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Viewing 271 to 300 of 5948
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2401
Michael Schmidt, Philipp Nguyen, Mirko Hornung
Abstract The projected uptick in world passenger traffic challenges the involved stakeholders to optimise the current aviation system and to find new solutions being able to cope with this trend. Since especially large hub airports are congested, operate at their capacity limit and further extensions are difficult to realise. Delays due to late arrival of aircraft or less predictable ground operation processes disrupt the airport operations in a serious way. Various concepts improving the current turnaround processes have been presented thus far, whereby radical aircraft design changes have little chances for realisation in the short term. By maintaining the established overall aircraft configuration, the concepts promote higher probability to become commercially available for aircraft manufactures and operators.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2601
Zhejun Yao, Wiltrud Weidner, Robert Weidner, Jens Wulfsberg
Abstract Despite the increasing application of automated systems, manual tasks still plays an important role in industrial production. The intelligence and flexibility of human enable quick response and adaptive production for the individual requirements and the changes in market. Moreover, some manufacturing tasks with sensible and high-value components (e.g., in electronic and aircraft production) requires attentive manual handling. Regarding the requirement of increasing productivity as well as ergonomic improvement and the aging of the employees, there is a significant need for technologies which support the staff individually by performing tasks. Human Hybrid Robot, a hybrid system with direct coupling (serial and/or parallel) of human and mechatronic elements, is a new trend in application of robotic technologies for supporting manual tasks. It realizes a synchronous and bidirectional interaction between human and mechatronic and/or mechanic elements in the same workspace.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2429
Rickard Olsen, Kerstin Johansen, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The increased diffusion of cooperation between humans and robotics in manufacturing systems is one of the next things to implement within robotics. Since the computer power gets more and more powerful, the possibilities increase to achieve safer working environment, due to that all safety signals demands fast management of data. This could lead to a possibility to work closer and more direct with a robot, using the robot as a third hand. Within an EU FW7 funded project called LOCOMACHs (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) there are one study focusing on how to support a future higher TRL-leveled HMI cell (Human Machine Interaction) in an assembly task. The main objective in this paper is to present how different external safety systems could support the whole HMI assembly cell to work properly in an industrial context.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2485
Mark Benjamin Geiger, John Michael Ster
Abstract A joint US Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) project initially addressing procurement criteria for powered hand tools stimulated involvement of the SAE EG1-B Hand Tools committee and affiliated industry participants, producers of powered hand tools. It became apparent of the need to develop a standard that addresses occupational disease, productivity, life-cycle cost in the selection of Hand Power Tools. Committee efforts focused upon development of an SAE International Standard that considers productivity hand-arm vibration, noise, other safety and health factors and life-cycle costs in procurement criteria for powered hand tools. Aerospace Standard, AS 6228 Safety Requirements for Procurement, Maintenance and Use of Hand-held Powered Tools, was published in September 2014.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2536
Rinky Babul Prasad, Vinukonda Siddartha
Abstract Recent years have seen a rise in the number of air crashes and on board fatalities. Statistics reveal that human error constitutes upto 56% of these incidents. This can be attributed to the ever growing air traffic and technological advancements in the field of aviation, leading to an increase in the electronic and mechanical controls in the cockpit. Accidents occur when pilots misinterpret gauges, weather conditions, fail to spot mechanical faults or carry out inappropriate actions. Currently, pilots rely on flight manuals (hard copies or an electronic tablet) to respond to an emergency. This is prone to human error or misinterpretation. Also, a considerable amount of time is spent in seeking, reading, interpreting and implementing the corrective action. The proposed augmented head mount virtual assist for the pilot eliminates flight manuals, by virtually guiding the pilot in responding to in-flight necessities.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2537
Sylvain Hourlier
Abstract The efficiency of the glass cockpit paradigm has faded away with the densification of the aeronautical environment. Today's problem lies with “non-defective aircraft” monitored by “perfectly trained crews” still involved in fatal accidents. One explanation is, at crew level, that we have reached a system complexity that, while acceptable in normal conditions, is hardly compatible with human cognitive abilities in degraded conditions. The current mitigation of such risk still relies on the enforcement through intensive training of an ability to manage extremely rare (off-normal) situations. These are explained by the potential combination of failures of highly complex systems with variable environment & with variable humans.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2440
Robert Moehle, Jason Clauss
Abstract Labor costs rank second only to fuel in expenses for commercial air transports. Labor issues are a growing concern in the airline industry, with an impending worldwide pilot shortage. One solution proposed and requested by some of the industry leaders is to allow a single flight crew member to operate the aircraft. Safety concerns represent the dominant barrier to single-pilot Part 121 operations. The FAA and Congress consistently demonstrate a bias toward conservatism in their regulation of airlines and commercial aircraft. Bureaucrats and the general public fall prey to isolated news stories that highlight pilot error and anchor their viewpoint on further regulating a two-person crew. Yet, in an alarming spate of recent airline accidents, the presence of multiple crewmembers did nothing to prevent, and actually may have contributed to, the crash. Technology is not the problem.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2532
Sylvain Hourlier, Sandra Guérard, Jean Luc BAROU, Xavier Servantie
Abstract As touch screens are everywhere in the consumer market Thales has launched in depth evaluations on their introduction in the cockpit. One of the challenges is to verify its compatibility with in flight use under turbulence conditions, including light, moderate and severe. In flight accelerometer collections were performed to provide us with a baseline for choosing between possible simulation solutions. Thales recognized early on the need for such a tool as it would enable us to define recommendations for our HMI designs. The objectives were first to validate specific complex touch/gestures using all the potential of touch interactions for novel cockpit Human Machine Interfaces and second to look into the various physical anchoring solutions capable of facilitating touch screens interactions in aeronautical turbulent environments.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2352
Chaitanya Krishna Balla, Sudhakara Naidu, Milind Narayan Ambardekar
Abstract Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) refinement is one of the important parameters in modern vehicle development. In city traffic conditions, idling is an engine operating condition where a driver focuses attention more to his/her vehicle. Tactile vibration & noise levels inside the cab play an important role in all vehicles, especially those powered by diesel engines where combustion pressures are higher. They lead to discomfort & fatigue of passengers of even a low cost vehicle. Now its idle NVH is influenced mainly by vibration-isolation provided by power-train (PT) mounting design, This paper describes steps taken to improve the idle vibrations at a driver seat of a small commercial vehicle (SCV) with a 2-cylinder diesel engine of 800 cc through redesign of PT-mounting along with fine tuning of idle speed of the engine. A resonance was avoided between the first firing order at idling and PT rigid-body mode in pitching.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2337
Gordon Ebbitt, Todd Remtema
Abstract Speech communication from the front seat to the rear seat in a passenger vehicle can be difficult. This is particularly true in a vehicle with an acoustically absorptive interior. Speech Transmission Index (STI) measurements can quantify the speech intelligibility, but they require specialized signal processing. The STI calculations can be simplified if it is assumed that reverberation and echoes play an insignificant role in an automobile. A simplification of a STI measurement is described that uses a stationary reference speech signal from a talker mannequin in the driver's seat to create a signal at the rear passenger positions. On-road noise measurements are used for the noise level and the calculated signal to noise ratio is used to calculate a simplified STI value that tracks closely to a full implementation of the STI method for sedans.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2338
Dong Guo, Quan Shi, Peng Yi
Abstract In-vehicle noise is composed of a variety of tonal (frequency-related) components and the tonal components play an important role in the improvement of interior vehicle sound quality. Much research has been focused on the suppression of sound pressure level and achieved certain positive effects. However, in some operating conditions, customers still perceive the tonal components and complain about the vehicle quality even the sound pressure level is relatively low. Therefore, a better understanding of how tonal components are perceived is necessary for automotive designers. To do so, psychoacoustics results about human hearing mechanism to tonal components are comprehensively summed in this study: human hearing response to pure tone, two tones and multiple tones. Then, well-controlled testing stimuli were generated and subjective annoyance testing was conducted. The results show agreement with former researchers' findings.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2332
Jan Deleener, Akira Sekitou, Masanori Ohta
Abstract Shift quality of a gearbox is one of the most important items contributing to the overall subjective impression of driving comfort for a vehicle with a manual transmission. Often the transmission is the only point of attention for shift quality issues with a focus on the synchronizer being the main area of optimization. This is however not always sufficient. What the driver feels at the gear lever is a result of the interaction between the gear lever, the selector system, the transmission internals and the driveline. For most of these subsystems, well established models are available which can be used in early development to get a first idea of the shift quality. However, accurately representing the physical feel of the transmission cable, connecting the gearbox and the shifter, remains a challenge.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2216
Dong Chul Park, Eun Soo Jo, Seokgwan Hong, Michael Csakan
Abstract An important trend among vehicle NVH engineers is the production of attractive engine acceleration sound quality for the enhancement of a vehicle's image and performance. In addition, customers have increasing interest and enjoyment in customizing their cars to reflect their personal taste and preferences. The PESS (Personalized Engine Sound System) has been developed for making a unique and individually customizable vehicle concept. The system allows the customers an opportunity to create a variety of engine sounds in a single vehicle using active sound design technology. In this system, three different engine sound concepts are pre-defined, Dynamic, Sporty, and Extreme. Each of the engine sounds can then be adjusted with parameters that determine the timbre, such as main order, rumble, and high order. In addition, the pedal position during acceleration has also been used as a parameter to further personalize the experience.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2285
Arne Nykänen, David Lennström, Roger Johnsson
Abstract Subjects who are well aware of what to judge commonly yield more consistent results in laboratory listening tests. This awareness may be raised by explicit instructions and training. However, too explicit instructions or use of only trained subjects may direct experiment results in an undesired way. An alternative is to give fairly open instructions to untrained subjects, but give the subjects a chance to get familiar with the product and context by, for example, riding a representative car under representative driving conditions before entering the laboratory. In this study, sound quality assessments of interior sounds of cars made by two groups were compared. In one group subjects were exposed to the same driving conditions that were later assessed in a laboratory listening test by taking them on a ride in one of the cars to be assessed, just before entering the laboratory. In the other group subjects made the laboratory assessments without prior car riding.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2271
Yong Du Jun, Bong Hyun Park, Kang Seok Seo, Tae Hyun Kim, Myoung Jae Chae
Abstract Modern automotive seats require improvements in their design, safety, comfort including sitting and riding comfort. Among those, seat comfort is known to be difficult to evaluate because the comfort is a human feeling. As an approach to evaluate the human comfort in an objective manner, an objective measure is proposed for seat riding comfort evaluation under low frequency vibratory conditions which represents typical roll and pitch motions of driving motor vehicles. The related feeling due to this low frequency vehicle motion is termed ‘hold feeling’ because the seated body may tend to deviate from the defined seating position under such vehicle motion input. Dynamic pressure measurements have been conducted in the frequency range up to 1.0 Hz to monitor the interface pressure change behavior of the seat-subject body.
2015-05-13
Technical Paper
2015-36-0006
Erik Camargo, Claudio Fernandes, Leopoldo Sprandel, Romulo Castro, Rodrigo Sousa, Leandro Roza, Marcio Ciolfi
Abstract This paper focused on pedal feeling studies at most often longitudinal decelerations for the normal daily usage of customers. Such decelerations were defined in vehicle equipped with sensors in a specific itinerary near Resende/Penedo city (southeastern Brazil) with several clients using the same vehicles. Through the decelerations acquired, one could correlate, objectively and subjectively, the pedal effort and travel that delight the customers, reaching the so called ideal pedal feeling. The mapping provides the needed input data to develop, or adapt, a vehicle to the best condition expected by consumers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0979
Chih Feng Lee, Per Öberg
Abstract This paper investigates classifications of road type and driving style based on on-board diagnostic data, which is commonly accessible in modern vehicles. The outcomes of these classifications can be utilized in, for example, supporting the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for enhancing safety and drivability, and online adaptation of engine controller for improving performance and fuel consumption. Furthermore, the classifications offer valuable information for fleet operators to consider when making decision on procurement plans, maintenance schedules and assisting fleet drivers in choosing suitable vehicles. To this end, a velocity-based road type classification method is evaluated on measurements collected from real driving conditions and compared to an open-sourced map.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1213
Zifan Liu, Andrej Ivanco, Zoran Filipi
Abstract This paper presents a new way to evaluate vehicle speed profile aggressiveness, quantify it from the perspective of the rapid speed fluctuations, and assess its impact on vehicle fuel economy. The speed fluctuation can be divided into two portions: the large-scale low frequency speed trace which follows the ongoing traffic and road characteristics, and the small-scale rapid speed fluctuations normally related to the driver's experience, style and ability to anticipate future events. The latter represent to some extent the driver aggressiveness and it is well known to affect the vehicle energy consumption and component duty cycles. Therefore, the rapid speed fluctuations are the focus of this paper. Driving data collected with the GPS devices are widely adopted for study of real-world fuel economy, or the impact on electrified vehicle range and component duty cycles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1704
Dee Kivett, John Smith
Several emerging technologies hold great promise to improve the 360-degree awareness of the heavy vehicle driver. However, current industry-standard evaluation methods do not measure all the comprehensive factors contributing to the overall effectiveness of such systems. As a result, industry is challenged to evaluate new technologies in a way that is objective and allows the comparison of different systems in a consistent manner. This research aims to explore the methods currently in use, identify relevant factors not presently incorporated in standard procedures, and recommend best practices to accomplish an overall measurement system that can quantify performance beyond simply the field of view of a driver visibility system. We introduce a new metric, “Clarity of View,” that incorporates several important factors for visibility systems including: gap acceptance accuracy, image detection time, and distortion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1707
Ravi Ranjan, Shivaswaroop Parameswaraiah
Abstract 1 Glare is subjective and can either cause disability or discomfort in eyes. Thus glare during driving especially at night is a serious concern and must be addressed. No commercial product exists to counter the glare, though there had been some academic progress in realizing a solution. The paper presents two promising technologies that help in reducing the oncoming vehicle glare. The system comprises of a vision based identification of glare source. A pixelated transparent film/glass with dynamically controllable transmittance is placed between the driver and source. By changing the transparency locally, glare is avoided without affecting the overall visibility. The paper details on lab results and feasibility of two proposed solution i.e. Use of a matrix of electro chromic films such that each element can be individually controlled and use of transparent LCD such that each pixel is controlled for its transparency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1706
Sreegururaj Jayachander, Krishna Raj Nair M K
Abstract Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1357
James A. Crowley
Abstract In the area of Human Factors and Usability research a desired output of many studies is identification of what value a specific Design Parameter should be set at to minimize customer dissatisfaction. A Customer Loss Function is a simple way to graphically display the probability customers will be dissatisfied at different levels of a given design parameter, due to a given failure mode. Many design parameters however, have two distinct but related Failure Modes (customer disatisfiers), typically representing two ends of the parameter (i.e. too much/too little; too hot/too cold; too fast/too slow). Each of these Failure modes is represented by its own unique Customer Loss Function. This paper will introduce a technique to combine these two One-Sided Loss Functions into a comprehensive Two Sided Loss Function. The mathematics behind the creation of both one sided and two sided loss functions is based on Binary Logistic Regression [1,2,3] Analysis Techniques.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1161
Lei Feng, Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies model predictive control algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV. A dedicated model predictive control method is developed to predict vehicle speed, battery state of charge (SOC), and engine fuel consumption. The power output from the engine, motor, and the mechanical brake will be adjusted to match driver's power request at the end of the prediction window while minimizing fuel consumption. The controller model is built on Matlab® MPC toolbox® and the simulations are based on MY04 Prius vehicle model using Autonomie®, a powertrain and fuel economy analysis software, developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The study compares the performance of MPC and conventional rule-base control methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1120
Siddhartha Singh, Sudha Ramaswamy
Abstract 1 The modern engine is capable of producing high torque and horsepower. Now the customer wants state of the art comfort and ergonomics.Thus the manufacturers are focusing on reducing the clutch pedal effort and providing a pleasurable driving experience. In heavy traffic conditions where the clutch is used frequently, the pedal effort required to disengage the clutch should be in comfortable range. Often drivers who drive HCV complain about knee pain which is caused due to high pedal effort, this occurs when ergonomics of ABC (accelerator, brake and clutch) pedals is not designed properly. Thus there is a need to reduce the driving fatigue by optimizing the clutch system. Latest technologies like turbo charging and pressure injection have increased the engine power and torque but have also led to increase the clamp load of clutch. Thus the release load required to disengage the clutch has also increased.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1498
Yuyao Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Qingrong Zhao, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
Abstract Steering torque feedback, or steering feel, is widely regarded as an important aspect of driver interface to road feel. To generate a steering feel with the appropriate level of fidelity required by a driver-vehicle system or a driving simulator, it is essential to gain a good understanding of various important influencing factors of steering torque feedback. This paper presents a comprehensive study and analysis of internal and external factors that strongly affect steering torque feedback. A steering torque feedback model with sufficient fidelity is established and verified as the base for this study. The individual- and collective-level influences of these factors on steering torque feedback are analyzed in both time domain and frequency domain, with guidelines provided on how to properly use these influencing factors to control their negative effects in modeling steering torque feedback.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0574
Donald E. Malen, Jason Hughes
Abstract Understanding the lightweighting potential of materials is important in making strategic decisions for material selection for a new vehicle program. Frequently benchmarking is done to support these decisions by selecting a reference vehicle which is believed to be mass efficient, then using the teardown mass data to set targets for the vehicle under design. In this work, rather then considering a single benchmark vehicle or a small set of vehicles, we looked at a large sample of vehicles over a range of sizes and segments (approximately 200 vehicles). Statistical methods were used to identify mass drivers for each subsystem. Mass drivers are the attributes of the vehicle and subsystem which determine subsystem mass. Understanding mass-drivers allows comparisons across vehicle size, segments, and materials. Next, we identified those vehicles which had subsystems which were much lighter than the average after adjusting for mass drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0575
SongAn Zhang, Qing Zhou, Yong Xia
Abstract Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle's total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. This paper presents a parametric analysis using finite element modeling. We first build LS-DYNA model of a two-seater SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg. The model has no complex components and can provide reasonable crash pulses under full frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0578
Wei Li, Yi-Pen Cheng, Lisa Furton
Abstract Finite element dummy models have been more and more widely applied in virtual development of occupant protection systems across the automotive industry due to their predictive capabilities. H350 dyna dummy model [1] is a finite element representation of the Hybrid III male dummy [2], which is designed to represent the average of the United States adult male population. Lower extremity injuries continue to occur in front crash accidents despite increasing improvement of vehicle crashworthiness and occupant restraint system. It is therefore desirable to predict lower tibia injury numbers in front occupant simulations. Though lower tibia loading/index predictions are not studied as much as the FMVSS 208 regulated injury numbers, the tibia indices are injury criteria that need to be assessed during IIHS and Euro NCAP frontal offset occupant simulations.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Abstract As the world's largest auto producer and consumer, China is both the most promising and complex market given the country's rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. After a comprehensive data exploration, a customer-level mixed logit model is built to shed light on fast-growing vehicle segments in the Chinese auto market. By combining the data of vehicle purchase, consideration, and past choice, cross-shopping behaviors and brand influence are explicitly modeled in addition to the impact of customer demographics, usage behaviors, and attributes of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0452
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Chong Chen, Yajing Shu, Ling Zheng, Ren-Jye Yang, Yan Fu, Saeed Barbat
Abstract Simulation based design optimization has become the common practice in automotive product development. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate various dynamic systems. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess their validity. In model validation, for the purpose of obtaining results successfully, it is vital to select or develop appropriate metrics for specific applications. For dynamic systems, one of the key obstacles of model validation is that most of the responses are functional, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of a metric that can evaluate the differences in terms of phase shift, magnitude and shape, which requires information from both time and frequency domain. And by representing time histories in frequency domain, more intuitive information can be obtained, such as magnitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 5948