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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1402
SeHwan Kim, Junmin Wang, Dennis Guenther, Gary Heydinger, Joshua Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank Barickman
Abstract The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binhui Jiang, King H. Yang
Abstract Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0163
Gursaran D. Mathur
The author has developed a model that can be used to predict build-up of cabin carbon dioxide levels for automobiles based on many variables. There are a number of parameters including number of occupants that dictates generation of CO2 within the control volume, cabin leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) characteristics, cabin volume, blower position or airflow rate; vehicle age, etc. Details of the analysis is presented in the paper. Finally, the developed model has been validated with experimental data. The simulated data follows the same trend and matches fairly well with the experimental data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Abstract Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the elderly population, automakers are paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor the drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry has been integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of applications is possible for the IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1434
Dongran Liu, Marcos Paul Gerardo-Castro, Bruno Costa, Yi Zhang
Abstract Heart rate is one of the most important biological features for health information. Most of the state-of-the-art heart rate monitoring systems rely on contact technologies that require physical contact with the user. In this paper, we discuss a proof-of-concept of a non-contact technology based on a single camera to measure the user’s heart rate in real time. The algorithm estimates the heart rate based on facial color changes. The input is a series of video frames with the automatically detected face of the user. A Gaussian pyramid spatial filter is applied to the inputs to obtain a down-sampled high signal-to-noise ratio images. A temporal Fourier transform is applied to the video to get the signal spectrum. Next, a temporal band-pass filter is applied to the transformed signal in the frequency domain to extract the frequency band of heart beats. We then used the dominant frequency in the Fourier domain to find the heart rate.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1634
Hui Sung Lee
Abstract When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1649
Jeffrey Yeung, Omar Makke, Perry MacNeille, Oleg Gusikhin
Abstract SmartDeviceLink (SDL) is open-source software that connects the vehicle’s infotainment system to mobile applications. SDL includes an open-source software development kit (SDK) that enables a smart-device to connect to the vehicle’s human-machine interface (HMI), read vehicle data, and control vehicle sub-systems such as the audio and climate systems. It is extensible, so other convenience subsystems or brought-in aftermarket modules can be added. Consequently, it provides a platform for cyber-physical systems that can integrate wearables, consumer sensors and cloud data into an intelligent vehicle control system. As an Open Innovation Platform, new features can be rapidly developed and deployed to the market, bypassing the longer vehicle development cycles. This facilitates a channel for rapid prototyping and innovation that is not constrained by the traditional process of automotive parts development, but is rather on the timeline of software development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Abstract Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been observed from long time. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in the bus roof area, small parking lamps, LEDs used in instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design & development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits, voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0426
Chen Lv, Hong Wang, Bolin Zhao, Dongpu Cao, Wang Huaji, Junzhi Zhang, Yutong Li, Ye Yuan
Abstract The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1554
Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
Abstract Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0178
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Sam Gullman, David Jacobsson
Abstract Passive sensor (HVAC) manikins have been developed to obtain high-resolution measurements of environmental conditions across a representative human body form. These manikins incorporate numerous sensors that measure air velocity, air temperature, radiant heat flux, and relative humidity. The effect of a vehicle’s climate control system on occupant comfort can be characterized from the data collected by an HVAC manikin. Equivalent homogeneous temperature (EHT) is often used as a first step in a cabin comfort analysis, particularly since it reduces a large data set to a single intuitive number. However, the applicability of the EHT for thermal comfort assessment is limited since it does not account for human homeostasis, i.e., that the human body actively counter-balances heat flow with the environment to maintain a constant core temperature.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1302
Hyung In Yun, Jae Kyu Lee, Jae Hong Choi, MyoungKwon Je, Junhyuk Kim
Abstract A sliding door is one of the car door systems, which is generally applied to the vans. Compared with swing doors, a sliding door gives comfort to the passengers when they get in or out the car. With an increasing number of the family-scale activities, there followed a huge demand on the vans, which caused growing interests in the convenience technology of the sliding door system. A typical sliding door system has negative effects on the vehicle interior package and the operating effort. Since the door should move backward without touching the car body, the trajectory of the center rail should be a curve. The curve-shaped center rail infiltrates not only the passenger shoulder room, but also the opening flange curve, which results in the interior package loss. Moreover, as the passenger pulls the door outside handle along the normal direction of the door outer skin, the curved rail causes the opening effort loss.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1564
Minh-Tri Nguyen, Jürgen Pitz, Werner Krantz, Jens Neubeck, Jochen Wiedemann
Abstract In addition to the analysis of human driving behavior or the development of new advanced driver assistance systems, the high simulation quality of today’s driving simulators enables investigations of selected topics pertaining to driving dynamics. With high reproducibility and fast generation of vehicle variants the subjective evaluation process leads to a better system understanding in the early development stages. The transfer of the original on-road test run to the virtual reality of the driving simulator includes the full flexibility of the vehicle model, the maneuver and the test track, which allows new possibilities of investigation. With the opportunity of a realistic whole-vehicle simulation provided by the Stuttgart Driving Simulator new analysis of the human’s thresholds of perception are carried out.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1566
Willibald Brems, Nico Kruithof, Richard Uhlmann, Andreas Wagner, Werner Krantz, Jochen Wiedemann
Abstract In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9114
Hoon Lee, Delbert Tesar, Pradeepkumar Ashok
Abstract In order to design the in-wheel motor (IWM) for Electric Vehicles (EV), it is necessary to analyze the desired (expected) duty cycle at a higher performance level in order that the IWM becomes commercially relevant. The duty cycle may be representative of different segments of the customer base. Or, the individual customer may wish to have a set of IWMs that uniquely meet his/her measured “demand” cycle for a balance of drivability and efficiency. Questions then arise: How to measure the demand cycle of an individual? What 2 or 3 standard duty cycles should be offered as customer choices for their vehicle? Should the IWM represent multiple speed domains to enhance efficiency and drivability? Can the vehicle be updated rapidly 2 to 3 years after purchase? Etc. In this paper, we lay the groundwork to answer these types of customer questions for an EV with four independent IWMs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0252
Sahil Garg, Sujit Bhide, Shashank Gupta
Abstract Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0002
Sitikantha Padhy, Pradeep Agrawal, Yoginder Yadav
Abstract Most of the time in motor vehicle accidents, the driver of the vehicle (especially driver of the larger vehicle in case of collision involving multiple vehicles) is held responsible for rash and negligent driving. But in-depth study and statistics, points out several external or environmental factors playing crucial role in these unfortunate incidents. In some cases these factors directly influence an accident/crash and in some cases these factors influence the behavior pattern of the driver, which increases risk of unsafe practices. Based on the real time data collected by ADAC on the Gurgaon - Jaipur Stretch of NH-8 and others parts of India, some of the factors that directly or indirectly influences the drivers behaviour, are illustrated in this paper.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0012
S Lakshmi Narayanan, Suresh Palraj, Madanagopal Mani, Shekhar Pathak
Abstract This paper makes an attempt to focus on a study to evaluate angle of vision and obstruction in a vehicle, it is an objective assessment through different percentiles of population. In a view of Safety and comfort of a driver, a good perception of environment in which his vehicle is operating will be a determining component. Driver visibility and hidden corner in vehicle is a major safety area for passengers and pedestrian. Driver eye vision is an important key factor to design vehicle windshield, rear window and A-Pillar/ B-Pillar, positioning of side view mirror and IRVM based on anthropometry data. This study focuses on method of capturing and measuring the i) Driver's Direct field of vision that the driver sees directly by moving his/her eyesii) Driver's Indirect field of vision in which driver views indirectly by using imaging devices Rear View mirror, Display cameras.iii) Driver's Angle of obstruction - by A pillar, B pillar.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0081
Karthikeyan Nagarajan
Abstract The objective of this work is to develop a realistic driver model which helps in simulating drive related behavior of system vehicle and other vehicles in a traffic simulation environment. A driver model is said to be realistic only if it can learn and adapt to any variations in vehicle parameters and simulated road conditions. At the same time, the control action and the learning should represent human-like computation. In this paper, the proposed driver model consists of a Self-Learning Model Reference Fuzzy Longitudinal and Lateral controller. The model employs a set of fuzzy rules to realize a path-following lateral controller whereas the longitudinal control is governed by another set of fuzzy rules. The adaptive capabilities of the model are realized using supervisory fuzzy set and simple self-learning algorithm. This adaptive mechanism evaluates the current controller performance against the desired closed loop reference model.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0078
Nandagopalan Chidambaram, Sridhar Prasad Chandrasekar, VM Maheshwar, Prabaharan Palanivelu, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0153
Krishnaraj Chandrasekaran, Navaneetha Rao, Suresh Palraj, Chaitanya Kurella, Mohamed noohu Lebbai
Abstract Over the ages of automotive history, expectations of the customers increases vastly starting from driving comfort, better fuel economy and a safe vehicle. Requirement of good vehicle drivability from customers are increasing without any compromise of fuel economy and vehicle features. To enhance the product, it is a must for every OEM’s to have better drivability to fulfill the needs of the customer. This paper explains Objective Drivability Evaluation done on compact SUV vehicle and comparison with subjective drivability. Vehicle manufacturer usually evaluate drivability based on the subjective assessments of experienced test drivers with a sequence of certain maneuvers. In this study, we have used the objective drivability assessment tool AVL drive to obtain the vehicle drivability rating.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0313
Manoj Kumar Rajendran, Srinivasa Chandra V, Manikandan Rajaraman, Dinesh Kumar Rajappan, Agathaman Selvaraj
Abstract In today competitive world, gaining customer delight is the most vital part of an automotive business. Customers’ expectations are high which need to be satisfied limitless, to stay in the business. The major expectation of a commercial vehicle customer is a vehicle without failures which involves lower spares cost and downtime. The significance of a suspension system in the new age automobiles is getting advanced. There have been many improvements in the suspension system especially in leaf springs to provide a better ride comfort, and one such modern era implementation is the Parabolic Spring which comprises of fewer leaves with varying thickness from the center to the ends without inter-leaf friction. Study reveals that parabolic spring exhibits better ride comfort, but less life compared to a conventional leaf spring which leads to the increase in downtime of the vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0325
Anup Batra, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, K Rajakumar, Rajiv Modi
Abstract With the advancement in vehicle technology over the years, many intuitive technologies are coming in automotive passenger vehicles to improve the safety aspects during vehicle driving in night conditions. In addition to headlamps, cornering lamps or infrared camera with head up display etc. are evolving as a part of AFS (Advanced Front Lighting Systems) to aid driver vision. Many OEMs are following conventional methodology of subjective assessments with the ratings on different numerical scale mapped with customer acceptance to validate head lamps and its tech updates. These methods lag in getting repeatability of results, acceptance reliability and not knowing the limitations of the installed system due to high dependency on the selected evaluators. This paper emphasizes on robust test methodology development to validate the complete performance of cornering lamps with the objective test data analysis.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0326
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Igor Sauperl, Andreas Wimmer, Wolfram Rossegger, Norbert Buch
Abstract Experimental investigations on engine test beds represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of faults. A fault diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an inconsistency in measurement. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the fault quickly and reliably. However, only faults that have actually occurred should be detected because the user will only adopt a system that provides accurate results. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis at engine test beds, starting with an explanation of the general procedure. Next, the methods applied for fault detection are introduced.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0265
Anoop Chawla, Sukhraj Singh, Sachiv Paruchuri, Aditya Chhabra
Abstract The generation of anatomically correct postures of finite element based Human Body Models (HBM) is indispensable for injury prediction in passive safety analysis. HBMs are often underutilized in industrial R&D since these are typically available only in one posture and do not represent the variability in the human postures in an actual vehicle environment. The work presented in the paper is part of a number of tools being developed for this purpose under a European Union project - Piper. It uses a computer graphic based method for positioning an HBM in the desired posture. In the past the technique has been used for repositioning the knee and pelvic joints of the HBM. The technique has been extended to other joints of the HBM. It ensures that the result is anatomically correct while maintaining its mesh quality. Further, the method needs minimal subjective intervention. In the method, a set of contours are first defined on the given model surface.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0339
Jagankumar Mari, Egalaivan Srinivasan
Abstract In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored. Fierce competition in the recent years and buyer’s market trend is compelling the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of attribute refinements. Steering is one driver-Vehicle interface which the driver is engaged throughout. Comfort and feel in steering wheel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-center feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return-ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and steering system friction on the on-center driving performance. Experiments to measure the Jacking torque and steering system friction were conducted in the lab and subjective and objective assessments of on-center driving performance were later conducted at test track in two similar 12 Ton truck to correlate their effects.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0349
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This study is an attempt to develop a decision support and control structure based on fuzzy logic for deployment of automotive airbags. Airbags, though an additional safety feature in vehicles, have proven to be fatal at various instances. Most of these casualties could have been avoided by using seat belts in the intended manner that is, as a primary restraint system. Fatalities can be prevented by induction of smart systems which can sense the presence and differentiate between passengers and conditions prevailing at a particular instant. Fuzzy based decision making has found widespread use due to its ability to accept non-binary or grey data and compute a reliable output. Smart airbags also allow the Airbag Control Unit to control inflation speed depending on instantaneous conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0355
Lokesh Soni
Abstract With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if a vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been lateral velocity and yaw rate control. With this, situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behavior. The generation of reference behavior is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on a real vehicle.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0006
John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Richard L. DeWeese, David M. Moorcroft, Amanda M. Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0001
Harold J. Mertz, Priya Prasad, Dainius J. Dalmotas, Annette L. Irwin
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 5938