format readable by CATIA, and then a personalized HB manikin was generated mainly using stature, sitting height and weight. Its pelvis position and joint angles were manually adjusted so as to match the manikin with the scan envelop. If needed, a fine adjustment of some anthropometric dimensions was also preceded. Finally the personalized manikin was put in the vehicle coordinate system, and joint angels and joint positions were extracted for further analysis.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1506
David Poulard, Huipeng Chen, Matthew Panzer
Pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) are used to investigate and predict the injury outcomes from vehicle-pedestrian impact. Due to the sensitivity of pedestrian biomechanics to anthropometry, a PFEM with a generic anthropometry (50th-percentile male) cannot be sufficiently evaluated against post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) test data without accounting for the specific anthropometry. Global geometric personalization can scale the PFEM geometry to match the height and weight of a specific PMHS, while local geometric personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match specific PMHS anatomy. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the benefit of locally-morphed PFEM anthropometry compared to globally-scaled and generic PFEM by comparing the biomechanics of vehicle-pedestrian impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1419
Helen S. Loeb, Sam chamberlain, Yi-Ching Lee
Motor vehicles crashes are the leading cause of injury and death of US teens. Driving simulators offer a way to safely expose drivers to specific events in a controlled and repeatable manner. They empower researchers by enabling them to compare different groups and driving behaviors and assess the cognitive and attention skills that are essential to safe driving. Classically, assessment of eye glances and gaze duration relies largely on time-consuming data reduction and video coding. In addition, the synchronization of eye tracker and simulator data is essential to a valid analysis of the eye glances patterns in relation to the driving scenario. To better understand and quantify eye glances in relation to a driving scene, Eyesync was developed as a synchronization bridge between an eye tracker and a driving simulator. It allows the real time synchronization and logging of eye tracking and simulator data. The design of the software is presented in this paper.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin
Autonomous vehicles can offer increased productivity by freeing occupants from the responsibility of driving. This enables all passengers to safely perform tasks such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet. However, studies show that the incidence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles is expected to increase compared to human driven vehicles.[1] Motion sickness is believed to be caused by head motion between 0.1 Hz and 0.5 Hz that is uncorrelated with visual anticipatory cues. This head motion may be induced by movement in the vertical and lateral directions caused by an uneven road surface or steering/acceleration inputs of the vehicle. Because passengers in such vehicles are more disconnected from road events they cannot anticipate how their bodies are going to move. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are also more prone to shift focus from the road to other activities compared to conventionally driven vehicles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4203