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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1363
James F. Krier, Paul Weindorf
Modern automotive cockpit design trends have increased the number of displays and the locations and manner in how they are packaged. One theme in particular is the packaging of the displays in novel locations that may be marginal in terms of dynamic stability during road load vibrations. Examples of this include mirror or deployable displays that adjust their position in the vehicle. The image of the display may be partially or fully blurred during vibration events which can produce a poor HMI experience. This paper will present the results of a HMI study that that evaluated the readability of different sizes and contrast ratios of TFT color display graphics via jury evaluation during varying vibration acceleration and frequency levels in a controlled lab environment. The result of this study was identification of minimum natural frequencies and maximum acceleration levels for the display mounting structure as a function of display graphics size and contrast ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1366
Jeffrey Muttart, Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Suway, Michael Kuzel, Timothy Maloney, Wayne Biever, Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, David Cavanaugh, T.J. Harms
More than half all pedestrian fatalities occur at night. To address this problem, in the 1950s through 1970s Blackwell conducted considerable research that showed that a way to account for the limitations related to drivers’ expectancies at night would be to limit a driver’s time to view the forward roadway. The reduced information during the limited exposure time became a surrogate for the limited information available to on-road drivers at night. With the release of the SHRP-2 naturalistic database, we are able to see how drivers responded to in-road obstacles at night such as animals, bicyclists, pedestrians, and tree limbs. Using the naturalistic response data as a baseline, safe closed road recognition methodology was developed. The closed road study built upon the early nighttime recognition work by Blackwell, the observers were allowed to view the forward roadway for 1 or ¼ second.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually deemed rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicle's metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, have wide opening of windows, and plastic body parts are becoming popular. Lightning can run into the cabin of vehicles through radio antennas and hit the driver, as it happened in Japan last year. As the shark-fin antenna, which has wiring above the heads of occupants, becomes more popular, it may pose an increased risk of lightning attack to the passengers. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid as people ponder about the smart grid and vehicle to grid (V2G) concepts. Even today electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are being charged at home or in parking lots.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0408
Sergei Viktorovich Aliukov
Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1390
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Matthew P. Reed
Seat fit is characterized as the spatial relationship between the seat and the sitter’s anthropometric dimensions. Seat surface pressure distribution is one of the best available quantitative measures of the interaction between occupant and seat interface. The relationship between areas of contact or pressure and seat fit has not been well established. The objective of this study is to model seat pressure distribution as a function of the dimensions of the seat and the sitter’s body. A laboratory study was conducted using 12 production driver seats from passenger cars and light trucks. Thirty-eight men and women sat in each seat in a driving mockup. Seat surface pressure distribution was measured on the seatback and cushion. Standard anthropometric dimensions were recorded for each participant and standardized dimensions based on SAE J2732 were acquired for each test seat.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1386
Yu Zhang, Linda Angell, Silviu Pala, Tetsuya Hara, Doua Vang
In recent decades, innovations in both direct interface (e.g. touchscreen based systems) and indirect interface (e.g. remote controller based systems) have successfully entered consumer markets. These solutions became major channels of infotainment function interaction. However, the popularity of new Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMIs) also comes with growing concerns for driver distraction. It is not a trivial quest to design a system that can make functions accessible to drivers as well as maintain drivers’ ability to cope with the complex driving task. To understand driver distraction, eye behavior has been studied extensively with a focus on off-road glances. Several standards and guidelines are based on off-road glance-related measures. An alternative approach is to consider both on-road and off-road glances. This can be done using an algorithm such as Kircher and Ahlstrom’s (2009) AttenD algorithm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1397
Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer, Anita Fiorentino
While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on EU roads, recent data from ERSO show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuously increase of life expectancy in Europe and other high developed countries, senior people mobility needs and habits have been changing from the last years to now and there are a higher number of senior drivers, cyclists and pedestrians. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving their safety mobility, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved thought innovative tools and safety systems. The first step is to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores. A customer clinic was conducted on a steering wheel/instrument cluster and a center display screen, to see the difference in SUS scores of participants with “Free Exploration”, “Guided Exploration” , “No exploration” and “Repeated task Exploration” in a between subject design study. All four test methods were analyzed for their impact on SUS score, task success rates and adjective rating.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1367
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Jeffrey Muttart
Evaluating luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Currently, a common way to determine the actual luminance of an object is to locate the object on the subject roadway, at a substantially similar position, orientation and illuminance level and then measure the object with a luminance meter. This process can be extremely time consuming and could possibly require the roadway to be closed for safety purposes. Alternatively, the luminance can be calculated by measuring the reflectance of the subject surface and measuring the illuminance incident to the surface. After measuring the reflectance, it can then be used with any known illuminance to calculate the luminance of the object. This allows for an equivalently accurate measurement of luminance that is easier and quicker to make and could result in safer scene and vehicle inspections.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies showed that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to traffic light changes. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Accurate and consistent measurement of consumer preferences is critical to world-class automotive product development. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on translating customer emotions into firm, repeatable metrics. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales discussing their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research and discuss the use of rating scale specific to vehicle ergonomics. It will also analyze the correlation of the seven-point adjective rating scale to other usability metrics of in – vehicle interfaces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Regulation and certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and type approval. Self-certification requirements, currently used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations, must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements, currently used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations, can be more general relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of a 3rd party is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1375
Louis Tijerina, Danielle Warren, Sang-Hwan Kim, Francine Dolins
This study investigated the effects of three different navigation system human-machine interfaces (HMIs) on driver eye glance behavior, navigational errors, and subjective assessments. Thirty-six drivers drove the same unfamiliar 3-segment urban route in downtown Detroit during weekday daylight hours. The three HMIs were: i)a 2D or ii) a 3D (with level-of-detail icons in perspective) electronic map display, both with standard voice prompts; or iii) a 3D map display augmented by a separate display of photorealistic intersection images and landmark-enhanced voice prompts. Each participant drove the same three route segments in the same order but was assigned a different HMI condition for each segment as per a 3-period/3-treatment crossover experimental design. Results indicated that drivers in real traffic made prudent use of their visual attention with advanced navigation systems HMIs, always within recent US Department of Transportation recommended visual distraction limits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1362
James Marr, William Neale, tomas owens, Steven Beier
In 2016, Virtual Reality equipment became both affordable and available to the public market in the form of the Oculus (tm) and Vive (tm). This equipment includes a headset and earphone system that create a fully immersive environment for the user, and provides added abilities over traditional visualization tools like 2-D animation. These abilities include choosing where one looks, and for how long, and a spatial and depth perception, and auditory experience that traditional 2 D visualization cannot achieve without the headgear. This paper presents an evaluation of the use of this equipment in several driving and pedestrian simulation environments for both daytime and nighttime scenarios. As part of the study, the VR environment was compared to photographs, videos, and 2D visualizations of each of the scenarios to evaluate the level of realism achieved by the VR equipment. This was done through feedback from participants and through quantitative comparison of imagery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1368
Jeffrey Aaron Suway, Steven Suway
Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. One of the most common methods for mapping luminance is to use a spot type luminance meter. This requires individual measurements of all objects of interest and can be extremely time consuming. Luminance cameras can also be used to create a luminance map. While luminance cameras will map a scene’s luminance values more quickly than a spot luminance meter, commercially available luminance cameras typically require long capture times during low illuminance (up to 30 seconds). Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to measure luminance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1388
S. M. Akbar Berry, Michael Kolich, Johnathan Line, Waguih ElMaraghy PhD
Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and in discussion for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements is also presented and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0409
Divyanshu Joshi, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
It is recognized that there is a dearth of studies that provide a comprehensive understanding of vehicle-occupant system dynamics for various road conditions, sitting occupancies and vehicle velocities. In the current work, an in-house-developed 50 degree-of-freedom (DOF) multi-occupant vehicle model is employed to obtain the vehicle and occupant biodynamic responses for various cases of vehicle velocities and road roughness. The model is solved using Matlab scripts and library functions. Random road profiles of Classes A, B, C and D are generated based on PSDs (Power Spectral Densities) of spatial and angular frequencies given in the manual ISO 8608. A study is then performed on vehicle and occupant dynamic responses for various combinations of sitting occupancies, velocities and road profiles. The results obtained underscore the need for considering sitting occupancies in addition to velocity and road profile for assessment of ride comfort for a vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0406
Jindong Ren, Xiaoming Du, Tao Liu, Honghao Liu, Meng Hua, Qun Liu
This paper presented an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For the simulation of the body-seat interaction and the calculation of the interface pressure, in addition to body dimensions and material characteristics, an important aspect was the posture and position of the driver body with respect to the seat. The correct simulation results could be acquired only by realistic setting of the body posture, by introducing posture prediction models. To ensure accommodation of the results to the target population, usually several individuals were simulated, whose body anthropometries covered the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques were adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance between O-ring function and ease of assembly. Often times the assembly insertion force rises to the point of unacceptable manufacturing ergonomic practice. Designs are released into production with these high insertion forces while manufacturing operators struggle to assemble parts leaving opportunity for potential operator injury. Several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase optimizing functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1402
SeHwan Kim, Junmin Wang, Dennis Guenther, Gary Heydinger, Joshua Every, M. Salaani, Frank Barickman
The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are traditionally operated, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly search their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0650
Xinyu Li, Xinyu Ge, Ying Wang
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Stringent emission regulations and rising cost of energy push Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to adopt aftertreatment equipment and make a vehicle powertrain system more efficient to save consumers’ operation cost. Many OEMs proposed new prototype models or concept designs to promote green vehicle image. However, it is still challenging for an OEM to check whether consumers really accept new designs without sales data. Non-traditional player in the automotive industry bring many latest technology in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of a decade ago including not only a drive range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as easy usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
In recent years, a camera monitor system which displays car-mounted camera pictures to in-vehicle displays is being developed. For a future vehicle cockpit, a field of view (FOV) support system with plural displays is assumed, which includes not only a meter and a center display, but also an HUD and the camera monitor system. As a consequence, an area occupied with displays in a driver’s FOV increases. In this situation, coexistence of “easiness in seeing” to tell a driver about dangers early and “annoying reduction” to avoid the driver’s perception drops is needed for in-vehicle displays. In order to meet this requirement, questionnaires (psychological indicator) have been conventionally used. However, here are two difficulties. One is that two items (“easiness in seeing” and “annoying”) are contrary, and the other is that the relation between a result of questionnaires and driver’s security is uncertain.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1302
Hyung In Yun, Jae Kyu Lee, Jae Hong Choi, MyoungKwon Je, Junhyuk Kim
A sliding door is one of the car door systems, which is generally applied to the van-type vehicles. Compared with typical swing door systems, a sliding door gives a comfort to the passengers when they get in or out the car. With an increasing number of the family-scale activities, there followed a huge demand on the van-type cars, which caused growing interests in the convenience technology of the sliding door system. A typical sliding door system has negative effects on the vehicle interior package and the manual operating effort. Since the door should move backward without touching the side outer panel, the trajectory of the center rail should be a curve. The curve-shaped center rail infiltrates not only the passenger shoulder room, but also the opening flange curve, which results in the interior package loss.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1391
Heather Bronczyk, Michael Kolich, Marie-Eve Cote
Vehicle seatback hardness is a common measurement method used to understand the comfort performance of an automotive seat. Set-up of the seat for physical testing plays a critical role in the overall results. This paper looks at the relationship of the overall hardness data results on front driver vehicle seatbacks in a supported and unsupported test set-up condition. Results for seats tested in the unsupported test set-up condition are influenced by any deflection from the structure and recliner mechanism. Seats tested in the supported test set-up condition alleviate this additional noise. While the unsupported method leads to results that include additional influential variables some would argue that this best represents how a customer will experience the seat, as a system, and therefore provides the best correlation to customer data. The supported method offers results that may, from an engineering perspective, lend itself to easier interpretation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1443
Lu ZiLin
With the increasing development of the vehicle population and the transportation,the traffic accident has become a serious societal problem day by day. Statistics show that nearly 35% to 45% of the traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. So, it is important to judge whether the driver fatigue driving and to remind the driver. Aimed at the problem, through the acquisition of the blink frequency and eye movement information, the use of statistical methods to assess whether the driver fatigue, and warning will be given timely. The main tasks are described as following. By fixing the camera fixed on the instrument panel, locating the edge of the human eye, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids, calculate the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eye movement is calculated by detecting the movement of the pupil.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1564
Minh-Tri Nguyen, Jürgen Pitz, Werner Krantz, Jens Neubeck, Jochen Wiedemann
In addition to the analysis of human driving behavior or the development of new advanced driver assistance systems, the high simulation quality of today’s driving simulators enables investigations of selected topics pertaining to driving dynamics. With high reproducibility and fast variant generation subjective evaluation process leads to a better system understanding in the early development stages. With the opportunity of a realistic whole-vehicle simulation provided by the Stuttgart Driving Simulator fundamental analysis of the human’s thresholds of perception are carried out. The thresholds give general information about the perception of characteristic stimuli pertinent to driving dynamics, which are caused by road unevenness or bumps and transferred over the vehicle body to the occupants. Furthermore, objective data are generated to support the correlation of subjective evaluation and objective data.
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