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Viewing 1 to 30 of 238
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1833
Bonan Qin, Jue Yang, Xinxin Zhao
Abstract Articulated engineering vehicle travels on complex road, its working condition is bad and because of the non-rigid connection between the front and rear body, additional DOF is brought in and the transverse stiffness is relatively weak. When the articulated vehicle runs in a high speed along a straight line, it is easy to cause the transverse swing and the poor handling stability. If it is serious enough, it will lead to "snakelike" instability phenomenon. This kind of instability will increase driving resistance and tire wear, the lateral dynamic load and aggravate the damage of the parts. The vehicle will have a lateral migration of center of gravity (CG) when steering, which will lead a higher probability of rollover accident. A dynamic mathematical model for a 35t articulated truck with four motor-driven wheels was established in this paper, to study the condition for its stable driving and the influence of the vehicle structural parameters.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1837
Paul R. Donavan, Carrie Janello
Abstract Acoustic beamforming was used to localize noise sources on heavy trucks operating on highways in California and North Carolina at a total of 20 sites. Over 1,200 trucks were measured under a variety of operating conditions, including cruise on level highways, on upgrades, down degrades, low speed acceleration, and for various speeds and pavements. The contours produced by the beamforming measurements were used to identify specific source contributions under these conditions and for a variety of heavy trucks. Consistently, the highest noise levels were seen at the tire-pavement interface, with lesser additional noise radiated from the engine compartment. Noise from elevated exhaust stacks was only documented for less than 5% of the trucks measured. The results were further reduced to produce vertical profiles of noise levels versus height above the roadway. The profiles were normalized to the highest noise level at ground level.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9176
Jitesh Shukla, A Grinspan, Jeyanthi subramanian
Abstract Lifting axles are auxiliary axles that provide increased load carrying capacity in heavy commercial vehicles. Lift axle gives better fuel efficiency as well as it reduces the operational costs by means of increasing the loading carrying capacity. These axles are raised when the vehicle is in unloaded condition, thus increasing the traction on remaining wheels and reducing the tire wear which in turn lower down the maintenance cost of the vehicle. Lifting height and force requires to lift the whole mechanism and are two main considerable factors to design the lifting axle mechanism. Although in India currently, the use of lift mechanism of single tire with continuous axle is more common. But in the case of pusher axle, continuous axle is unable to lift more after certain height because of the draft angle of the propeller shaft, and single tire axle which has less load carrying capacity up to 6T (Tons).
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9178
Arash E. Risseh, Hans-Peter Nee, Olof Erlandsson, Klas Brinkfeldt, Arnaud Contet, Fabian Frobenius lng, Gerd Gaiser, Ali Saramat, Thomas Skare, Simon Nee, Jan Dellrud
The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1424
Mark Fabbroni, Jennifer Rovt, Mark Paquette
Abstract Collision reconstruction often involves calculations and computer simulations, which require an estimation of the weights of the involved vehicles. Although weight data is readily available for automobiles and light trucks, there is limited data for heavy vehicles, such as tractor-semitrailers, straight trucks, and the wide variety of trailers and combinations that may be encountered on North American roads. Although manufacturers always provide the gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR) for these vehicles, tare weights are often more difficult to find, and in-service loading levels are often unknown. The resulting large uncertainty in the weight of a given truck can often affect reconstruction results. In Canada, the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario conducted a Commercial Vehicle Survey in 2012 that consisted of weight sampling over 45,000 heavy vehicles of various configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0328
Yunkai Gao, Genhai Wang, Jingpeng Han
Abstract The multi-body dynamics simulation and physical iteration were carried out based on the 4-channel road simulation bench, the solution of fatigue test bench which was suitable for cab with frame and suspension was designed. Large load and displacement above the suspension can be loaded on the test bench, and the same weak position of cab exposed on the road test can be assessed well on the fatigue test bench. The effectiveness of the bench test solution was verified though comparative study. And it has important reference for the same type of cab assembly with suspension in the fatigue bench test. According to the durability specifications of cab assembly, a multi-body dynamics model with a satisfactory accuracy was built. And the fixture check and virtual iteration analysis were used to verify the effectiveness of the solution. According to the road load signal analysis and multi-body dynamics analysis results, the test bench with linear guide and spherical joint was built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1426
Wesley D. Grimes, Thomas H. Vadnais, Gregory A. Wilcoxson
Abstract The time/distance relationship for a heavy truck accelerating from a stop is often needed to accurately assess the events leading up to a collision. Several series of tests were conducted to document the low speed acceleration performance of a 2016 Freightliner Cascadia truck tractor equipped with a 12-speed automated manual transmission in Auto Mode. Unlike tests in previous papers, the driver never manually shifted gears. These tests included three trailer load configurations and two different acceleration rates. Data were gathered with both a VBOX and with the Detroit Diesel Diagnostic Link (DDDL) software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1035
Xingyu Xue, John Rutledge
Abstract Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0133
Bin Xu, Adamu Yebi, Simona Onori, Zoran Filipi, Xiaobing Liu, John Shutty, Paul Anschel, Mark Hoffman
Abstract This paper presents the transient power optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) system operating on a heavy-duty diesel (HDD). The optimization process is carried on an experimentally validated, physics-based, high fidelity ORC-WHR model, which consists of parallel tail pipe and EGR evaporators, a high pressure working fluid pump, a turbine expander, etc. Three different ORC-WHR mixed vapor temperature (MVT) operational strategies are evaluated to optimize the ORC system net power: (i) constant MVT; (ii) constant superheat temperature; (iii) fuzzy logic superheat temperature based on waste power level. Transient engine conditions are considered in the optimization. Optimization results reveal that adaptation of the vapor temperature setpoint based on evaporation pressure strategy (ii) provides 1.1% mean net power (MNP) improvement relative to a fixed setpoint strategy (i).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0437
Bin Li, Subhash Rakheja
Abstract In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1554
Ajith Jogi, Sujatha Chandramohan
Abstract Over the years, commercial vehicles, especially tractor-semitrailer combinations have become larger and longer. With the increasing demand for their accessibility in remote locations, these vehicles face the problem of off-tracking, which is the ensuing difference in path radii between the front and rear axles of a vehicle as it maneuvers a turn. Apart from steering the rear axle of the semitrailer, one of the feasible ways of mitigating off-tracking is to shift the fifth wheel coupling rearwards. However, this is limited by the distribution of the semitrailer’s load between the two axles of the tractor; any rearward shift of the fifth wheel coupling results in the reduction of the total static load on the tractor’s front axle and hence available traction. This may in turn lead to directional instability of the vehicle. In the present work, a new model of the fifth wheel coupling is proposed which the authors call Split fifth wheel coupling (SFWC).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0781
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
Abstract The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost versus diesel fuel has increased interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and increase operating range while reduce harmful emissions and maintaining durability. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for light duty LD, and MD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe [1]. However, this technology exhibits poor thermal efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon that has prohibited its use for HD engines. Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) can be used to create a partially stratified combustion (PSC) mixture of NG and air during the compression stroke.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0346
Radwan Hazime, Thomas Seifert, Jeremy Kessens, Frank Ju
Abstract A complete thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction methodology is developed for predicting the TMF life of cast iron cylinder heads for efficient heavy duty internal combustion engines. The methodology uses transient temperature fields as thermal loads for the non-linear structural finite-element analysis (FEA). To obtain reliable stress and strain histories in the FEA for cast iron materials, a time and temperature dependent plasticity model which accounts for viscous effects, non-linear kinematic hardening and tension-compression asymmetry is required. For this purpose a unified elasto-viscoplastic Chaboche model coupled with damage is developed and implemented as a user material model (USERMAT) in the general purpose FEA program ANSYS. In addition, the mechanism-based DTMF model for TMF life prediction developed in Part I of the paper is extended to three-dimensional stress states under transient non-proportional loading conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0695
Ezio Spessa, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
Abstract In the present work, different combustion control strategies have been experimentally tested in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. In particular, closed-loop pressure-based and open-loop model-based techniques, able to perform a real-time control of the center of combustion (MFB50), have been compared with the standard map-based engine calibration in order to highlight their potentialities. In the pressure-based technique, the instantaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure signal is performed by a pressure transducer, from which the MFB50 can be directly calculated and the start of the injection of the main pulse (SOImain) is set in a closed-loop control to reach the MFB50 target, while the model-based approach exploits a heat release rate predictive model to estimate the MFB50 value and sets the corresponding SOImain in an open-loop control. The experimental campaign involved both steady-state and transient tests.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0901
Alex Pink, Adam Ragatz, Lijuan Wang, Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN-reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-duty vehicles and two medium-duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend-for some vehicles the CAN under-reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over-reported fuel consumption. Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0120
Kevin Hallstrom, Sandip D. Shah
Abstract The legislative decision to accelerate the implementation of regulations requiring advanced emissions control in India have accelerated the need to advanced emissions control systems. Particulate filters and NOx abatement technology will be needed to meet the new BSVI standards. Integration of these emission control technologies into engine design poses new challenges to the Indian Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Industry. Each new market that implements advanced emission regulations faces challenges that are unique to the local regulation, the local vehicle design, and the local operating conditions. This paper will review the technology options available for BSVI, their strengths and weaknesses, and potential system designs. Additionally this paper will review how critical design factors such as filter regeneration conditions, duty cycle temperatures, and urea injection can affect the system design and catalyst selection.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0339
Jagankumar Mari, Egalaivan Srinivasan
Abstract In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored. Fierce competition in the recent years and buyer’s market trend is compelling the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of attribute refinements. Steering is one driver-Vehicle interface which the driver is engaged throughout. Comfort and feel in steering wheel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-center feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return-ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and steering system friction on the on-center driving performance. Experiments to measure the Jacking torque and steering system friction were conducted in the lab and subjective and objective assessments of on-center driving performance were later conducted at test track in two similar 12 Ton truck to correlate their effects.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0345
Bharat Kushwaha, Sanjay Chaudhuri, Sujatha Chandramohan
Abstract This paper investigates the yaw dynamic behaviour of a seven axle tractor semitrailer combination vehicle developed by VRDE (Vehicle Research & Development). The semitrailer has four steerable axles which follow command steering law i.e. all axles of semitrailer are steered in a particular relation with articulation of tractor. A 4 dof (degree of freedom) linear yaw plane model was developed for this combination vehicle. Yaw response characteristics such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and articulation angle for step and sine steer is obtained from this model. Effects of speed on the above parameters are also studied to the same steering inputs. Lateral tyre forces due to semitrailer steering at various speeds are estimated to understand its distribution on each axle. Steady state yaw rate and articulation angle gain are obtained to predict the understeer / oversteer behaviour of combination vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0341
Chaitanya Ashok Vichare, Sivakumar Palanivelu
Abstract The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0149
Edinilson Alves Costa
Abstract Mainly in the last 30 years so much research has been done on Fe-based calculation of seam welded thin-sheet structures fatigue life. However, available prediction methods have been developed for a limited range of geometries under ideal load conditions. Extrapolating to complex real world geometries and load conditions such those resultant from, for example, ground vehicles dislocation over rough surfaces, are least documented. One example of the application of seam welded thin-sheet structures in the ground vehicle industry is the powertrain installation bracketry. Such brackets are subject to variable amplitude loading sourced from powertrain and road surface irregularities and their fatigue strength is tightly dependent on the strength of their joints. In this paper, a FE-based force/moment method has been used for numerically predicting fatigue life of powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8154
Abhijith Balakrishna, Gang Wang
Abstract The dynamic loading on the skin of a refrigeration unit mounted in the gap between tractor and trailer is studied while another trailer passes by on a freeway using transient computational fluid dynamics. Dynamic Meshing methodology available in Ansys Fluent was used to understand the transient pressure and flow regimes in and around the tractor trailer gap in general and refrigeration unit in particular, at various vehicle speeds. The influences of the lateral distance between the crossing trailers and vehicle speed on the pressure distribution on the refrigeration unit have been studied.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8141
Brian R. McAuliffe
Abstract With increasing use of boat-tails on Canadian roads, a concern had been raised regarding the possibility for ice and snow to accumulate and shed from the cavity of a boat-tail affixed to a dry-van trailer, posing a hazard for other road users. This paper describes a preliminary evaluation of the potential for ice and snow accumulation in the cavity of a boat-tail-equipped heavy-duty vehicle. A transient CFD approach was used and combined with a quasi-static particle-tracking simulation to evaluate, firstly, the tendency of various representative ice or snow particles to be entrained in the vehicle wake, and secondly, the potential of such particles to accumulate on the aft end of a dry-van trailer with and without various boat-tail configurations. Results of the particle tracking analyses showed that the greatest numbers of particles impinge on the base of the trailer for the no-boat-tail case, concentrated on the upper surface of the back face of the trailer.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8144
John Lacey
Abstract The trucking industry is being encouraged by environmental and cost factors to improve fuel efficiency. One factor that affects fuel efficiency is the aerodynamic design of the vehicles; that is, the vehicles with lower aerodynamic drag will get better mileage, reducing carbon emissions and reducing costs through lower fuel usage. A significant tool towards developing vehicles with lower drag is the wind tunnel. The automobile industry has made great improvements in fuel efficiency by using wind tunnels to determine the best designs to achieve lower drag. Those wind tunnels are not optimum for testing the larger, longer heavy trucks since the wind tunnels are smaller than needed. The estimated costs for a heavy truck wind tunnel based on automotive wind tunnel technology are quite high. A potential nozzle concept to reduce wind tunnel cost and several other new possible approaches to lower wind tunnel costs are presented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8151
Prashanth Gururaja
Abstract To investigate the feasibility of various aerodynamic test procedures for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations for heavy-duty vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted, through Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), coastdown testing of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53-foot dry-van trailer. Three vehicle configurations were tested, two of which included common trailer drag-reduction technologies. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. One vehicle configuration was tested over several days to evaluate day-to-day repeatability and the influence of changing wind conditions. Data on external sources of road forces, such as grade and speed dependence of tire rolling resistance, were collected separately and incorporated into the analysis.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8113
Xiaohua Zeng, Guanghan Li, Dafeng Song, Sheng Li, Xianghua Li
Abstract To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8153
Prashanth Gururaja
Abstract To investigate the feasibility of various test procedures to determine aerodynamic performance for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency commissioned, through Southwest Research Institute, constant-speed torque tests of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53-foot dry-van trailer. Torque was measured at the transmission output shaft and, for most tests, also on each of the drive wheels. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. Measuring wind-averaged drag from on-road tests has historically been a challenge. By collecting data in various wind conditions at multiple speeds over multiple days, a regression-based method was developed to estimate wind-averaged drag with a low precision error for multiple tractor-trailer combinations.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 238

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