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Viewing 91 to 120 of 5950
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0313
Manoj Kumar Rajendran, Srinivasa Chandra V, Manikandan Rajaraman, Dinesh Kumar Rajappan, Agathaman Selvaraj
Abstract In today competitive world, gaining customer delight is the most vital part of an automotive business. Customers’ expectations are high which need to be satisfied limitless, to stay in the business. The major expectation of a commercial vehicle customer is a vehicle without failures which involves lower spares cost and downtime. The significance of a suspension system in the new age automobiles is getting advanced. There have been many improvements in the suspension system especially in leaf springs to provide a better ride comfort, and one such modern era implementation is the Parabolic Spring which comprises of fewer leaves with varying thickness from the center to the ends without inter-leaf friction. Study reveals that parabolic spring exhibits better ride comfort, but less life compared to a conventional leaf spring which leads to the increase in downtime of the vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0325
Anup Batra, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, K Rajakumar, Rajiv Modi
Abstract With the advancement in vehicle technology over the years, many intuitive technologies are coming in automotive passenger vehicles to improve the safety aspects during vehicle driving in night conditions. In addition to headlamps, cornering lamps or infrared camera with head up display etc. are evolving as a part of AFS (Advanced Front Lighting Systems) to aid driver vision. Many OEMs are following conventional methodology of subjective assessments with the ratings on different numerical scale mapped with customer acceptance to validate head lamps and its tech updates. These methods lag in getting repeatability of results, acceptance reliability and not knowing the limitations of the installed system due to high dependency on the selected evaluators. This paper emphasizes on robust test methodology development to validate the complete performance of cornering lamps with the objective test data analysis.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0326
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Igor Sauperl, Andreas Wimmer, Wolfram Rossegger, Norbert Buch
Abstract Experimental investigations on engine test beds represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of faults. A fault diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an inconsistency in measurement. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the fault quickly and reliably. However, only faults that have actually occurred should be detected because the user will only adopt a system that provides accurate results. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis at engine test beds, starting with an explanation of the general procedure. Next, the methods applied for fault detection are introduced.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0349
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This study is an attempt to develop a decision support and control structure based on fuzzy logic for deployment of automotive airbags. Airbags, though an additional safety feature in vehicles, have proven to be fatal at various instances. Most of these casualties could have been avoided by using seat belts in the intended manner that is, as a primary restraint system. Fatalities can be prevented by induction of smart systems which can sense the presence and differentiate between passengers and conditions prevailing at a particular instant. Fuzzy based decision making has found widespread use due to its ability to accept non-binary or grey data and compute a reliable output. Smart airbags also allow the Airbag Control Unit to control inflation speed depending on instantaneous conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0355
Lokesh Soni
Abstract With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if a vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been lateral velocity and yaw rate control. With this, situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behavior. The generation of reference behavior is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on a real vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0252
Sahil Garg, Sujit Bhide, Shashank Gupta
Abstract Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0078
Nandagopalan Chidambaram, Sridhar Prasad Chandrasekar, VM Maheshwar, Prabaharan Palanivelu, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0081
Karthikeyan Nagarajan
Abstract The objective of this work is to develop a realistic driver model which helps in simulating drive related behavior of system vehicle and other vehicles in a traffic simulation environment. A driver model is said to be realistic only if it can learn and adapt to any variations in vehicle parameters and simulated road conditions. At the same time, the control action and the learning should represent human-like computation. In this paper, the proposed driver model consists of a Self-Learning Model Reference Fuzzy Longitudinal and Lateral controller. The model employs a set of fuzzy rules to realize a path-following lateral controller whereas the longitudinal control is governed by another set of fuzzy rules. The adaptive capabilities of the model are realized using supervisory fuzzy set and simple self-learning algorithm. This adaptive mechanism evaluates the current controller performance against the desired closed loop reference model.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0012
S Lakshmi Narayanan, Suresh Palraj, Madanagopal Mani, Shekhar Pathak
Abstract This paper makes an attempt to focus on a study to evaluate angle of vision and obstruction in a vehicle, it is an objective assessment through different percentiles of population. In a view of Safety and comfort of a driver, a good perception of environment in which his vehicle is operating will be a determining component. Driver visibility and hidden corner in vehicle is a major safety area for passengers and pedestrian. Driver eye vision is an important key factor to design vehicle windshield, rear window and A-Pillar/ B-Pillar, positioning of side view mirror and IRVM based on anthropometry data. This study focuses on method of capturing and measuring the i) Driver's Direct field of vision that the driver sees directly by moving his/her eyesii) Driver's Indirect field of vision in which driver views indirectly by using imaging devices Rear View mirror, Display cameras.iii) Driver's Angle of obstruction - by A pillar, B pillar.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0002
Sitikantha Padhy, Pradeep Agrawal, Yoginder Yadav
Abstract Most of the time in motor vehicle accidents, the driver of the vehicle (especially driver of the larger vehicle in case of collision involving multiple vehicles) is held responsible for rash and negligent driving. But in-depth study and statistics, points out several external or environmental factors playing crucial role in these unfortunate incidents. In some cases these factors directly influence an accident/crash and in some cases these factors influence the behavior pattern of the driver, which increases risk of unsafe practices. Based on the real time data collected by ADAC on the Gurgaon - Jaipur Stretch of NH-8 and others parts of India, some of the factors that directly or indirectly influences the drivers behaviour, are illustrated in this paper.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0153
Krishnaraj Chandrasekaran, Navaneetha Rao, Suresh Palraj, Chaitanya Kurella, Mohamed noohu Lebbai
Abstract Over the ages of automotive history, expectations of the customers increases vastly starting from driving comfort, better fuel economy and a safe vehicle. Requirement of good vehicle drivability from customers are increasing without any compromise of fuel economy and vehicle features. To enhance the product, it is a must for every OEM’s to have better drivability to fulfill the needs of the customer. This paper explains Objective Drivability Evaluation done on compact SUV vehicle and comparison with subjective drivability. Vehicle manufacturer usually evaluate drivability based on the subjective assessments of experienced test drivers with a sequence of certain maneuvers. In this study, we have used the objective drivability assessment tool AVL drive to obtain the vehicle drivability rating.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0339
Jagankumar Mari, Egalaivan Srinivasan
Abstract In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored. Fierce competition in the recent years and buyer’s market trend is compelling the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of attribute refinements. Steering is one driver-Vehicle interface which the driver is engaged throughout. Comfort and feel in steering wheel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-center feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return-ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and steering system friction on the on-center driving performance. Experiments to measure the Jacking torque and steering system friction were conducted in the lab and subjective and objective assessments of on-center driving performance were later conducted at test track in two similar 12 Ton truck to correlate their effects.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0017
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA’s in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. This prototype ATD is comprised of (1) a head with pediatric mass properties, (2) a neck that produces head lag with Z-axis rotation at the atlanto-occipital joint, (3) a flexible thoracic spine, (4) multi-point thoracic deflection measurement capability, (5) skeletal anthropometry representative of a seated child, and (6) an abdomen that can directly measure belt loading.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0005
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Takumi Fujii, Richard Douard
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0006
John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Richard L. DeWeese, David M. Moorcroft, Amanda M. Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0003
Anicet Le Ruyet, Fabien Berthet, Frédéric Rongiéras, Philippe Beillas
A protocol based on ultrafast ultrasound imaging was applied to study the in situ motion of the liver while the abdomen was subjected to compressive loading at 3 m/s by a hemispherical impactor or a seatbelt. The loading was applied to various locations between the lower abdomen and the mid thorax while feature points inside the liver were followed on the ultrasound movie (2000 frames per second). Based on tests performed on five post mortem human surrogates (including four tested in the current study), trends were found between the loading location and feature point trajectory parameters such as the initial angle of motion or the peak displacement in the direction of impact. The impactor tests were then simulated using the GHBMC M50 human body model that was globally scaled to the dimensions of each surrogate. Some of the experimental trends observed could be reproduced in the simulations (e.g. initial angle) while others differed more widely (e.g. final caudal motion).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0001
Harold J. Mertz, Priya Prasad, Dainius J. Dalmotas, Annette L. Irwin
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0002
Sven A. Holcombe, Stewart C. Wang, James B. Grotberg
This study investigates the isolated effect of rib shape on the mechanical characteristics of ribs subjected to multiple forms of loading. It aims to measure the variation in stiffness due to shape that is seen throughout the population and, in particular, provide a tool for researchers to better understand the influence of shape on resulting stiffness. A previously published six-parameter shape model of the central axis of human ribs was used. It has been shown to accurately model the overall rib path using intrinsic geometric properties such as size, aspect ratio, and skewness, through shapes based on logarithmic spirals with high curvature continuity. In this study the model was fitted to 19,500 ribs from 989 adult female and male CT scans having demographic distributions matching the US adult population. Mechanical loading was simulated through a simplified finite element model aimed at isolating rib shape from other factors influencing mechanical response.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0004
Rakshit Ramachandra, Yun-Seok Kang, John H. Bolte, Alena Hagedorn, Rodney Herriott, Jason A. Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0011
David Gorman, Ebram Handy, Sikui Wang, Annette L. Irwin
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. A logistic regression model was developed indicating occupant weight, impact delta velocity and gender to be significant predictors of talus fracture (p<0.05).
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Human Factors and Ergonomics
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0136
Cecília Souto Lage, José Ricardo Sodré
Abstract The demand for optimization of engine design and operating conditions in order to achieve fuel economy and attend strict emission legislation leads to development of engine simulation tools. The virtual testing tools provide results in a short time with low costs, and enable larger variation on the design and operational conditions. Nowadays engine simulation is performed by commercial software or open source models. In one hand, commercial software are able to simulate complex quasi or multi-dimensional models and have an intuitive interface with the user. The model validation can be extremely difficult since specific model details are not known. In the other hand, the open source models are appropriate for thermodynamic models capable of predicting in-cylinder data and pollutant emissions. The validation process in this type of tool is usually simple since all assumptions of modeling are known.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0188
Cássio Silva Fischer Chamone, Danilo Mudadu Teixeira, Marco Túlio Silva, Pedro Américo Almeida Magalhães Júnior
Abstract Children and animals have constantly been forgotten locked inside vehicles and subjected to extreme temperature conditions, which by dozens of times, led them to death. According to statistics compiled by "Kids and Cars", an organization dedicated to prevent child deaths, there were 724 cases of deaths of children caused by asphyxia or by high temperatures in a locked car between 1991 and 2013. This is a worrisome scenario and currently has generated discussion around solutions to the problem. Currently there are ideas and projects seeking for that solution, however they have proved ineffective. This study aims to propose a solution, implementing a system that can assist to the safety of children and animals forgotten in a car. To this end, the system employs a low cost presence sensor, which is ready for reading when the vehicle is turned-off and locked, detecting the presence of a person or animal by an infrared receiver.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0196
Francisco Ganzarolli, Samuel Lopes Souza, Jose Maria Campos Dos Santos
Abstract The purpose of the theme developed in this work is to increase the volume of information related to vehicle evaluation and how human perception can be translated into numbers, thus facilitating the process of definitions, refinement and analysis of its performance. Based on the discipline of psychophysics, where it is possible to study the relationship between stimulus and sensation and the use of post processing tool known as PSD (Power Spectral Density), post process the acceleration data of inputs perceived by the occupants of the vehicle, when driving in routes considered ergodic. By this, in a summarized way, get to human subjective perception of comfort. This material shows in a conceptual way a sequence of studies that were conducted to make it possible, to generate a performance classification of the subjective vehicle attribute of Smoothness, by processing values of acceleration measured the driver's seat.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0182
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract There are many variables involved in the design of a front suspension, such as hardpoints' coordinates, steering geometry or even an anti-roll bar, which could make design difficult and time consuming. The MacPherson strut, due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and low manufacturing cost, is widely used in vehicles in contrast to double wishbone and multi-link suspensions. Although its tuning process still demands time, it can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a front suspension model with MacPherson strut is studied, so that the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0184
Eduardo Domingo Morales
Abstract The twist-beam suspension is widely used in vehicles due to the simplicity of its construction, less occupied space and its low manufacturing cost in comparison with multi-link suspension. The difficulties related to the design of a twist-beam axle concern the large number of possible configurations for twist-beam profile and the stiffness adjustment of axle beam and suspension arms. However, design process can be done with the aid of multibody dynamics simulations, by testing several configurations in a virtual way. In this work, a simplified twist-beam suspension model is studied, and the influence of variation of its parameters is analyzed in its elastokinematics behavior and in handling performance of a vehicle.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2357
Onkar P. Gurav, Santosh Deshmane
Abstract Globalization has intensively driven focus of car manufacturers on comfort and ergonomics. Luxuries are becoming essential features of product mix. Customer’s expectations and desires are changing because of cut throat competition and increasing variety of options. In order to sustain in marketplace, OEM has to be competitive while providing features and options with appropriate quality. Vigorously changing dimensions and definitions of comfort level, luxury and aesthetics has driven the intense focus of OEM’s on customer touch points, customer touch points are those components of vehicle which customer accesses while driving the vehicle and they play vital role in generating drive feel of vehicle. Customer’s drive feel about the vehicle is most complex and critical factor and is of subjective nature. Now days drive feel is an important aspect of product differentiation. Gear shift feel is very crucial touch point in overall drive feel of vehicle.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8143
Jerry Syms, Theresia Manns, Björn Bergqvist
Abstract The noise generated by the flow of air past a transport truck is a key design factor for the manufacturers of these vehicles as the sound levels in the cabin are a significant component of driver comfort. This paper describes a collaboration between Volvo GTT and the National Research Council Canada to measure the in-cabin aeroacoustics of a full-scale cab-over tractor in the NRC 9 m Wind Tunnel. Acoustic instrumentation was installed inside the tractor to record cabin noise levels and externally to acquire tunnel background noise data. Using a microphone mounted on the driver’s-side tunnel wall as a reference to remove variations in background noise levels between data points, differences in cabin noise levels were able to be detected when comparing the tractor with different configurations. The good repeatability of the data allowed for differences of as little as 0.5 dB to be measured.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8109
Daniel Aceituna
Abstract When specifying an embedded system-to-be, a key consideration is how the embedded system will interact with its operating environment. Of particular concern is the system's vulnerability to Off-Nominal Behaviors (ONB) from human interaction. ONB vulnerability can result in human operators placing the system in an undesired state through an unforeseen sequence of events. This, in turn, can have an adverse effect on the system’s quality. Reducing ONB vulnerability can be challenging because human behavior can be unpredictable and stakeholders have a natural tendency to assume the system will be used in a predictable, nominal, manner. One approach to reducing ONB vulnerability is to specify the system as "fool-proof" as possible, during the requirements phase, where access to domain experts is at its most convenient.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 5950