Criteria

Display:

Results

Viewing 61 to 90 of 5932
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1302
Hyung In Yun, Jae Kyu Lee, Jae Hong Choi, MyoungKwon Je, Junhyuk Kim
Abstract A sliding door is one of the car door systems, which is generally applied to the vans. Compared with swing doors, a sliding door gives comfort to the passengers when they get in or out the car. With an increasing number of the family-scale activities, there followed a huge demand on the vans, which caused growing interests in the convenience technology of the sliding door system. A typical sliding door system has negative effects on the vehicle interior package and the operating effort. Since the door should move backward without touching the car body, the trajectory of the center rail should be a curve. The curve-shaped center rail infiltrates not only the passenger shoulder room, but also the opening flange curve, which results in the interior package loss. Moreover, as the passenger pulls the door outside handle along the normal direction of the door outer skin, the curved rail causes the opening effort loss.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0184
Miyoko Oiwake, Ozeki Yoshiichi, Sogo Obata, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components for hybrid electric vehicles, understanding the effect of their structure and thermal performance on their fuel consumption and cruising distance is essential. However, this essential information is generally not available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. In this report, following a previous study of electric vehicles, a simple method is proposed as the first step to estimate the algorithm of the energy transmission and then the cruising performance for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method estimates the cruising performance using only the published information given to suppliers, who, in general, are not supplied with more detailed information. Further, an actual case study demonstrating application of the proposed method is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0163
Gursaran D. Mathur
The author has developed a model that can be used to predict build-up of cabin carbon dioxide levels for automobiles based on many variables. There are a number of parameters including number of occupants that dictates generation of CO2 within the control volume, cabin leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) characteristics, cabin volume, blower position or airflow rate; vehicle age, etc. Details of the analysis is presented in the paper. Finally, the developed model has been validated with experimental data. The simulated data follows the same trend and matches fairly well with the experimental data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0168
B. Vasanth, Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sathya Narayana, S. Sathish Kumar, Murali govindarajalu
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
Abstract When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0406
Jindong Ren, Xiaoming Du, Tao Liu, Honghao Liu, Meng Hua, Qun Liu
Abstract This paper presents an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For simulation of the body-seat interaction and for calculation of the interface pressure, besides body dimensions and material characteristics an important aspect is the posture and position of the driver body with respect to seat. In addition, to ensure accommodation of the results to the target population usually several individuals are simulated, whose body anthropometries cover the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques are usually adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions. In biomechanical modeling of human body and seat, the correct element type, the rational settings of the contacts between different parts, the correct exertion of the loads to the calculation field, etc., are also crucial.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1396
Sarah S. Sharpe, Robyn Brinkerhoff, Caroline Crump, Douglas Young
Abstract Unintended acceleration events due to pedal misapplication have been shown to occur more frequently in older vs. younger drivers. While such occurrences are well documented, the nature of these movement errors is not well-characterized in common pedal error scenarios: namely, on-road, non-emergency stopping or slowing maneuvers. It is commonly assumed that drivers move in a ballistic or “direct hit” trajectory from the accelerator to the brake pedal. However, recent simulator studies show that drivers do not always move directly between pedals, with older drivers displaying more variable foot trajectories than younger drivers. Our study investigated pedal movement trajectories in older drivers ages 67.9 ± 5.2 years (7 males, 8 females) during on-road driving in response to variable traffic light conditions. Three different sedans and a pick-up truck were utilized.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9114
Hoon Lee, Delbert Tesar, Pradeepkumar Ashok
Abstract In order to design the in-wheel motor (IWM) for Electric Vehicles (EV), it is necessary to analyze the desired (expected) duty cycle at a higher performance level in order that the IWM becomes commercially relevant. The duty cycle may be representative of different segments of the customer base. Or, the individual customer may wish to have a set of IWMs that uniquely meet his/her measured “demand” cycle for a balance of drivability and efficiency. Questions then arise: How to measure the demand cycle of an individual? What 2 or 3 standard duty cycles should be offered as customer choices for their vehicle? Should the IWM represent multiple speed domains to enhance efficiency and drivability? Can the vehicle be updated rapidly 2 to 3 years after purchase? Etc. In this paper, we lay the groundwork to answer these types of customer questions for an EV with four independent IWMs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0252
Sahil Garg, Sujit Bhide, Shashank Gupta
Abstract Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0002
Sitikantha Padhy, Pradeep Agrawal, Yoginder Yadav
Abstract Most of the time in motor vehicle accidents, the driver of the vehicle (especially driver of the larger vehicle in case of collision involving multiple vehicles) is held responsible for rash and negligent driving. But in-depth study and statistics, points out several external or environmental factors playing crucial role in these unfortunate incidents. In some cases these factors directly influence an accident/crash and in some cases these factors influence the behavior pattern of the driver, which increases risk of unsafe practices. Based on the real time data collected by ADAC on the Gurgaon - Jaipur Stretch of NH-8 and others parts of India, some of the factors that directly or indirectly influences the drivers behaviour, are illustrated in this paper.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0012
S Lakshmi Narayanan, Suresh Palraj, Madanagopal Mani, Shekhar Pathak
Abstract This paper makes an attempt to focus on a study to evaluate angle of vision and obstruction in a vehicle, it is an objective assessment through different percentiles of population. In a view of Safety and comfort of a driver, a good perception of environment in which his vehicle is operating will be a determining component. Driver visibility and hidden corner in vehicle is a major safety area for passengers and pedestrian. Driver eye vision is an important key factor to design vehicle windshield, rear window and A-Pillar/ B-Pillar, positioning of side view mirror and IRVM based on anthropometry data. This study focuses on method of capturing and measuring the i) Driver's Direct field of vision that the driver sees directly by moving his/her eyesii) Driver's Indirect field of vision in which driver views indirectly by using imaging devices Rear View mirror, Display cameras.iii) Driver's Angle of obstruction - by A pillar, B pillar.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0081
Karthikeyan Nagarajan
Abstract The objective of this work is to develop a realistic driver model which helps in simulating drive related behavior of system vehicle and other vehicles in a traffic simulation environment. A driver model is said to be realistic only if it can learn and adapt to any variations in vehicle parameters and simulated road conditions. At the same time, the control action and the learning should represent human-like computation. In this paper, the proposed driver model consists of a Self-Learning Model Reference Fuzzy Longitudinal and Lateral controller. The model employs a set of fuzzy rules to realize a path-following lateral controller whereas the longitudinal control is governed by another set of fuzzy rules. The adaptive capabilities of the model are realized using supervisory fuzzy set and simple self-learning algorithm. This adaptive mechanism evaluates the current controller performance against the desired closed loop reference model.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0078
Nandagopalan Chidambaram, Sridhar Prasad Chandrasekar, VM Maheshwar, Prabaharan Palanivelu, Aravapalli Sriniwas
Abstract In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0153
Krishnaraj Chandrasekaran, Navaneetha Rao, Suresh Palraj, Chaitanya Kurella, Mohamed noohu Lebbai
Abstract Over the ages of automotive history, expectations of the customers increases vastly starting from driving comfort, better fuel economy and a safe vehicle. Requirement of good vehicle drivability from customers are increasing without any compromise of fuel economy and vehicle features. To enhance the product, it is a must for every OEM’s to have better drivability to fulfill the needs of the customer. This paper explains Objective Drivability Evaluation done on compact SUV vehicle and comparison with subjective drivability. Vehicle manufacturer usually evaluate drivability based on the subjective assessments of experienced test drivers with a sequence of certain maneuvers. In this study, we have used the objective drivability assessment tool AVL drive to obtain the vehicle drivability rating.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0313
Manoj Kumar Rajendran, Srinivasa Chandra V, Manikandan Rajaraman, Dinesh Kumar Rajappan, Agathaman Selvaraj
Abstract In today competitive world, gaining customer delight is the most vital part of an automotive business. Customers’ expectations are high which need to be satisfied limitless, to stay in the business. The major expectation of a commercial vehicle customer is a vehicle without failures which involves lower spares cost and downtime. The significance of a suspension system in the new age automobiles is getting advanced. There have been many improvements in the suspension system especially in leaf springs to provide a better ride comfort, and one such modern era implementation is the Parabolic Spring which comprises of fewer leaves with varying thickness from the center to the ends without inter-leaf friction. Study reveals that parabolic spring exhibits better ride comfort, but less life compared to a conventional leaf spring which leads to the increase in downtime of the vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0325
Anup Batra, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, K Rajakumar, Rajiv Modi
Abstract With the advancement in vehicle technology over the years, many intuitive technologies are coming in automotive passenger vehicles to improve the safety aspects during vehicle driving in night conditions. In addition to headlamps, cornering lamps or infrared camera with head up display etc. are evolving as a part of AFS (Advanced Front Lighting Systems) to aid driver vision. Many OEMs are following conventional methodology of subjective assessments with the ratings on different numerical scale mapped with customer acceptance to validate head lamps and its tech updates. These methods lag in getting repeatability of results, acceptance reliability and not knowing the limitations of the installed system due to high dependency on the selected evaluators. This paper emphasizes on robust test methodology development to validate the complete performance of cornering lamps with the objective test data analysis.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0326
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Igor Sauperl, Andreas Wimmer, Wolfram Rossegger, Norbert Buch
Abstract Experimental investigations on engine test beds represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of faults. A fault diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an inconsistency in measurement. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the fault quickly and reliably. However, only faults that have actually occurred should be detected because the user will only adopt a system that provides accurate results. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis at engine test beds, starting with an explanation of the general procedure. Next, the methods applied for fault detection are introduced.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0265
Anoop Chawla, Sukhraj Singh, Sachiv Paruchuri, Aditya Chhabra
Abstract The generation of anatomically correct postures of finite element based Human Body Models (HBM) is indispensable for injury prediction in passive safety analysis. HBMs are often underutilized in industrial R&D since these are typically available only in one posture and do not represent the variability in the human postures in an actual vehicle environment. The work presented in the paper is part of a number of tools being developed for this purpose under a European Union project - Piper. It uses a computer graphic based method for positioning an HBM in the desired posture. In the past the technique has been used for repositioning the knee and pelvic joints of the HBM. The technique has been extended to other joints of the HBM. It ensures that the result is anatomically correct while maintaining its mesh quality. Further, the method needs minimal subjective intervention. In the method, a set of contours are first defined on the given model surface.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0339
Jagankumar Mari, Egalaivan Srinivasan
Abstract In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored. Fierce competition in the recent years and buyer’s market trend is compelling the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of attribute refinements. Steering is one driver-Vehicle interface which the driver is engaged throughout. Comfort and feel in steering wheel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-center feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return-ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and steering system friction on the on-center driving performance. Experiments to measure the Jacking torque and steering system friction were conducted in the lab and subjective and objective assessments of on-center driving performance were later conducted at test track in two similar 12 Ton truck to correlate their effects.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0349
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This study is an attempt to develop a decision support and control structure based on fuzzy logic for deployment of automotive airbags. Airbags, though an additional safety feature in vehicles, have proven to be fatal at various instances. Most of these casualties could have been avoided by using seat belts in the intended manner that is, as a primary restraint system. Fatalities can be prevented by induction of smart systems which can sense the presence and differentiate between passengers and conditions prevailing at a particular instant. Fuzzy based decision making has found widespread use due to its ability to accept non-binary or grey data and compute a reliable output. Smart airbags also allow the Airbag Control Unit to control inflation speed depending on instantaneous conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0355
Lokesh Soni
Abstract With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if a vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been lateral velocity and yaw rate control. With this, situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behavior. The generation of reference behavior is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on a real vehicle.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0006
John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Richard L. DeWeese, David M. Moorcroft, Amanda M. Taylor, Brian Peterson
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0001
Harold J. Mertz, Priya Prasad, Dainius J. Dalmotas, Annette L. Irwin
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0002
Sven A. Holcombe, Stewart C. Wang, James B. Grotberg
This study investigates the isolated effect of rib shape on the mechanical characteristics of ribs subjected to multiple forms of loading. It aims to measure the variation in stiffness due to shape that is seen throughout the population and, in particular, provide a tool for researchers to better understand the influence of shape on resulting stiffness. A previously published six-parameter shape model of the central axis of human ribs was used. It has been shown to accurately model the overall rib path using intrinsic geometric properties such as size, aspect ratio, and skewness, through shapes based on logarithmic spirals with high curvature continuity. In this study the model was fitted to 19,500 ribs from 989 adult female and male CT scans having demographic distributions matching the US adult population. Mechanical loading was simulated through a simplified finite element model aimed at isolating rib shape from other factors influencing mechanical response.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0003
Anicet Le Ruyet, Fabien Berthet, Frédéric Rongiéras, Philippe Beillas
A protocol based on ultrafast ultrasound imaging was applied to study the in situ motion of the liver while the abdomen was subjected to compressive loading at 3 m/s by a hemispherical impactor or a seatbelt. The loading was applied to various locations between the lower abdomen and the mid thorax while feature points inside the liver were followed on the ultrasound movie (2000 frames per second). Based on tests performed on five post mortem human surrogates (including four tested in the current study), trends were found between the loading location and feature point trajectory parameters such as the initial angle of motion or the peak displacement in the direction of impact. The impactor tests were then simulated using the GHBMC M50 human body model that was globally scaled to the dimensions of each surrogate. Some of the experimental trends observed could be reproduced in the simulations (e.g. initial angle) while others differed more widely (e.g. final caudal motion).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0004
Rakshit Ramachandra, Yun-Seok Kang, John H. Bolte, Alena Hagedorn, Rodney Herriott, Jason A. Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0005
Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier, Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Sabine Compigne, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Takumi Fujii, Richard Douard
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0011
David Gorman, Ebram Handy, Sikui Wang, Annette L. Irwin
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. A logistic regression model was developed indicating occupant weight, impact delta velocity and gender to be significant predictors of talus fracture (p<0.05).
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0017
Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Michael Carlson, Yun-Seok Kang
When the Hybrid III 10-year old (HIII-10C) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was adopted into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 49 Part 572 as the best available tool for evaluating large belt-positioning booster seats in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, NHTSA stated that research activities would continue to improve the performance of the HIII-10C to address biofidelity concerns. A significant part of this effort has been NHTSA’s in-house development of the Large Omnidirectional Child (LODC) ATD. This prototype ATD is comprised of (1) a head with pediatric mass properties, (2) a neck that produces head lag with Z-axis rotation at the atlanto-occipital joint, (3) a flexible thoracic spine, (4) multi-point thoracic deflection measurement capability, (5) skeletal anthropometry representative of a seated child, and (6) an abdomen that can directly measure belt loading.
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Viewing 61 to 90 of 5932