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Viewing 31 to 60 of 5949
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1374
Michael J. Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan, Yu Zhang
Abstract Mcity at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor provides a realistic off-roadway environment in which to test vehicles and drivers in complex traffic situations. It is intended for testing of various levels of vehicle automation, from advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to fully self-driving vehicles. In a recent human factors study of interfaces for teen drivers, we performed parallel experiments in a driving simulator and Mcity. We implemented driving scenarios of moderate complexity (e.g., passing a vehicle parked on the right side of the road just before a pedestrian crosswalk, with the parked vehicle partially blocking the view of the crosswalk) in both the simulator and at Mcity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1378
Gianna F. Gomez-Levi, Ksenia Kozak, Nanxin Wang, Jian Wan, Linas Mikulionis
Abstract Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1380
Richard Young
Abstract Dingus and colleagues recently estimated the crash odds ratios (ORs) for secondary tasks in the Strategic Highway Research Program Phase 2 (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. Their OR estimate for hand-held cell phone conversation (Talk) was 2.2, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.6 to 3.1. This Talk OR estimate is above 1, contrary to previous estimates below 1. A replication discovered two upward biases in their analysis methods. First, for video clips with exposure to a particular secondary task, Dingus and colleagues selected clips not only with exposure to that task, but often with concurrent exposure to other secondary tasks. However, for video clips without exposure to that task, Dingus and colleagues selected video clips without other secondary tasks. Hence, the OR estimate was elevated simply because of an imbalanced selection of video clips, not because of risk from a particular secondary task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1376
David H. Weir, Kevin Chao, R. Michael Van Auken
Abstract A class of driver attentional workload metrics has been developed for possible application to the measuring and monitoring of attentional workload and level of distraction in actual driving, as well as in the evaluation and comparison of in-vehicle human machine interface (HMI or DVI) devices. The metrics include driver/vehicle response and performance measures, driver control activity, and driver control models and parameters. They are the result of a multidisciplinary, experimental and analytical effort, applying control theory, manual control, and human factors principles and practices. Driving simulator and over-the-road experiments were used to develop, confirm, and demonstrate the use of the metrics in distracted driving situations. The visual-manual secondary tasks used in the study included navigation destination entry, radio tuning, critical tracking task, and a generic touch screen entry task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0494
Michael Christian Haverkamp, Anja Moos
Abstract Material authenticity is an important factor for appearance and perceived quality of the vehicle interior. The term authenticity implies ambivalence: For the product designer, it means identification and trueness of the origin of the material. The customers, however, can only access information on the nature of the materials via their own perception of surface features. Thus, the intended authenticity of a material always needs to be conveyed by its surface. Specific cases illustrate the context: 1. The customer touches a part of known matter, but various layers prevent from directly touching the natural material: e.g. leather at the steering wheel, applications of wood. 2. Perception of a thin surface layer indicates authentic material, which is not fulfilled by the whole part: e.g. plastic parts plated with metal. 3.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
Abstract When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0184
Miyoko Oiwake, Ozeki Yoshiichi, Sogo Obata, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components for hybrid electric vehicles, understanding the effect of their structure and thermal performance on their fuel consumption and cruising distance is essential. However, this essential information is generally not available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. In this report, following a previous study of electric vehicles, a simple method is proposed as the first step to estimate the algorithm of the energy transmission and then the cruising performance for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method estimates the cruising performance using only the published information given to suppliers, who, in general, are not supplied with more detailed information. Further, an actual case study demonstrating application of the proposed method is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0433
Yang Xing, Chen Lv, Wang Huaji, Hong Wang, Dongpu Cao
Abstract Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0432
Bing Zhu, Zhipeng Liu, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC) is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisites is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a real-time driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC system. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established based on the driver-in-the-loop simulator, and the behavior data of different types of drivers were collected under the typical test condition. Then, the driver behavior characteristics factor Ks we proposed, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behaviors, was used to identify the driver behavior characteristics. And an individual safe inter-vehicle distances field (ISIDF) was established according to the identification results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0406
Jindong Ren, Xiaoming Du, Tao Liu, Honghao Liu, Meng Hua, Qun Liu
Abstract This paper presents an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For simulation of the body-seat interaction and for calculation of the interface pressure, besides body dimensions and material characteristics an important aspect is the posture and position of the driver body with respect to seat. In addition, to ensure accommodation of the results to the target population usually several individuals are simulated, whose body anthropometries cover the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques are usually adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions. In biomechanical modeling of human body and seat, the correct element type, the rational settings of the contacts between different parts, the correct exertion of the loads to the calculation field, etc., are also crucial.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0409
Divyanshu Joshi, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Abstract It is recognized that there is a dearth of studies that provide a comprehensive understanding of vehicle-occupant system dynamics for various road conditions, sitting occupancies and vehicle velocities. In the current work, an in-house-developed 50 degree-of-freedom (DOF) multi-occupant vehicle model is employed to obtain the vehicle and occupant biodynamic responses for various cases of vehicle velocities and road roughness. The model is solved using MATLAB scripts and library functions. Random road profiles of Classes A, B, C and D are generated based on PSDs (Power Spectral Densities) of spatial and angular frequencies given in the manual ISO 8608. A study is then performed on vehicle and occupant dynamic responses for various combinations of sitting occupancies, velocities and road profiles. The results obtained underscore the need for considering sitting occupancies in addition to velocity and road profile for assessment of ride comfort for a vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0407
Fei Huo, Huyao Wu
Abstract Biomechanics and biodynamics are increasingly focused on the automotive industry to provide comfortable driving environment, reduce driver fatigue, and improve passenger safety. Man-centered conception is a growing emphasis on the open design of automobile. During the long-term driving, occupational drivers are easily exposed to the neck pain, so it is important to reduce the muscle force load and its fatigue, which are not usually considered quantitatively during traditional ergonomics design, so standards related are not well developed to guide the vehicle design; On the other hand, the head-neck models are always built based on the statics theory, these are not sufficient to predict the instantaneous variation of the muscle force. In this paper, a head-neck model with multi DOFs is created based on multibody dynamics. Firstly, a driver-vehicle-road model considering driver multi-rigid body model, vehicle subsystems, and different ranks of pavement is built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Abstract Along with the development and marketability of vehicles without an internal combustion engine, electrically heated surfaces within these vehicles are getting more and more important. They tend to have a quicker response while using less energy than a conventional electric heater fan, providing a comfortable temperature feel within the cabin. Due to the big area of heated surface it is important to spread the heating power in a way that different heat conduction effects to underlying materials are considered. In case an accurate sensor feedback of the targeted homogeneous surface temperature cannot be guaranteed, a thermal energy model of the heated system can help to set and maintain a comfortable surface temperature. For a heated steering wheel development project, different models have been created to meet that aim using mechanistic approaches starting with a predominantly first-order dynamics model and ending with a distributed parameter multi-feedback system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Abstract Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the elderly population, automakers are paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor the drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry has been integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of applications is possible for the IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Abstract Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1398
Yoshiyuki Hatakeyema
Abstract Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1397
Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer, Anita Fiorentino
Abstract While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1402
SeHwan Kim, Junmin Wang, Dennis Guenther, Gary Heydinger, Joshua Every, M. Kamel Salaani, Frank Barickman
Abstract The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1390
Monica Lynn Haumann Jones, Jangwoon Park, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton, K. Han Kim, Matthew P. Reed
Abstract Seat fit is characterized by the spatial relationship between the seat and the vehicle occupant’s body. Seat surface pressure distribution is one of the best available quantitative measures of this relationship. However, the relationships between sitter attributes, pressure, and seat fit have not been well established. The objective of this study is to model seat pressure distribution as a function of the dimensions of the seat and the occupant’s body. A laboratory study was conducted using 12 production driver seats from passenger vehicles and light trucks. Thirty-eight men and women sat in each seat in a driving mockup. Seat surface pressure distribution was measured on the seatback and cushion. Relevant anthropometric dimensions were recorded for each participant and standardized dimensions based on SAE J2732 (2008) were acquired for each test seat.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1389
Ankush Kamra, Sandeep Raina, Pankaj Maheshwari, Abhishek Agarwal, Prasad Latkar
Abstract Automotive seating is designed by considering safety, comfort and aesthetics for the occupants. Seating comfort is one of the important parameters for the occupant for enhancing the overall experience in a vehicle. Seating comfort is categorized as static (or showroom) comfort and dynamic comfort. The requirements for achieving static and dynamic comfort can sometimes differ and may require design parameters such as PU hardness to be set in opposite directions. This paper presents a case wherein a base seat with good dynamic comfort is taken and an analysis is done to improve upon the static comfort, without compromising on the dynamic comfort. The study focuses on improving the initial comfort by considering various options for seating upholstery.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1392
Abhilash CHOUBEY, RAJESH PAL, Kotanageswararao Puli, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sandeep Raina
Abstract The seating system is an inseparable part of any automobile. Its main function is not only to provide a space to the user for driving but also to provide support, comfort and help to ergonomically access the various features and necessary operations of the vehicle. For comfort and accessibility, seats are provided with various mechanisms for adjustments in different directions. Typical mechanisms used for seating adjustment include seatback recliners, lifters (height adjusters), longitudinal adjusters, lumber support, rear seat folding mechanism etc. These mechanisms can be power operated or manual based on vehicle/market requirements. For manual mechanisms, the occupant adjusts the position of seat by operating the mechanism with his/her hand. Often comfort to the occupant during operation is limited to the operating effort of the mechanism. However, as will be shown through this study, operating effort is only one of the parameters which provide overall comfort feeling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1394
Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Kyung-Sun Lee, Sun Ho Hur, Hyuk KIM, Se Jin Park
Abstract Drivers’ physical and physiological states change with prolonged driving. Driving for extended periods of time can lead to an increased risk of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders, caused by the discomfort of the seats. Static and dynamic are the two main categories must be considered within the seating development. The posture and orientation of the occupant are the important factors on static comfort. Driving posture measurement is essential for the evaluation of a driver workspace and improved seat comfort design. This study evaluated the comfortable driving posture through physiological and ergonomics measurements of an automotive premium driver seat. The physiological evaluation includes electroencephalographic (EEG) for brain waves, Biopac’s AcqKnowledge program, and subjective measurements on 32 healthy individuals. JACK simulation was used for the ergonomics evaluation, i.e., the magnitude of the spinal loads about lumbar vertebrae was estimated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1395
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Bum Il Shim
Abstract Seat cushions are considered as one of the important factors influence the seating comfort. In the automotive seat cushions, flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used due to the cushioning performance. Automotive seat designers are paying more attention to the improvement of seat cushion properties. This study introduces an automotive seat that uses an air-mat in the seat cushion along with polyurethane foam. The air-mat can be adjusted with its internal air pressure. The objective of this paper is to examine air-mat seat pressure level on seating comfort. Vibration experiments have been performed on the BSR simulator with random vibration. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure vibration at the foot and hip. All measured vibration were about the vertical direction (z-axis). The whole-body vibration exposure parameters (weighted root-mean-square (RMS), vibration dose value (VDV), transmissibility (SEAT value)) were calculated per ISO 2631-1 standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1442
Dawei Luo, Jianbo Lu, Gang Guo
Abstract This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1440
Shixing Chen, Ming Dong, Jerry Le, Mike Rao
Abstract Vehicle safety systems may use occupant physiological information, e.g., occupant heights and weights to further enhance occupant safety. Determining occupant physiological information in a vehicle, however, is a challenging problem due to variations in pose, lighting conditions and background complexity. In this paper, a novel occupant height estimation approach is presented. Depth information from a depth camera, e.g., Microsoft Kinect is used. In this 3D approach, first, human body and frontal face views (restricted by the Pitch and Roll values in the pose estimation) based on RGB and depth information are detected. Next, the eye location (2D coordinates) is detected from frontal facial views by Haar-cascade detectors. The eye-location co-ordinates are then transferred into vehicle co-ordinates, and seated occupant eye height is estimated according to similar triangles and fields of view of Kinect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1443
Lu ZiLin, Gangfeng Tan, Yuxin Pang, YU TANG, Keyu Qian
Abstract The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1434
Dongran Liu, Marcos Paul Gerardo-Castro, Bruno Costa, Yi Zhang
Abstract Heart rate is one of the most important biological features for health information. Most of the state-of-the-art heart rate monitoring systems rely on contact technologies that require physical contact with the user. In this paper, we discuss a proof-of-concept of a non-contact technology based on a single camera to measure the user’s heart rate in real time. The algorithm estimates the heart rate based on facial color changes. The input is a series of video frames with the automatically detected face of the user. A Gaussian pyramid spatial filter is applied to the inputs to obtain a down-sampled high signal-to-noise ratio images. A temporal Fourier transform is applied to the video to get the signal spectrum. Next, a temporal band-pass filter is applied to the transformed signal in the frequency domain to extract the frequency band of heart beats. We then used the dominant frequency in the Fourier domain to find the heart rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Abstract Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been observed from long time. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in the bus roof area, small parking lamps, LEDs used in instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design & development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits, voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1432
Tadasuke Katsuhara, Yoshiki Takahira, Shigeki Hayashi, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Abstract This study used finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the injury mechanisms of driver spine fracture during frontal crashes in the World Endurance Championship (WEC) series and possible countermeasures are suggested to help reduce spine fracture risk. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to a driver, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver chest moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the leg hump. The simulation predicted spine fracture at T11 and T12. It was found that a combination of axial compression force and bending moment at the spine caused the fractures. The axial compression force and bending moment were generated by the shoulder belt down force as the driver’s chest moved forward.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 5949