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Viewing 1 to 30 of 5950
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2445
Santosh Deshmane, Onkar P. Gurav, Vipul Sahu
Abstract Today’s automotive industry is facing cutthroat competition, especially in passenger vehicle business. Manufacturers around the globe are developing innovative and new products keeping focus on end customer; thus customer's opinion and perception about the product has become a factor of prime importance. Customer touch points such as gear shift lever, clutch, brakes, steering etc. are thus gaining more and more importance. Car companies are trying to induce more and more luxuries in these touch points so that they impress customer and create a positive opinion about the product. On the other hand manufacturers are also trying to manage profits. Companies thus need to find the best fit solution for improvising customer touch points with optimized costs. The performance of these touch points is driven by subsystems of mechanical components like mechanical linkage.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2436
Santosh Deshmane, Onkar Gangvekar, Samson Rajakumar
Abstract In today’s competitive automobile market, driver comfort is at utmost importance and the bar is being raised continuously. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gear can result into customer dissatisfaction and will impact the brand image. While there are continual efforts being taken by most of the car manufactures, “Double Bump” in gearshift has remained as a pain area and impact severely on the shift feel. This is more prominent in North-South (N-S) transmissions. In this paper ‘Double Bump’ is a focus area and a mathematical / analytical approach is demonstrated by analyzing ‘impacting parameters’ and establishing their co-relation with double bump. Additionally, the results are also verified with a simulation model.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1982
Xiaoming Lan, Hui Chen, Xiaolin He, Jiachen Chen, Yosuke Nishimura, Kazuya Ando, Kei Kitahara
Abstract In the recent years, the interaction between human driver and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has gradually aroused people’s concern. As a result, the concept of personalized ADAS is being put forward. As an important system of ADAS, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) also attracts great attention. To achieve personalized LKAS, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior should be researched. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are not sufficient to obtain DLKC indices. One reason is that most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping behavior.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1984
Jun Ma, Junyi Li, Zaiyan Gong, Jihong Yu
Abstract Given the wide adoption of touchscreens in vehicles, an interesting debate is taking place regarding the good screen size, length-width ratio and whether the usability of in-vehicle information system (IVIS) would be decreased by a larger screen, especially. Moreover, the lack of scientific evidence about the concrete impact of touch screen size on usability raises questions to practitioners. In this paper, we investigated the impact of in-vehicle touch screen size on users’ visual behavior and usability as measured using eye tracker and questionnaire. Two experiments were conducted on 30 participants. In the first experiment, participants were asked to seek same information on four different in-vehicle screens based on simulated driving environment, while eye movement was recorded for analyzing efficiency of visual behavior.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1993
Daoyuan Sun, Xiaofei Pei, Xu Hu, Hao Pan, Bo Yang
Abstract This paper presents a Driver-In-the-Loop (DIL) bench test system for development of ESC controller. The real-time platform is built-up based on NI/PXI system and the real steering/throttle/braking actuator. In addition, the CarSim provides the vehicle model and the animator for virtual driving environment. A hierarchical ESC controller is proposed in MATLAB/Simulink then download into PXI. In the upper motion controller, the sliding mode theory is adopted and the logic threshold algorithm is used in the lower slip controller. Finally, ESC test is implemented under typical conditions by DIL and Model-In-the-Loop (MIL). The results show that, DIL could make up the shortage of driver model which can’t accurately simulate the emergency response of real driver. Therefore, DIL test could verify the ESC controller more accurately and effectively with considering the human-vehicle-road environment.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1987
Renjie Li, Shengbo Li, Hongbo Gao, Keqiang Li, Bo Cheng, Deyi Li
Abstract Vehicle automation is a fundamental approach to reduce traffic accidents and driver workload. However, there is a notable risk of pushing human drivers out of the control loop before automation technology fully matures. Cooperative driving (or vehicle co-piloting) is a novel paradigm which is defined as the vehicle being jointly navigated by a human driver and an automatic controller through shared control technology. Indirect shared control is an emerging shared control method, which is able to realize cooperative driving through input complementation instead of haptic guidance. In this paper we first establish an indirect shared control method, in which the driver’s commanded input and the controller’s desired input are balanced with a weighted summation. Thereafter, we propose a predictive model to capture driver adaptation and trust in indirect shared control.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2010
Junfeng Yang, Michael Ward, Jahangir Akhtar‎
Abstract The Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) promise huge economic, social and environmental benefits. The autonomous vehicles supposed to be safer than human drivers. However, the advanced systems and complex levels of automation could also bring accidents by tiny faults of hardware or errors of software. To achieve complete safety, a safety case providing guidance on the identification and classification of hazardous events, and the minimization of these risks needs to be developed throughout the entire development lifecycle process of CAVs. A comprehensible and valid safety case has to employ appropriate safety approaches complying with the automotive functional safety requirements in ISO 26262.
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1983
Bing Zhu, Shude Yan, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Ning Bian
Abstract Electric power steering (EPS) system is a kind of dynamic control system for vehicle steering, which can amplify the driver steering torque inputs to the vehicle to improve steering comfortable and performance, but the present EPS can’t cater to the driving habits of different people. In this paper, a personalized EPS controller is designed based on the driver behavior, which combines real-time driver behavior identification strategy with personalized assistance characteristic. Firstly, the driver behavior data acquisition system is designed and established, based on which, the input data of different kinds of drivers along with vehicle signals are collected under typical working conditions, then the identification of driver behavior online is realized using the BP neural network.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2113
Michael Schultz
Abstract Passenger boarding is always part of the critical path of the aircraft turnaround: both efficient boarding and online prediction of the boarding progress are essential for a reliable turnaround progress. However, the boarding progress is mainly controlled by the passenger behavior. A fundamental scientific approach for aircraft boarding enables the consideration of individual passenger behaviors and operational constraints in order to develop a sustainable concept for enabling a prediction of the boarding progress. A reliable microscopic simulation approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the individual movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. The simulation covers a broad range of behaviors and boarding strategies as well as the integration of new technologies and procedures.
2017-08-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9379
John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West, Paul Chambon
Abstract Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1932
Ganesh Dharmar, Ravichandrika Bhamidipati, Satheesh Kumar
Abstract Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1960
Satish Chandra Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Mohanraj Balakrishnan
Abstract In automotive industry, design of vehicle to end customer with proper ergonomics and balancing the design is always a challenge, for which an accurate prediction of postures are needed. Several studies have used Digital Human Models (DHM) to examine specific movements related to ingress and egress by translating complex tasks, like vehicle egress through DHMs. This requires an in-depth analysis of users to ensure such models reflect the range of abilities inherent to the population. Designers are increasingly using digital mock-ups of the built environment using DHMs as a means to reduce costs and speed-up the “time-to-market” of products. DHMs can help to improve the ergonomics of a product but must be representative of actual users.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1762
Michael Roan, M. Lucas Neurauter, Douglas Moore, Dan Glaser
Abstract Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1888
Rasheed Khan, Mahdi Ali, Eric C. Frank
Abstract Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1866
Pradeep Jawale, Nagesh Karanth
Abstract Urbanisation has led to an increased need for mobility in public transportation. Sensing the unfolding worrisome scenario, many countries have taken up different mass rapid transit solutions to alleviate the problem and restore the free flowing traffic. BRT should have been the logical choice particularly considering the lower capital costs involved and faster implementation. Comprehensibly the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in term of quality and comfort to the passengers. Level of vibration and noise is an important indicator to evaluate vehicle's ride comfort. The challenges are to design the high powered Powertrain and Air Conditioning system nonetheless low interior noise, vibration and harshness correspondents to personal cars. This paper is an invention of, development work done in interior noise refinement of a bus. A prototype bus manufactured to meet all the requirement of BRT - premium segment urban bus.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1763
Lisa Steinbach, Ercan Altinsoy, Robert Rosenkranz
Abstract In today's urban environment inhabitants are permanently exposed to elevated noise levels, which are dominated by traffic noise. The process of electrification of vehicles might change the traffic noise in city centers. The aim of this work was to determine the pedestrian reaction, the warning effect and the annoyance of more realistic traffic situations. For this purpose both combustion and electric vehicle noise situations and mixed scenarios of both concepts were generated. The differences in the perceived annoyance and warning effect were investigated with perception studies.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1757
Matthew Maunder, Benjamin Munday
Abstract Excitement, image and emotion are key attributes for cars, particularly those with higher power ratings. Engine sound has traditionally acted as the car’s voice, conveying these attributes to the driver and passengers along with the brand image. Engine sound also underpins the dynamic driving experience by giving instant feedback about how a car is operating, enhancing the connection between driver and vehicle. For decades, the automotive industry has engineered engine sound to achieve these benefits, thereby defining the ‘language’ of car sound. Electric vehicles deliver strong and responsive performance but naturally lack the acoustic feedback that internal combustion engines provide. While this gives advantages in terms of comfort and environmental noise, the benefits of engine sound are lost. Carefully controlled acoustic feedback inside the car’s cabin brings tangible and valuable benefits both for the dynamic driving experience and to convey the brand image.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1771
Mohamed El morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Gear fault diagnosis is important in the vibration monitoring of any rotating machine. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always display non-stationary behavior. In early stage of gear failure, the gear mesh frequency (GMF) contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. This paper presents the value of optimal wavelet function for early detection of faulty gear. The Envelope Detection (ED) and the Energy Operator are used for gear fault diagnosis as common techniques with and without the proposed optimal wavelet to verify the effectiveness of the optimal wavelet function. Kurtosis values are determined for the previous techniques as an indicator parameter for the ability of early gear fault detection. The comparative study is applied to real vibration signals.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1836
Fangfang Wang, Peter Johnson, Hugh Davies, Bronson Du
Abstract Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1847
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwar rao.P
Abstract Tractor operators prefer to drive more comfortable tractors in the recent years. The high noise and vibration levels, to which drivers of agricultural tractor are often exposed for long periods of time, have a significant part in the driver’s fatigue and may lead to substantial hearing impairment and health problems. Therefore, it is essential for an optimal cabin design to have time and cost effective analysis tools for the assessment of the noise and vibration characteristics of various design alternatives at both the early design stages and the prototype testing phase. Airborne excitation and Structure Borne excitation are two types of dynamic cabin excitations mainly cause the interior noise in a driver’s cabin. Structure-borne excitation is studied in this paper and it consists of dynamic forces, which are directly transmitted to the cabin through the cabin suspension. These transmitted forces introduce cabin vibrations, which in turn generate interior noise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1694
Victor Silva, Renato Veiga
Abstract Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonomic location.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1383
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Fnu Brinda
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development lifecycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 subsamples of different sample sizes. The percentage of subsamples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a subsample size of thirty-five, 95% of the subsamples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1384
Richard Young
Abstract This proof-of-concept demonstrates a new method to predict the relative crash risk in naturalistic driving that is caused (or prevented) by the effects on attention of visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving in a track experiment. The method required five steps. (1) Estimate valid relative crash/near-crash risks of visual-manual secondary tasks measured during naturalistic driving. These data were taken from a prior SAE publication of unbiased estimates of the relative crash/near-crash risks of secondary tasks in the 100-Car naturalistic driving study. (2) Calculate the “physical demand” and “cognitive demand” scores for visual-manual secondary tasks performed while driving on a track.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1381
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Shimul Bhuva
Abstract There is a strong business case for automotive companies to improve by understanding what consumers want, like and dislike. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on measuring consumer’s ability, opinions and satisfaction. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic, etc.) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales. This ratings scale research focused on scales and their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research, discuss the use of rating scales specific to vehicle ergonomics, and analyze the results of an automotive interface study that correlates the seven-point adjective rating scale to the system usability score (SUS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1382
Michelle L. Reyes, Cheryl A. Roe, Ashley B. McDonald, Julia E. Friberg, Daniel V. McGehee
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) show tremendous promise for increasing safety on our roadways. However, while these technologies are rapidly infiltrating the American passenger vehicle market, many consumers have little to no experience or knowledge of them prior to getting behind the wheel. The Technology Demonstration Study was conducted to evaluate how the ways in which drivers learn about ADAS affect their perceptions of the technologies. This paper investigates drivers’ knowledge of the purpose, function, and limitations of the advanced driver assistance technology of adaptive cruise control (ACC), along with ratings of perceived usefulness, apprehension, and effort required to learn to use ACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1387
Jing Zhang
Abstract Existing automotive infotainment and telematics systems are increasingly feature-rich; they are simultaneously more densely packed with information and more complicated in terms of human-machine interactions. This complexity negatively impacts the situational awareness (SA) of the driver, and contributes to driver distraction. With the proliferation of tablets and smart phones, automotive mobile applications are growing in popularity; however, their content has been confined to a limited subset of vehicle information and control functions. Phone projection systems such as Apple CarPlay™ allow in-vehicle consumption of phone-based media but offer no improvement for the rest of connected vehicle features. The author proposes a content strategy to significantly reduce in-vehicle system complexity and elevate driver SA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1388
S. M. Akbar Berry, Michael Kolich, Johnathan Line, Waguih ElMaraghy
Abstract Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1385
Satheesh Kumar Chandran, James Forbes, Carrie Bittick, Kathleen Allanson, Santosh Erupaka, Fnu Brinda
Abstract Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1372
Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Abstract Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 5950