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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1846
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0006
John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Richard L. DeWeese, David M. Moorcroft, Amanda M. Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2093
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Ortwin Mailahn
Abstract Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8143
Jerry Syms, Theresia Manns, Björn Bergqvist
Abstract The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2601
Zhejun Yao, Wiltrud Weidner, Robert Weidner, Jens Wulfsberg
Abstract Despite the increasing application of automated systems, manual tasks still plays an important role in industrial production. The intelligence and flexibility of human enable quick response and adaptive production for the individual requirements and the changes in market. Moreover, some manufacturing tasks with sensible and high-value components (e.g., in electronic and aircraft production) requires attentive manual handling. Regarding the requirement of increasing productivity as well as ergonomic improvement and the aging of the employees, there is a significant need for technologies which support the staff individually by performing tasks. Human Hybrid Robot, a hybrid system with direct coupling (serial and/or parallel) of human and mechatronic elements, is a new trend in application of robotic technologies for supporting manual tasks. It realizes a synchronous and bidirectional interaction between human and mechatronic and/or mechanic elements in the same workspace.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The increased diffusion of cooperation between humans and robotics in manufacturing systems is one of the next things to implement within robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful, the possibilities increase to achieve safer working environment, due to that all safety signals demands fast management of data. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot, using the robot as a third hand. Within an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are one study focusing on how to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI cell (Human Machine Interaction) in an assembly task. The main objective in this paper is to present how different external safety systems could support the whole HMI assembly cell to work properly in an industrial context.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2485
Mark Benjamin Geiger, John Michael Ster
Abstract A joint US Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) project initially addressing procurement criteria for powered hand tools stimulated involvement of the SAE EG1-B Hand Tools committee and affiliated industry participants, producers of powered hand tools. It became apparent of the need to develop a standard that addresses occupational disease, productivity, life-cycle cost in the selection of Hand Power Tools. Committee efforts focused upon development of an SAE International Standard that considers productivity hand-arm vibration, noise, other safety and health factors and life-cycle costs in procurement criteria for powered hand tools. Aerospace Standard, AS 6228 Safety Requirements for Procurement, Maintenance and Use of Hand-held Powered Tools, was published in September 2014.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2532
Sylvain Hourlier, Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU, Xavier Servantie
Abstract As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2536
Rinky Babul Prasad, Vinukonda Siddartha
Abstract Recent years have seen a rise in the number of air crashes and on board fatalities. Statistics reveal that human error constitutes upto 56% of these incidents. This can be attributed to the ever growing air traffic and technological advancements in the field of aviation, leading to an increase in the electronic and mechanical controls in the cockpit. Accidents occur when pilots misinterpret gauges, weather conditions, fail to spot mechanical faults or carry out inappropriate actions. Currently, pilots rely on flight manuals (hard copies or an electronic tablet) to respond to an emergency. This is prone to human error or misinterpretation. Also, a considerable amount of time is spent in seeking, reading, interpreting and implementing the corrective action. The proposed augmented head mount virtual assist for the pilot eliminates flight manuals, by virtually guiding the pilot in responding to in-flight necessities.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2537
Sylvain Hourlier
Abstract The efficiency of the glass cockpit paradigm has faded away with the densification of the aeronautical environment. Today's problem lies with “non-defective aircraft” monitored by “perfectly trained crews” still involved in fatal accidents. One explanation is, at crew level, that we have reached a system complexity that, while acceptable in normal conditions, is hardly compatible with human cognitive abilities in degraded conditions. The current mitigation of such risk still relies on the enforcement through intensive training of an ability to manage extremely rare (off-normal) situations. These are explained by the potential combination of failures of highly complex systems with variable environment & with variable humans.
2015-04-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9151
Eric S. Winkel, Daniel E. Toomey, Robert Taylor
Abstract Thoracolumbar vertebral fractures are most commonly due to compressive loading modes and associated with falls from height. Two injury metrics are generally referenced for assessing the potential for compressive thoracolumbar injury; the Dynamic Response Index (DRI) and the compressive load measured between the pelvis and lumbar spine using the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) title 49 part 572 subpart B anthropomorphic test device (ATD). This study utilizes an ATD to investigate the injury mitigation potential of a variety of seat cushions during vertical impact in an unrestrained seated posture. ATD responses and DRI are reported for 65 vertical impacts with and without cushions from heights between 4 and 80 inches. The cushions investigated reduced ATD peak pelvic acceleration 63 +/− 11% and compressive lumbar load 42 +/− 9% on average.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2266
Helen Lockett, Sarah Fletcher, Nicolas Luquet
Abstract The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators' cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced. To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in the enclosed wing environment to better enable operator access and reduce production time.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0488
Peter Kempf
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
2013-12-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9003
Gaurav Bindal, Sparsh Sharma, Frank Janser, Eugen Neu
Body motions of flying animals can be very complex, especially when the body parts are greatly flexible and they interact with the surrounding fluid. The wing kinematics of an animal flight is governed by a large number of variables and thus the measurement of complete flapping flight is not so simple, making it very complex to understand the contribution of each parameter to the performance and hence, to decide the important parameters for constructing the kinematic model of a bat is nearly impossible. In this paper, the influence of each parameter is uncovered and the variables that a specified reconstruction of bat flight should include in order to maximally reconstruct actual dimensional complexity, have been presented in detail. The effects of the different kinematic parameters on the lift coefficient are being resulted.
2013-09-17
Technical Paper
2013-01-2309
Robert C. Grant
The aging of the world population, and call for greater equality in access to public environments has led to an increase in design for persons with reduced mobility (PRM). There are numerous physical and operational constraints and parameters to overcome when designing a successful and marketable PRM environment. Each program evaluates what is to be considered reasonable based on these guidelines (cost, weight, manufacturability, airframe curvature, footprint required, regulations, and usability). However, there are other less tangible parameters to address. For example, what level of dignity or level of privacy does the PRM environment allow? Does the design require additional assistance to access, or can those who are able make independent use of the environment? Most aircraft manufacturers and design entities have recognized the need to improve accessibility aboard single aisle commercial aircraft (Airbus 320 family, Boeing 737, Embraer 190, Bombardier CSERIES).
2012-10-22
Journal Article
2012-01-2116
Tim Robinson, Greg Grabski, Koji Yugawa, Jay Jeffers, John Green, Steve Humphrey
Touchscreen displays are of growing interest to the aerospace community and are having a significant impact on how pilots interact with avionics. With the right hardware construction and software algorithm, a touchscreen display can manage and present information and controls to the pilot in an intuitive manner. This paper describes a hardware touchscreen rationale, primarily focusing on the lighting performance of a touchscreen display modified for flight deck applications. Specifically, we describe a durable glass-on-film-on-glass resistive touchscreen display with improved high ambient contrast ratio (HACR) properties and a low friction, lipophobic textured front-surface that disrupts the distinctiveness of reflective images.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0486
Amardeep Sathyanarayana, John Hansen
There has been rapid growth in the mobile-phone industry in terms of technology and growing number of users with migration into the car environment. There is also a significant demand for smart phones capable of accessing email, listening to music, organizing daily activities, linking to social networking sites, while the user is on the move. The automotive industry has been significantly impacted by such mobile-phone usage. Driving a car is a complicated and skillful task requiring attention and focus. However many people perceive driving to be easy - second-to-habit or an extension of their natural skills. This complacency encourages drivers to multitask while driving. While many drivers manage this multitasking comfortably, it becomes a distraction and contributes to increased risk while driving for some. Since the effect of multitasking is variable on different drivers, it is important to understand its impact on individual drivers.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2578
Bernard Dion, Vincent Rossignol, Aubanel Monnier
The ARINC 661 standard [1] defines a Cockpit Display System (CDS) interface intended for all types of aircrafts installations. This paper presents an integrated solution based on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) tools that allows, in the initial stage of an aircraft project, support for the expression of requirements with regards to the CDS definition and the CDS interaction with the User Applications (UAs). It also enables prototyping of the systems architecture from the point of view of functionalities and performance. At a later stage of the project, this same integrated tool suite can be used to produce and certify the final embedded software code within the CDS and to generate the communication code between the CDS and the UAs.
2011-10-18
Technical Paper
2011-01-2655
Matthew Walton, Philip Webb, Mike Poad
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2716
Jorge Bardina
A review of the research accomplished in 2009 in the System-Level Design, Analysis and Simulation Tools (SLDAST) of the NASA's Airspace Systems Program is presented. This research thrust focuses on the integrated system-level assessment of component level innovations, concepts and technologies of the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) under research in the ASP program to enable the development of revolutionary improvements and modernization of the National Airspace System. The review includes the accomplishments on baseline research and the advancements on design studies and system-level assessment, including the cluster analysis as an annualization standard of the air traffic in the U.S. National Airspace, and the ACES-Air MIDAS integration for human-in-the-loop analyzes within the NAS air traffic simulation.
2011-10-18
Journal Article
2011-01-2709
Sonja Straussberger, Florence Reuzeau
The vision of SESAR is to integrate and implement new technologies to improve air traffic management (ATM) performance. Enhanced automation and new separation modes characterize the future concept of operations, where the role of the human operator will remain central by integrating more managing and decision-making functions. The expected changes represent challenges for the human actors in the aircraft and on ground and must be taken into account during the development phase. Integrating the human in the ATM system development starting from the early design phase is a key factor for future acceptability. This paper describes the adaptation of currently applied Cockpit Human Factors processes in order to be able to design the aircraft for the future ATM environment.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0594
Silviu Pala, Thomas Schnell, Nicole Lynn Becklinger, Carolina Giannotti, Bo Sun, Hiroaki Tanaka, Ifushi Shimonomoto
DENSO International America, Inc. and the University of Iowa-Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL) have developed a series of new Multi-Modal Interface for Drivers (MMID) in order to improve driver safety, comfort, convenience and connectivity. Three MMID concepts were developed: GUI 1, GUI 2 and GUI 1-HUD. All three of the MMIDs used a new Reconfigurable Haptic Joystick (RHJ) on the steering wheel and new concept HMI Dual Touch Function Switches (DTFS) device. The DTFS use capacitive and mechanic sensing located on the back of the steering wheel as input operation devices. Inputs from the new controls were combined with a large TFT LCD display in the instrument cluster, a Head Up Display (HUD) and Sound as output devices. The new MMID system was installed in a Lexus LS-430. The climate control panel and radio panels of the LS-430 were used as a baseline condition to which the new designs were compared.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0139
Mario Maia Neto, Luiz Carlos S. Goes, Rui Charles M. Furtado
The free-fall operation comprises a redundant, dissimilar and independent mechanically operated method of extending airplane landing gear due to a main hydraulic system failure or an electrical system malfunction. However, the emergency extension operation system design is not unique and spring-assisted, auxiliary hydraulics-assisted or even pneumatics-assisted landing gear free-fall design can be found in different airplanes. This paper aims at describing the model simulation and the optimization of certain parameters related to the associated hydraulic system, for emergency operation condition, in a non-assisted system configuration comprising simple extension by gravity.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3092
Karl-Erik Neumann
The endeavor for low cost machining and assembly equipment within aerospace manufacturing has driven the industry to adapt articulated arm robots to perform machining and assembly work that are traditionally performed by machine tools and/or special designed machines.
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3100
Brian Cox
From 1986 through 1992, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Air Force collaborated to create a program called the Pilot's Associate. The Pilot's Associate was designed to analyze an aircraft's systems and environment resulting in real-time mission and tactical recommendations to the pilot. Technology developed for the Pilot's Associate Program is more relevant today than ever before. Pilots of unmanned vehicles are faced with making critical decisions during high-stress missions while located thousands of miles from the vehicle. Associate systems can aid unmanned vehicle pilots in making critical decisions, maintaining situational awareness and reducing task overload.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3112
Hakan Isci
Increasing electronic controls in aircraft flight deck, especially in military aircrafts, demands special attention from crew workload assessment and human error analysis point of view. The main objective for the Authority is to validate that the crew workload is adequate for different and complicated military missions. Besides, human error analysis is a regulatory requirement in Airworthiness Certification of airplanes. Human errors need to be observed during simulated operational use of novelties and analyzed later (during the debriefing with pilots or during the results analysis). The main objective during the debriefing is to identify their causes, their consequence, their criticality and the current safety barriers in terms of human errors management. Simulators offer wide range of capability to identify the problems in early stages of the design. Degree of fidelity needed on evaluation media is related with the complexity of the military mission and project budget.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3222
P. J. Crothers, P. L. Freeman, I. Dressler, K. Nilsson, A. Robertsson, W. Zulauf, B. Felber, R. Loser, K. Siercks, T. Brogardh
A consortium of interested parties has conducted an experimental characterization of two Tau parallel kinematic machines which were built as a part of the EU-funded project, SMErobot1. Characteristics such as machine stiffness, work envelope, repeatability and accuracy were considered. This paper will present a brief history of the Tau parallel machine, the results of this testing and some comment on prospective application to the aerospace industry.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2342
John W. Fisher, John A. Hogan, Lance Delzeit, Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Ric Alba, Gregory Pace, Thomas G Fox
Water is of critical importance to space missions due to crew needs and the cost of supply. To control mission costs, it is essential to recycle water from all available wastes - both solids and liquids. Water recovery from liquid water wastes has already been accomplished on space missions. For instance, a Water Recycling System (WRS) is currently operational on the International Space Station (ISS). It recovers water from urine and humidity condensate and processes it to potable water specifications. However, there is more recoverable water in solid wastes such as uneaten food, wet trash, feces, paper and packaging material, and brine. Previous studies have established the feasibility of obtaining a considerable amount of water and oxygen from these wastes (Pisharody et al, 2002; Fisher et al, 2008; Wignarajah et al, 2008).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2341
Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Ric Alba, John W. Fisher, John A. Hogan, Tom Fox
A microwave powered solid waste stabilization and water recovery prototype was delivered to Ames Research Center through an SBIR Phase II contract awarded to Umpqua Research Company. The system uses a container capable of holding 5.7 dm3 volume of waste. The microwave power can be varied to operate either at full power (130 W) or in a variable mode from 0% and 100%. Experiments were conducted with different types of wastes (wet cloth, simulated feces/diarrheal wastes, wet trash and brine) at different levels of moisture content and dried under varying microwave power supply. This paper presents the experimental data. The results provide valuable insight into the different operation modes under which the prototype can be used to recover water from the wastes in a space environment. Further investigations and testing of the prototype are recommended.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1846