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2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1960
Satish Chandra Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Mohanraj Balakrishnan
Abstract In automotive industry, design of vehicle to end customer with proper ergonomics and balancing the design is always a challenge, for which an accurate prediction of postures are needed. Several studies have used Digital Human Models (DHM) to examine specific movements related to ingress and egress by translating complex tasks, like vehicle egress through DHMs. This requires an in-depth analysis of users to ensure such models reflect the range of abilities inherent to the population. Designers are increasingly using digital mock-ups of the built environment using DHMs as a means to reduce costs and speed-up the “time-to-market” of products. DHMs can help to improve the ergonomics of a product but must be representative of actual users.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1847
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwar rao.P
Abstract Tractor operators prefer to drive more comfortable tractors in the recent years. The high noise and vibration levels, to which drivers of agricultural tractor are often exposed for long periods of time, have a significant part in the driver’s fatigue and may lead to substantial hearing impairment and health problems. Therefore, it is essential for an optimal cabin design to have time and cost effective analysis tools for the assessment of the noise and vibration characteristics of various design alternatives at both the early design stages and the prototype testing phase. Airborne excitation and Structure Borne excitation are two types of dynamic cabin excitations mainly cause the interior noise in a driver’s cabin. Structure-borne excitation is studied in this paper and it consists of dynamic forces, which are directly transmitted to the cabin through the cabin suspension. These transmitted forces introduce cabin vibrations, which in turn generate interior noise.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1866
Pradeep Jawale, Nagesh Karanth
Abstract Urbanisation has led to an increased need for mobility in public transportation. Sensing the unfolding worrisome scenario, many countries have taken up different mass rapid transit solutions to alleviate the problem and restore the free flowing traffic. BRT should have been the logical choice particularly considering the lower capital costs involved and faster implementation. Comprehensibly the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in term of quality and comfort to the passengers. Level of vibration and noise is an important indicator to evaluate vehicle's ride comfort. The challenges are to design the high powered Powertrain and Air Conditioning system nonetheless low interior noise, vibration and harshness correspondents to personal cars. This paper is an invention of, development work done in interior noise refinement of a bus. A prototype bus manufactured to meet all the requirement of BRT - premium segment urban bus.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1888
Rasheed Khan, Mahdi Ali, Eric C. Frank
Abstract Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1763
Lisa Steinbach, Ercan Altinsoy, Robert Rosenkranz
Abstract In today's urban environment inhabitants are permanently exposed to elevated noise levels, which are dominated by traffic noise. The process of electrification of vehicles might change the traffic noise in city centers. The aim of this work was to determine the pedestrian reaction, the warning effect and the annoyance of more realistic traffic situations. For this purpose both combustion and electric vehicle noise situations and mixed scenarios of both concepts were generated. The differences in the perceived annoyance and warning effect were investigated with perception studies.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1771
Mohamed El morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Gear fault diagnosis is important in the vibration monitoring of any rotating machine. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always display non-stationary behavior. In early stage of gear failure, the gear mesh frequency (GMF) contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. This paper presents the value of optimal wavelet function for early detection of faulty gear. The Envelope Detection (ED) and the Energy Operator are used for gear fault diagnosis as common techniques with and without the proposed optimal wavelet to verify the effectiveness of the optimal wavelet function. Kurtosis values are determined for the previous techniques as an indicator parameter for the ability of early gear fault detection. The comparative study is applied to real vibration signals.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1757
Matthew Maunder, Benjamin Munday
Abstract Excitement, image and emotion are key attributes for cars, particularly those with higher power ratings. Engine sound has traditionally acted as the car’s voice, conveying these attributes to the driver and passengers along with the brand image. Engine sound also underpins the dynamic driving experience by giving instant feedback about how a car is operating, enhancing the connection between driver and vehicle. For decades, the automotive industry has engineered engine sound to achieve these benefits, thereby defining the ‘language’ of car sound. Electric vehicles deliver strong and responsive performance but naturally lack the acoustic feedback that internal combustion engines provide. While this gives advantages in terms of comfort and environmental noise, the benefits of engine sound are lost. Carefully controlled acoustic feedback inside the car’s cabin brings tangible and valuable benefits both for the dynamic driving experience and to convey the brand image.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1762
Michael Roan, M. Lucas Neurauter, Douglas Moore, Dan Glaser
Abstract Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1836
Fangfang Wang, Peter Johnson, Hugh Davies, Bronson Du
Abstract Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0143
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Steve Whelan
Abstract During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0155
Yongbing Xu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Xianyao Ping
Abstract The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0168
B. Vasanth, Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sathya Narayana, S. Sathish Kumar, Murali govindarajalu
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0163
Gursaran D. Mathur
The author has developed a model that can be used to predict build-up of cabin carbon dioxide levels for automobiles based on many variables. There are a number of parameters including number of occupants that dictates generation of CO2 within the control volume, cabin leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) characteristics, cabin volume, blower position or airflow rate; vehicle age, etc. Details of the analysis is presented in the paper. Finally, the developed model has been validated with experimental data. The simulated data follows the same trend and matches fairly well with the experimental data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0184
Miyoko Oiwake, Ozeki Yoshiichi, Sogo Obata, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components for hybrid electric vehicles, understanding the effect of their structure and thermal performance on their fuel consumption and cruising distance is essential. However, this essential information is generally not available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. In this report, following a previous study of electric vehicles, a simple method is proposed as the first step to estimate the algorithm of the energy transmission and then the cruising performance for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method estimates the cruising performance using only the published information given to suppliers, who, in general, are not supplied with more detailed information. Further, an actual case study demonstrating application of the proposed method is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
Abstract When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0061
Sultan A.M Alkhteeb, Shigeru Oho, Yuki Nagashima, Seisuke Nishimura, Hiroyuki Shimizu
Abstract Lightning strikes on automobiles are usually rare, though they can be fatal to occupants and hazardous to electronic control systems. Vehicles’ metal bodies are normally considered to be an effective shield against lightning. Modern body designs, however, often have wide window openings, and plastic body parts have become popular. Lightning can enter the cabin of vehicles through their radio antennas. In the near future, automobiles may be integrated into the electric power grid, which will cause issues related to the smart grid and the vehicle-to-grid concept. Even today, electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are charged at home or in parking lots. Such automobiles are no longer isolated from the power grid and thus are subject to electric surges caused by lightning strikes on the power grid.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0059
Barbaros Serter, Christian Beul, Manuela Lang, Wiebke Schmidt
Abstract Today, highly automated driving is paving the road for full autonomy. Highly automated vehicles can monitor the environment and make decisions more accurately and faster than humans to create safer driving conditions while ultimately achieving full automation to relieve the driver completely from participating in driving. As much as this transition from advanced driving assistance systems to fully automated driving will create frontiers for re-designing the in-vehicle experience for customers, it will continue to pose significant challenges for the industry as it did in the past and does so today. As we transfer more responsibility, functionality and control from human to machine, technologies become more complex, less transparent and making constant safe-guarding a challenge. With automation, potential misuse and insufficient system safety design are important factors that can cause fatal accidents, such as in TESLA autopilot incident.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0013
Gaurav Gupta, Ujjwal Modi
Abstract Flickering problems in automotive vehicles have been observed from long time. After assessing numerous vehicles it was observed that whenever the hazard lights in a vehicle are activated, it leads to flickering problems in lights/small electrical components. This paper is to provide the solution for flickering snags in electrical components in a vehicle. The lights that are analyzed to be flickering/wavering are generally small loads such as LEDs in the bus roof area, small parking lamps, LEDs used in instrument clusters, cabin lamps, etc. The flickering in lights can turn out to be very unappealing at certain times. This absurd behavior can lead to extreme discomfort to the passengers and can also be a source of major distraction to the driver. This study presents the design & development for a vehicle platform & implementation that assesses the problem. Because of abrupt behavior of flasher circuits, voltage surges are observed, leading to flickering problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1647
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Jaehak Yu
Abstract Driving is a complex activity with the continuously changing environment. Safe driving can be challenged by changes in drivers’ physical, emotional, and mental condition. Population in the developed world is aging, so the number of older drivers is increasing. Older drivers have relatively higher incidences of crashes precipitated by drivers’ medical emergencies when compared to another age group. On the elderly population, automakers are paying more attention to developing cars that can measure and monitor the drivers’ health status to protect them. In recent years, the automotive industry has been integrating health, wellness, and wellbeing technologies into cars with Internet of Things (IoT). A broad range of applications is possible for the IoT-based elderly smart healthcare monitoring systems.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1649
Jeffrey Yeung, Omar Makke, Perry MacNeille, Oleg Gusikhin
Abstract SmartDeviceLink (SDL) is open-source software that connects the vehicle’s infotainment system to mobile applications. SDL includes an open-source software development kit (SDK) that enables a smart-device to connect to the vehicle’s human-machine interface (HMI), read vehicle data, and control vehicle sub-systems such as the audio and climate systems. It is extensible, so other convenience subsystems or brought-in aftermarket modules can be added. Consequently, it provides a platform for cyber-physical systems that can integrate wearables, consumer sensors and cloud data into an intelligent vehicle control system. As an Open Innovation Platform, new features can be rapidly developed and deployed to the market, bypassing the longer vehicle development cycles. This facilitates a channel for rapid prototyping and innovation that is not constrained by the traditional process of automotive parts development, but is rather on the timeline of software development.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1634
Hui Sung Lee
Abstract When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Abstract Along with the development and marketability of vehicles without an internal combustion engine, electrically heated surfaces within these vehicles are getting more and more important. They tend to have a quicker response while using less energy than a conventional electric heater fan, providing a comfortable temperature feel within the cabin. Due to the big area of heated surface it is important to spread the heating power in a way that different heat conduction effects to underlying materials are considered. In case an accurate sensor feedback of the targeted homogeneous surface temperature cannot be guaranteed, a thermal energy model of the heated system can help to set and maintain a comfortable surface temperature. For a heated steering wheel development project, different models have been created to meet that aim using mechanistic approaches starting with a predominantly first-order dynamics model and ending with a distributed parameter multi-feedback system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1692
Scott Amman, John Huber, Francois Charette, Brigitte richardson, Joshua Wheeler
Abstract This paper describes two case studies in which multiple microphone processing (beamforming) and microphone location were evaluated to determine their impact on improving embedded automatic speech recognition (ASR) in a vehicle hands-free environment. While each of these case studies was performed using slightly different evaluation set-ups, some specific and general conclusions can be drawn to help guide engineers in selecting the proper microphone location and configuration in a vehicle for the improvement of ASR. There were some outcomes that were common to both dual microphone solutions. When considering both solutions, neither was equally effective across all background noise sources. Both systems appear to be far more effective for noise conditions in which higher frequency energy is present, such as that due to high levels of wind noise and/or HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) blower noise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1694
Victor Silva, Renato Veiga
Abstract Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonomic location.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1566
Willibald Brems, Nico Kruithof, Richard Uhlmann, Andreas Wagner, Werner Krantz, Jochen Wiedemann
Abstract In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1562
Junyu Zhou, Chao Liu, Jan Kubenz, Günther Prokop
Abstract This paper describes a new hybrid algorithm for multibody dynamics in vehicle system dynamics which combines the advantages of both embedding technique algorithm and augmented formulation algorithm. An approach to vehicle dynamics modeling based on the hybrid algorithm is presented. Embedding technique algorithm has relatively small number of equations of motion. With help of this technique, an enhanced parametric vehicle dynamics model can be built, representing characteristic curves of suspension comprised in kinematic and compliance. Small number of equations enables the vehicle dynamics model to be simulated very efficiently. In comparison to embedding technique algorithm, the main benefit of augmented formulation algorithm is relatively simple for computer programming. With help of augmented formulation algorithm, the structure of the vehicle dynamic model can be easily extended.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1564
Minh-Tri Nguyen, Jürgen Pitz, Werner Krantz, Jens Neubeck, Jochen Wiedemann
Abstract In addition to the analysis of human driving behavior or the development of new advanced driver assistance systems, the high simulation quality of today’s driving simulators enables investigations of selected topics pertaining to driving dynamics. With high reproducibility and fast generation of vehicle variants the subjective evaluation process leads to a better system understanding in the early development stages. The transfer of the original on-road test run to the virtual reality of the driving simulator includes the full flexibility of the vehicle model, the maneuver and the test track, which allows new possibilities of investigation. With the opportunity of a realistic whole-vehicle simulation provided by the Stuttgart Driving Simulator new analysis of the human’s thresholds of perception are carried out.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Abstract Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly scan their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5939