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2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1836
Fangfang Wang, Peter Johnson, Hugh Davies, Bronson Du
Introduction Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain and driver fatigue. Recently introduced active suspension truck seats have been shown to reduce WBV exposures up to 50% relative to industry standard air-suspension seats, but drivers do not universally prefer these active suspension seats and their higher costs concern some companies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Methods Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1763
Lisa Steinbach, Ercan Altinsoy, Robert Rosenkranz
In today's urban environment inhabitants are permanently exposed to elevated noise levels, which are mostly dominated by traffic noise. The current electrification of vehicles might affect the traffic noise in city centers. The aim of this work was to determine the pedestrian reaction and the annoyance of more realistic traffic situations. For this purpose both combustion and electric vehicle noise situations and mixed scenarios of both concepts were generated. The differences in the perceived annoyance were investigated with perception studies. It was found that in some cases the order of the annoyance ratings will change: a single electric vehicle, which was perceived as least annoying, was evaluated as the most annoying noise by the increase to eight vehicles. The background noise also has an impact on the perception of annoyance and the warning effect.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1888
Rasheed Khan, Mahdi Ali, Eric C. Frank
Vehicle voice recognition systems have become an essential tool for hands free communication. As such, it has become more and more important to have reliable, consistent voice recognition in a vehicle. Vehicle voice recognition system performance is based on a variety of factors, including the speakers' gender & background noise. Male and female voice characteristics are inherently different, and some of these variations are investigated in this work. In this work, three vehicles have been tested during five different steady state road conditions (70 mph, 45 mph, Idle HVAC off, Idle HVAC on, vehicle off). Twelve speakers (six male and six female) were recorded announcing twenty mono- and multi-syllable call commands. Each speaker was recorded three times for repeatability, along with the vehicle voice recognition system response. Based on the resulting success rates, the least-recognized commands were synthesized to resemble the best detected commands from the different genders.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1762
Michael Roan, M. Lucas Neurauter, Douglas Moore, Dan Glaser
Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have begun to implement additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1771
Mohamed El morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Gear fault diagnosis is important in the vibration monitoring of any rotating machine. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always display non-stationary behavior. In early stage of gear failure, the gear mesh frequency (GMF) contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. This paper presents the value of optimal wavelet function for early detection of faulty gear. The Envelope Detection (ED) and the Energy Operator are used for gear fault diagnosis as common techniques with and without the proposed optimal wavelet to verify the effectiveness of the optimal wavelet function. Kurtosis values are determined for the previous techniques as an indicator parameter for the ability of early gear fault detection. The comparative study is applied to real vibration signals.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1847
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwar rao.P
The high noise and vibration levels, to which drivers of agricultural tractor are often exposed for long periods of time, have a significant part in the driver’s fatigue and may lead to substantial hearing impairment and health problems. For these reasons, the noise and vibration comfort has become an important criterion in the design of the driver’s cabin and a determining factor in the acceptance and sales potential of agricultural tractors. Therefore, it is essential for an optimal cabin design to have time and cost effective analysis tools for the assessment of the noise and vibration characteristics of various design alternatives at both the early design stages and the prototype testing phase. Airborne excitation and Structure Borne excitation are two types of dynamic cabin excitations mainly cause the interior noise in a driver’s cabin.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1757
Matthew Maunder, Benjamin Munday
Excitement, image and emotion are key attributes for cars, particularly those with higher power ratings. Engine sound has traditionally acted as the car’s voice, conveying these attributes to the driver and passengers along with the brand image. Engine sound also underpins the dynamic driving experience by giving instant feedback about how a car is operating, enhancing the connection between driver and vehicle. For decades, the automotive industry has engineered engine sound to achieve these benefits, thereby defining the ‘language’ of car sound. Electric vehicles deliver strong and responsive performance but naturally lack the acoustic feedback that internal combustion engines provide. While this gives advantages in terms of comfort and environmental noise, the benefits of engine sound are lost. Carefully controlled acoustic feedback brings tangible and valuable benefits both for the dynamic driving experience and to convey the brand image.
2017-04-21
WIP Standard
AIR805D
The purpose of this information report is to present the factors that affect the design and development of aircraft jet blast windshield rain removal systems. Rain removal system design will generally be unique to specific aircraft. Design of these systems typically requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with a laboratory development program and a flight test validation program. Published windshield rain removal performance test data is available only for limited windshield configurations.
2017-04-20
WIP Standard
J1362
SAE J1362 presents graphical symbols for use on operator controls and other displays on off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116 plus mobile cranes but excluding agricultural tractors. Symbols for agricultural tractors are covered by ASABE S304, ISO 3767-1, and ISO 3767-2.
2017-04-17
Article
Cabins with triple sealing, and EPA fuel economy credits promote use of recirculation position with outside air shut off. CO2 builds up well beyond 0.1% comfort level, says CalsonicKansei researcher at SAE WCX17.
2017-04-10
WIP Standard
ARP1270C
This ARP covers the basic criteria for the design of cabin pressure control systems (CPCS) for general aviation, commercial and military pressurized aircraft.
2017-04-06
Article
The number of threats will increase rapidly as more vehicles are connected, and vulnerabilities on older vehicles will be in constant need of updating.
2017-04-06
Article
Connectivity promises to bring a wealth of information to drivers, but it also poses vexing privacy issues. Figuring out where to store all the data related to connectivity is also puzzling for service providers.
2017-04-06
Magazine
Connectivity continues its advance More OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers are focusing on embedded telematic systems, hoping to displace aftermarket hardware. Tailoring fuel injection to control NOx The next big step to help heavy-duty diesel engines meet stricter emissions regulations involves adapting the fuel-injection system to the combustion needs. Active on safety Crash-avoidance technologies are vital "building blocks" to automate commercial vehicles, implement truck platooning and ultimately achieve zero accidents. Engineering with simulation and data Companies are discovering new simulation techniques, especially optimization; the next step is to combine simulation with sensor data and predictive analytics to create even more robust off-highway equipment.
2017-04-05
Article
V2I proponents are pressing forward in a technology that they contend will become a mainstay for autonomous vehicles. As the technology matures, paying for a roadside infrastructure is becoming a key issue.
2017-03-30
Magazine
Thought leadership at WCX17 Proliferating electrification and performance. Clarity of purpose Honda's 2017 Clarity Fuel Cell has impressive performance, zero emissions and zero range anxiety. Clarity is ready for the mainstream, but is hydrogen fuel? Lightweighting hinges on the details Multi-material design approaches require careful integration of all adjacent constituents. Haptic feedback for gesture-control HMI Mid-air gesture controls rely on sophisticated sensing to aid the human-machine interface and help keep drivers' eyes on the road. Road-efficient mud machine Jeep's new Compass benefits from a trick AWD system co-developed with GKN. Past as prelude to the future SAE's Mobility History Committee brings a trove of knowledge- and cool technology. The new Fellow from Ricardo Prof. Neville Jackson will be recognized as an SAE Fellow at WCX17.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1440
Shixing Chen, Ming Dong, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Abstract Vehicle safety systems may use occupant physiological information, e.g., occupant heights and weights to further enhance occupant safety. Determining occupant physiological information in a vehicle, however, is a challenging problem due to variations in pose, lighting conditions and background complexity. In this paper, a novel occupant height estimation approach is presented. Depth information from a depth camera, e.g., Microsoft Kinect is used. In this 3D approach, first, human body and frontal face views (restricted by the Pitch and Roll values in the pose estimation) based on RGB and depth information are detected. Next, the eye location (2D coordinates) is detected from frontal facial views by Haar-cascade detectors. The eye-location co-ordinates are then transferred into vehicle co-ordinates, and seated occupant eye height is estimated according to similar triangles and fields of view of Kinect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1443
Lu ZiLin, Gangfeng Tan, Yuxin Pang, YU TANG, Keyu Qian
Abstract The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Abstract Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Abstract Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly scan their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1378
Gianna F. Gomez-Levi, Ksenia Kozak, Nanxin Wang, Jian Wan, Linas Mikulionis
Abstract Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Abstract Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Abstract Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development lifecycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 subsamples of different sample sizes. The percentage of subsamples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a subsample size of thirty-five, 95% of the subsamples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive companies to improve by understanding what consumers want, like and dislike. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on measuring consumer’s ability, opinions and satisfaction. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic, etc.) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales. This ratings scale research focused on scales and their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research, discuss the use of rating scales specific to vehicle ergonomics, and analyze the results of an automotive interface study that correlates the seven-point adjective rating scale to the system usability score (SUS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1395
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Bum Il Shim
Abstract Seat cushions are considered as one of the important factors influence the seating comfort. In the automotive seat cushions, flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used due to the cushioning performance. Automotive seat designers are paying more attention to the improvement of seat cushion properties. This study introduces an automotive seat that uses an air-mat in the seat cushion along with polyurethane foam. The air-mat can be adjusted with its internal air pressure. The objective of this paper is to examine air-mat seat pressure level on seating comfort. Vibration experiments have been performed on the BSR simulator with random vibration. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure vibration at the foot and hip. All measured vibration were about the vertical direction (z-axis). The whole-body vibration exposure parameters (weighted root-mean-square (RMS), vibration dose value (VDV), transmissibility (SEAT value)) were calculated per ISO 2631-1 standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Abstract Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1393
Georges Beurier, Michelle Cardoso, Xuguang Wang
Abstract A new experimental seat was designed to investigate sitting biomechanics. Previous literature suggested links between sitting discomfort and shear force, however, research on this topic is limited. The evaluation of sitting discomfort derived from past research has been primarily associated with seat pressure distribution. The key innovative feature of the experimental seat is not only pressure distribution evaluation but shear forces as well. The seat pan of the experimental seat compromises of a matrix of 52 cylinders, each equipped with a tri-axial force sensor, enabling us to measure both normal and tangential forces. The position of each cylinder is also adjustable permitting a uniform pressure distribution underneath the soft tissue of the buttocks and thighs. Backrest, armrests, seat pan and flooring are highly adjustable and equipped with forces sensors to measure contact forces.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1394
Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Kyung-Sun Lee, Sun Ho Hur, Hyuk KIM, Se Jin Park
Abstract Drivers’ physical and physiological states change with prolonged driving. Driving for extended periods of time can lead to an increased risk of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders, caused by the discomfort of the seats. Static and dynamic are the two main categories must be considered within the seating development. The posture and orientation of the occupant are the important factors on static comfort. Driving posture measurement is essential for the evaluation of a driver workspace and improved seat comfort design. This study evaluated the comfortable driving posture through physiological and ergonomics measurements of an automotive premium driver seat. The physiological evaluation includes electroencephalographic (EEG) for brain waves, Biopac’s AcqKnowledge program, and subjective measurements on 32 healthy individuals. JACK simulation was used for the ergonomics evaluation, i.e., the magnitude of the spinal loads about lumbar vertebrae was estimated.
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