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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2222
ZhenYang Liu, Xihui Wang
The ever increasing popularity of electric vehicles and demand in passengers comfort and safe requirements of vehicle have led more efficient heat pump air conditioning system to an indispensable device in electric vehicle. Many studies have shown that the addition of nano particles contributes to improving the thermal conductivity of nano fluids more than that of conventional refrigerants. Therefore, the appliance of the magnetic nano-refrigerant in heat pump air conditioning system has great potential to improve the heat transfer efficiency. This paper aims at studying the magnetic nano-refrigerant comprised of the magnetic nano powder Fe3O4 and refrigerant R134a.According to the relevant theoretical analysis and different empirical formula, the heat transfer coefficient, density, viscosity, and other physical parameters are calculated approximately.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2161
Alexander J. Pollok
For thermal cabin control of commercial aircraft, the cabin is usually divided into a small number of temperature zones. Each zone features its own air supply pipe. The necessary installation space for ducting increases significantly with the number of zones. This requires the number of temperature zones to be low. Factors such as seating layout, galley placement and passenger density result in deviations in heat flux throughout the cabin. These deviations cannot be compensated by the control system, if they occur within the same temperature zone. This work presents a novel temperature regulation concept based on local mixing. In this concept, two main ducts span the complete cabin length, and provide moderately warm and cold air. At each temperature zone, cabin supply air is locally mixed using butterfly valves. In this way, the number of temperature zones can be individually scaled up without any additional ducting, only requiring additional valves for each temperature zone.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1924
Praveen Kumar, Vivek KV Shenoy, Nareen Kinthala, Srikanth Sudhir
Abstract Plenum is the part located between the front windshield and the bonnet of an automobile . It is primarily used as an air inlet to the HVAC during fresh air mode operation. It’s secondary functions include water drainage, aesthetic cover to hide the gap between windshield to bonnet, concealing wiper motors and mechanisms etc. The plenum consists mainly two sub parts viz. upper plenum and lower plenum. Conventional plenum design which is found in majority of global OEMs employ a plastic upper plenum and a metal lower plenum which spans across the entire width of engine compartment. This conventional lower plenum is bulky, consumes more packaging space and has more weight. In this paper, we propose a novel design for the plenum lower to overcome above mentioned limitations of the conventional design. This novel design employs a dry and wet box concept for its working and is made up of complete plastic material.
2017-06-27
Journal Article
2017-01-9179
Mike Liebers, Dzmitry Tretsiak, Sebastian Klement, Bernard Bäker, Peter Wiemann
Abstract A vital contribution for the development of an environmental friendly society is improved energy efficiency in public transport systems. Increased electrification of these systems is essential to achieve the high objectives stated. Since the operating range of an electrical vehicle is heavily influenced of the available energy, which primarily is used for propulsion and thermal passenger comfort, all heat losses in the vehicle systems must be minimized. Especially for urban buses, the unwanted heat losses through open doors while passengers are boarding, have to be controlled. These energy fluxes are due to the large temperature gradients generated between in- and outdoor conditions and to install air-walls in the door opening areas have turned out to be a promising technical solution. Based on air-wall technologies used for climate control in buildings, this paper presents an experimental investigation on the reduction of heat losses in the door opening of urban buses.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1787
Jan Biermann, Adrien Mann, Barbara Neuhierl, Min-Suk Kim
Abstract Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1781
Joshua Wheeler
Abstract The design and operation of a vehicle’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has great impact on the performance of the vehicle’s Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and Hands-Free Communication (HFC) system. HVAC noise provides high amplitudes of broadband frequency content that affects the signal to noise ratio (SNR) within the vehicle cabin, and works to mask the user’s speech. But what’s less obvious is that when the airflow from the panel vents or defroster openings can be directed toward the vehicle microphone, a mechanical “buffeting” phenomenon occurs on the microphone’s diaphragm that distresses the ASR system beyond its ability to interpret the user’s voice. The airflow velocity can be strong enough that a simple windscreen on the microphone is not enough to eliminate the problem. Minimizing this buffeting effect is a vital key to building a vehicle that meets the customer’s expectations for ASR and HFC performance.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1887
Antoine Minard, Christophe Lambourg, Patrick Boussard, Olivier Cheriaux
Abstract While electric and hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common, the issue of engine noise is becoming less important, because it does not dominate the overall noise perceived in the passenger compartment in such vehicles anymore. However, at the same time, other sound sources such as air conditioning, start to emerge, which can also cause annoyance. The CEVAS project, involving VALEO, CETIM, University of Technology of Compiègne, ESI GROUP and GENESIS, deals with the acoustic simulation and perception of automotive air-conditioning (HVAC) and electric battery cooling (BTM) systems. While the other partners focused their work on the aeroacoustic characterization, modeling and simulation, GENESIS’ part in the project is dedicated to HVAC sound synthesis and perception. In order to do the synthesis of the acoustic spectra provided by the partners of the project, an additive model was used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1725
Tanawat Tessathan, Chutiphon Thammasiri, Prabhath De Silva, Rehan Hussain, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract It is common for users of commuting passenger cars in Thailand to use the vehicle’s HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system predominantly in recirculation (REC) mode. This minimizes the compressor work, thereby saving fuel, and reduces dust and odor infiltration into the vehicle cabin. The car windows are rarely opened for ventilation purposes, except for exchanges at service stations such as garage entrances and tollway booths. As such, there are few opportunities for fresh air to enter the cabin with the consequent accumulation of CO2 in vehicle cabins due to occupants’ exhalations being well documented. Field experiments conducted showed that the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations could reach up to 15 times that of the ambient concentration level during typical city commutes. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to quantify the air exchanges between the cabin and the ambient when the doors are opened for occupant egression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0181
Benny Johnson William, Agathaman Selvaraj, Manjeet Singh Rammurthy, Manikandan Rajaraman, V. Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract The modern day automobile customers’ expectations are sky-high. The automotive manufacturers need to provide sophisticated, cost-effective comfort to stay in this competitive world. Air conditioning is one of the major features which provides a better comfort but also adds up to the increase in operating fuel cost of vehicle. According to the sources the efficiency of internal combustion engine is 30% and 70% of energy is wasted to atmosphere. The current Air conditioners in automobiles use Vapour compression system (VCS) which utilizes a portion of shaft power of the engine at its input; this in turn reduces the brake power output and increases the specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine. With the current depletion rate of fossil fuels, it is necessary to conserve the available resources and use it effectively which also contributes to maintain a good balance in greenhouse effect thus protecting the environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0179
Saravanan Sambandan, Manuel Valencia, Sathish Kumar S
Abstract In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0177
Lili Feng, Predrag Hrnjak
Abstract This paper presents the study of refrigerant charge imbalance between A/C (cooling) mode and HP (heating) mode of a mobile reversible system. Sensitivities of cooling and heating capacity and energy efficiency with respect to refrigerant charge were investigated. Optimum refrigerant charge level for A/C mode was found to be larger than that for HP mode, primarily due to larger condenser size in A/C mode. Refrigerant charge retention in components at both modes were measured in the lab by quick close valve method. Modeling of charge retention in heat exchangers was compared to experimental measurements. Effect of charge imbalance on oil circulation was also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0176
B. Vasanth, Uday Putcha, S. Sathish Kumar, Ramakrishna nukala, Murali Govindarajalu
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0175
Jing He, Bill Johnston, Debasish Dhar, Loren Lohmeyer
The natural refrigerant, R744 (CO2), remains a viable solution to replace the high GWP refrigerant R134a which is to be phased out in light-duty vehicles in EU and US market. In this study, thermodynamic analysis is performed on a R744 parallel compression system to evaluate its potential in automotive climate control. The model adopts a correlation of isentropic efficiency as a function of compression ratio based on a prototype R744 MAC compressor and accounts for the operating limits defined in the latest DIN specifications. Optimization is run over typical MAC operating conditions which covers both transcritical and subcritical domain. Comparing to the conventional single compression cycle, effectiveness of parallel compression is found most pronounced in low evaporating temperature and high ambient conditions, with up to 21% increase in COP and 5.3 bar reduction in discharge pressure observed over the considered parametric range.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0174
Ravi Rungta, Noori Pandit
Abstract A simple and rapid immersion type corrosion test has been successfully developed that discriminates corrosion performance in condensers from various suppliers and with differing manufacturing processes. The goal is to develop a test specification that will be included in the Ford corrosion specification for condensers so that condensers received from various suppliers may be evaluated rapidly for their relative corrosion performance to each other. Sections from condensers from Supplier A (tube is silfluxed), Supplier B (tube is zinc arc sprayed), and Supplier C (bare folded tube with no zinc for corrosion protection) were tested in 2% v/v hydrochloric acid for 16, 24 and 48 hours. The results showed that in terms of corrosion performance, zinc arc sprayed Supplier B condenser performed the worst while Supplier C condenser performed the best with Supplier A in between.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0172
Suhas Venkatappa, Manfred Koberstein, Zhengyu Liu
Abstract The refrigerant transition from HFC-134a to HFO-1234yf has proven to be more challenging on controlling refrigerant flow-induced noises generated from automotive air-conditioning (A/C) systems than originally anticipated. The objectives of this paper are to describe the noise issues with HFO-1234yf, understand the mechanisms and key factors affecting HFO-1234yf refrigerant flow-induced noise. Finally, the countermeasures and guidelines for attenuating and suppressing the noise are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0167
Steven Lambert, William Jamo, Mike Kurtz
Abstract The failure of an A/C system often results in the introduction of contaminants to the A/C system. The sources of the contaminants include debris from damaged components and debris from the surrounding environment. Returning the A/C system to service requires the removal of these contaminants from any reused components. The recommended approach to cleaning contaminated components and systems is to flush with a solvent flushing machine. Previous internal studies have concluded that solvent flushing will remove all contaminants, restoring component and system performance. Many commercial refrigerant recovery and recharge machines include a refrigerant “flush” feature which can flush oil from the system and components with the systems refrigerant. The effectiveness of using the “flush” feature of a refrigerant recovery and recharge machine with an added in-line filter to remove contaminants is investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0168
B. Vasanth, Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sathya Narayana, S. Sathish Kumar, Murali govindarajalu
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0164
Venkatesan Muthusamy, S. Sathish Kumar, Saravanan Sambandan
Abstract In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, upfront prediction of the cabin cool down rate in the initial design stage will help in reducing the overall product development (PD) time. Vehicle having higher seating capacity will have higher thermal load and providing thermal comfort to all passengers uniformly is a challenging task for the automotive HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning) industry. Dual HVAC unit is generally used to provide uniform cooling to a large cabin volume. One dimensional (1D) simulation is being extensively used to predict the HVAC performance during the initial stage of PD. The refrigerant loop with components such as compressor, condenser, TXV and evaporator was modeled. The complicated vehicle cabin including the glazing surfaces and enclosures were modeled as a three row duct system using 1D tool AMESim®. The material type, density, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the material were specified.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0163
Gursaran D. Mathur
The author has developed a model that can be used to predict build-up of cabin carbon dioxide levels for automobiles based on many variables. There are a number of parameters including number of occupants that dictates generation of CO2 within the control volume, cabin leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) characteristics, cabin volume, blower position or airflow rate; vehicle age, etc. Details of the analysis is presented in the paper. Finally, the developed model has been validated with experimental data. The simulated data follows the same trend and matches fairly well with the experimental data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0166
Noori Pandit
Abstract The effects of substituting a 12 mm thick subcool on top condenser in place of a 16 mm subcool on bottom condenser are evaluated in a vehicle level AC pull down test. The A to B testing shows that a thinner condenser with subcool on top exhibits no degradation in AC performance while resulting in a lower total system refrigerant charge. The results are from vehicle level tests run in a climatically controlled vehicle level wind tunnel to simulate an AC pull down at 43°C ambient. In addition to cabin temperature and AC vent temperatures, comparison of compressor head pressures was also done. The conclusion of the study was that a standard 16 mm thick subcool on bottom IRD condenser can be replaced by a 12 mm thick subcool on top IRD condenser with no negative effects on performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0161
Dandong Wang, Cichong Liu, Jiangping Chen
Abstract This study investigates the cycle performance and potential advantages of the replacement of fin-and-tube evaporator with parallel flow micro-channel evaporator, in R134a roof-top bus air conditioner (AC) system. The heat exchangers for bus AC system are featured by a stringent space height limitation. The configuration of inclined four piece or six piece micro-channel evaporators was proposed to satisfy this space requirement, instead of original two piece fin-and-tube evaporators. Additionally, the individual superheat control method with thermostatic expansive valve (TXV) in each evaporator was adopted to improve refrigerant distribution. Three kinds of micro-channel evaporators were designed and equipped in an 8-m roof-top bus AC system. Except the replacement of evaporators, TXV and connecting pipes, other cycle components were kept same.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0162
Jun Li, Lili Feng, Pega Hrnjak
Abstract This paper presents the results of an experimental study to determine the effect of vapor-liquid refrigerant separation in a microchannel condenser of a MAC system. R134a is used as the working fluid. A condenser with separation and a baseline condenser identical on the air side have been tested to evaluate the difference in the performance due to separation. Two categories of experiments have been conducted: the heat exchanger-level test and the system-level test. In the heat exchanger-level test it is found that the separation condenser condenses from 1.6% to 7.4% more mass flow than the baseline at the same inlet and outlet temperature (enthalpy); the separation condenser condenses the same mass flow to a lower temperature than the baseline condenser does. In the system-level test, COP is compared under the same superheat, subcooling and refrigerating capacity. Separation condenser shows up to 6.6% a higher COP than the baseline condenser.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0155
Yongbing Xu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Xianyao Ping
Abstract The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0143
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Steve Whelan
Abstract During cabin warm-up, effective air distribution by vehicle climate control systems plays a vital role. For adequate visibility to the driver, major portion of the air is required to be delivered through the defrost center ducts to clear the windshield. HVAC unit deliver hot air with help of cabin heater and PTC heater. When hot air interacts with cold windshield it causes thermal losses, and windshield act as sink. This process may causes in delay of cabin warming during consecutive cabin warming process. Thus it becomes essential to predict the effect of different windscreen defrost characteristics. In this paper, sensitivity analysis is carried for different windscreen defrosts characteristics like ambient conditions, modes of operation; change in material properties along with occupant thermal comfort is predicted. An integrated 1D/3D CFD approach is proposed to evaluate these conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0448
Prakash T. Thawani, Stephen Sinadinos, John Zvonek
Abstract With the advent of EVs/HEVs and implementation of Idle-Stop-Start (ISS) technologies on internal combustion engine (ICE) driven cars/trucks to improve fuel economy and reduce pollution, refrigerant sub-system (RSS) induced noise phenomena like, hissing, gurgling and tones become readily audible and can result in customer complaints and concerns. One of the key components that induce these noise phenomena is the Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV). The TXV throttles compressed liquid refrigerant through the evaporator that results in air-conditioning (A/C) or thermal system comfort for occupants and dehumidification for safety, when needed. Under certain operating conditions, the flow of gas and/or liquid/gas refrigerant at high pressure and velocity excites audible acoustical and structural modes inherent in the tubing/evaporator/HVAC case. These modes may often get masked and sometimes enhanced by the engine harmonics and blower noise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0186
Cory J. Kreutzer, John Rugh, Jeff Tomerlin
Abstract Increased market penetration of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) requires overcoming a number of hurdles, including limited vehicle range and the elevated cost in comparison to conventional vehicles. Climate control loads have a significant impact on range, cutting it by over 50% in both cooling and heating conditions. To minimize the impact of climate control on EDV range, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has partnered with Hyundai America and key industry partners to quantify the performance of thermal load reduction technologies on a Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Technologies that impact vehicle cabin heating in cold weather conditions and cabin cooling in warm weather conditions were evaluated. Tests included thermal transient and steady-state periods for all technologies, including the development of a new test methodology to evaluate the performance of occupant thermal conditioning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0183
Mingyu Wang, Timothy Craig, Edward Wolfe, Tim J LaClair, Zhiming Gao, Michael Levin, Danrich Demitroff, Furqan Shaikh
Abstract It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0169
Ward J. Atkinson, William Raymond Hill, Gursaran D. Mathur
Abstract The EPA has issued regulations in the Final Rulemaking for 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (420r12901-3). This document provides credits against the fuel economy regulations for various Air Conditioning technologies. One of these credits is associated with increased use of recirculation air mode, when the ambient is over 24°C (75°F.). The authors want to communicate the experiences in their careers that highlighted issues with air quality in the interior of the vehicle cabin. Cabin contamination sources may result in safety and health issues for both younger and older drivers. Alertness concerns may hinder their ability to operate a vehicle safely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0173
Stephen Andersen, Sourav Chowdhury, Timothy Craig, Sangeet Kapoor, Jagvendra Meena, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Melinda Soffer, Lindsey Leitzel, James Baker
Abstract This paper quantifies and compares the cooling performance and refrigerant and fuel cost savings to automobile manufacturers and owners of secondary-loop mobile air conditioners (SL-MACs) using refrigerants hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a and the available alternatives HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf. HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf are approved for use by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and satisfy the requirements of the European Union (EU) F-Gas Regulations. HFC-152a is inherently more energy efficient than HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf and in SL-MAC systems can generate cooling during deceleration, prolong comfort during idle stop (stop/start), and allow powered cooling at times when the engine can supply additional power with the lowest incremental fuel use. SL-MAC systems can also reduce the refrigerant charge, emissions, and service costs of HFO-1234yf.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0171
Quansheng Zhang, Yan Meng, Christopher Greiner, Ciro Soto, William Schwartz, Mark Jennings
Abstract In this paper, the tradeoff relationship between the Air Conditioning (A/C) system performance and vehicle fuel economy for a hybrid electric vehicle during the SC03 drive cycle is presented. First, an A/C system model was integrated into Ford’s HEV simulation environment. Then, a system-level sensitivity study was performed on a stand-alone A/C system simulator, by formulating a static optimization problem which minimizes the total energy use of actuators, and maintains an identical cooling capacity. Afterwards, a vehicle-level sensitivity study was conducted with all controllers incorporated in sensitivity analysis software, under three types of formulations of cooling capacity constraints. Finally, the common observation from both studies, that the compressor speed dominates the cooling capacity and the EDF fan has a marginal influence, is explained using the thermodynamics of a vapor compression cycle.
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