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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1399
Dee Kivett, Victor Gallas Cervo, Aparna Mantha, John Smith
A common result of aging is a decline in peripheral vision. This study provides a preliminary feasibility analysis of an improved method for alerting older drivers of oncoming traffic in blind-spots. Luminescence with an intuitive color-scheme is used as the primary stimulus to permeate a wider field of useful vision than that of existing technology in use today. This method was developed based on concepts of affordance-based design through its adaptation to address specific cognitive and visual acuity challenges of the elderly. The study involved evaluation of alert recognition times among drivers ranging in age from 16 to 82 and was performed in a driving simulator. The result is an improved, intuitive technique for hazard alert that shows significant improvement over existing technology for all age groups, not just the elderly. The results highlight the significance of optimization of alert placement within the useful field of view of elderly drivers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1382
Lisa Schei Blikeng, Siril Hegén Agerup
The number of electric vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in Norway were there today there are more than 35 000 electric cars, with a goal of 200 000 by 2020. With new Lithium-ion battery technology the battery packages is longer lasting and more useful for the normal family. Great interest of these vehicles leads to the discussion about fire safety. The major part of the thesis was to perform a full-scale fire experiment with a modern and drivable electric car, and in February 2013 a Peugeot iOn 2012 model was set on fire. The experiment was documented on video and thermocouples were used to measure temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1449
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, Michael Winterhalter, H. Gabler
As specified in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563), event data recorder (EDR) data are required to survive crash tests as specified by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. EDR data have been shown to survive these crash tests, which represent most U.S. highway crashes. However, some have argued the need for greater survivability, including supporters of the not enacted U.S. Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 2010. Similar devices, such as flight data recorders (FDRs), have considerably more demanding data survivability requirements. Minimum standards for FDR survivability include 30 days of sea water immersion, 5 hours exposure to a 260°C fire, and 5 minutes of 1,000lb static crush. In some cases EDRs are exposed to more severe crashes, fire, and immersion; however, little is known about whether current EDR data are capable of surviving these events and whether such improvements are cost-effective.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1444
Ada H. Tsoi, John Hinch, H. Gabler
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established survivability requirements on Event Data Recorder (EDR) data for the first time in 49 CFR 563 (Part 563) in September 2012. This regulation requires EDRs to remain functional during and after compliance crash tests as specified in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. These tests are representative of a major proportion of the crashes that occur on the nation’s highways; however, there are always crashes that are outside the typical distributions. Recent legislative bills have suggested that these survivability requirements should exceed Part 563 in delta-v, and include fire and immersion specifications. Little is known about whether EDRs are capable of surviving these events or whether the data received by the EDRs can be recovered after these events.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1380
Kumar Kumar
According to the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), from the most recent available data, it was estimated that there were 164,000 highway vehicle fires in 2013 causing roughly 300 civilian fire deaths, 925 civilian fire injuries and $1.1 billion in property damages. In a modern automobile, the plastics content is dramatically higher than it was in 1972, when Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 302 was implemented. FMVSS 302 applies only to materials in the passenger compartment and was put in place to address accidental fires started from sources such as cigarettes, matches, etc. There has never been any regulation for the plastic materials used outside the vehicle interior, including those used in under-the-hood (UTH) applications, and this is true even for today’s automobiles. Combustible materials are roughly twice the weight and represent twice the heat content of the gasoline used in a typical passenger car today, constituting the major fire load.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1381
Jason P. Huczek, R. Rhoads Stephenson
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in accordance with Solicitation No. DTNH22-12-R-00574. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach, in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1379
Hideki Matsumura, Shinichiro Itoh, Kenichi Ando
Recently, lithium ion cells are being used in more and more electric and hybrid motor vehicles. However, accidents due to thermal runaway of the cells have been reported, involving abnormal heat, smoke, and fire. Since each of these vehicles contains many cells, if the thermal runaway of one cell triggers that of another and thus causes thermal runaway propagation, a car fire or other serious accident may occur. This study aims to ensure the safety of motor vehicles with lithium ion cells. To identify such accident risks, we conducted a basic experiment to clarify the phenomenon of thermal runaway propagation following a thermal runaway. In the experiment, seven laminate-type lithium ion cells were tightly stacked one on another, with a thermocouple placed at the center of the surface of each cell. Then, the center of the cell in the middle of the seven stacked cells was overcharged to trigger a thermal runaway.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1383
Andrew Blum, Richard Thomas Long
Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
2015-01-20
Standard
J1212_201501
This document applies to off-road forestry work machines defined in SAE J1116 or ISO 6814.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0156
Anil Kumar Jaswal, MV Rajasekhar, J Perumal, Samir Rawte
Abstract This paper details the methodology used to prevent Thermal events in a vehicle at design and development stages which can lead to vehicle fire or Thermal events. Vehicle Safety is always been in prime focus for designers while introducing newer products in markets for the customers. It is now common to see vehicles catching on fire in roads and in parking places leading to destruction of the surroundings as well as hazard to the passengers. Thermal events can take place due to the heat dissipated by the heat emitters such as Engine, Turbo, Alternator, Exhaust System etc. So the most critical area where Thermal event can take place are under hood which includes the complete engine compartment and under body. The extent of fire depends on the fire source, characteristics of the materials used in constructing and furnishing the vehicle.
2014-11-25
Standard
AS245C
This specification covers the following types and classes of extinguishers: Type I Stored pressure type: Category A - Operational Temperature range -40 to +140 °F (-40 to +60 °C), Category B - Operational Temperature range +35 to +140 °F (+1.7 to +60 °C) Type II Cartridge operated type: Category A - Operational Temperature range -40 to +140 °F (-40 to +60 °C), Category B - Operational Temperature range +35 to +140 °F (+1.7 to +60 °C)
2014-10-16
Standard
AIR1169C
The scope of this document is to provide a list of documents of types pertaining to the effects of oxygen on ignition and combustion of materials. Consolidating these references in one place makes it easier to find documents of this type as these references are difficult to locate.
2014-10-01
Magazine
Propulsion: Energy Sources Flying on vegetation Avionics/Electronics Avionics heat up, in a good way Unmanned Vehicles Reaching the benchmark in secure unmanned vehicle software Thermal Management Submersion and directed flow cooling technology for military applications RF & Microwave Technology Airborne antenna considerations for C-Band telemetry systems Software-designed system improves wireless test speed and coverage
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2398
Sanket Pawar
Abstract Off-road commercial vehicles many times have to work at remote areas in poor working conditions like reduced visibility due to fog, snow, inadequate ambient lighting, dust etc. They may not have any access to emergency facilities in such places. Challenging geographical terrains and adverse weather conditions makes the situation worse. The combination of both can further degrade working conditions. The operator may need to either work or guide his vehicle through tight places or in hilly areas having such conditions. That imposes many challenges to operator in terms of efficiency & safety of both operator & vehicle. In an effort to increase productivity and efficiency operator may miss to look at safety aspects consequently, leading to accidents that can incur heavy losses due to damages to vehicle further delaying the work. It can even lead to a life threatening emergency in some cases.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2319
Iman Hazrati Ashtiani, Mehrnoosh Abedi
Abstract Road train vehicles have been applied as one of the common and efficient ways for transportation of goods, specifically hazardous liquid cargos, in different nations. These vehicles have a wide variety of lengths and towing systems such as the fifth wheel or the dolly draw-bar. Based upon specific regulations, they could be authorized to move on specific roads. In order to avoid hazard and danger in case of accidents, safety performance of a B-train vehicle as a specific type of road train vehicles is investigated in this paper. A Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model, which consists of a prime mover and two trailers coupled by fifth wheels, are simulated in the initial phase of the study. The developed dynamic model is capable of simulating required tests as well as the SAE lane change, along with a constant radius turn for the purpose of roll and yaw stability analysis and safety evaluation. The effects of variation of the fluid fill level are considered in this research.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2384
Prashant Shinde, Pratik Gore
Abstract This paper is an attempt to address one of the causes of catastrophic failures attributed to incidents of fire and smoke in commercial vehicles during last few years in China and India which have resulted in a considerable number of casualties. Some of the accidents encountered happened because of a crash with fire originating from the fuel tank. This was attributed to fuel leakage and excessive heat produced due to friction of debris with the fuel tank which happened within a few seconds of the crash. A Fuel-Tank Safety ECU for preventing such fire-mishaps shall be designed for spotting this failure and activating prevention methods in order. This ECU shall process the data coming from temperature-sensor and fuel-pressure sensor placed on the fuel tank of the vehicle. This real-time data shall be compared with the previously computed values and then the delta-differentiated value shall be used to conclude the likelihood of a fire-occurrence.
2014-09-05
Standard
ARP5548
This equipment specification covers requirements for Multi-Tasking Equipment (MTE) for airfield snow removal purposes. The unit shall include a combination of a carrier vehicle, snow plow, rotary broom and high velocity air blast system. This vehicle as a unit shall be an integrated snow plow, rotary broom and high velocity air blast. Primary application is for the high-speed plowing, sweeping and cleaning of ice and snow from airfield operational areas such as runways, taxiways and ramp aprons. The term carrier vehicle represents the various self-propelled prime movers that provide the motive power necessary to move snow and ice control equipment during winter operations. The airport operator may require this specified piece of equipment in order to maintain the airfield during large and small snow events. When necessary, the MTE shall be a central and critical element in the winter pavement maintenance fleet in the effort to accomplish the airport’s published snow plan.
2014-08-14
Standard
J3024_201408
This document presents a catalog of safety sign text and artwork that can be used by any ready mixed concrete truck manufacturer to warn of common hazards.
2014-06-20
Standard
ARP8058
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
2014-06-11
WIP Standard
ARP5414B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines lightning strike zones and provides guidelines for locating them on particular aircraft, together with examples. The zone definitions and location guidelines described herein are applicable to Parts 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. The zone location guidelines and examples are representative of in-flight lightning exposures.
2014-06-09
WIP Standard
ARP6331
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
2014-04-14
Standard
ARP5446A
These recommendations are provided to aid the international air transport industry by identifying a standard, minimum amount of safety instructions that should be given to sight-impaired passengers. This document is not meant to address problems associated with communicating safety information to sight- impaired passengers who are also hearing impaired or non- conversant in the language(s) used by the cabin crew to disseminate general safety information to passengers. Aircraft operators are encouraged to customize the safety instructions for their own operations in order to ensure that required safety information is provided to sight-impaired passengers.
2014-04-01
Collection
This technical paper collection focuses on current developments in the fields of vehicle fire science, statistics, risks, assessment and mitigation. Papers addressing vehicle design, live-fire tests and fire investigation issues applicable to traditional, electric and alternatively fueled vehicles are included.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1398
Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim, Ahmed A.A. Attia
Abstract The effect of magnetic field has attracted many researchers to investigate the impact of this type of force on different applications such as combustion and water. Different systems supported by many patents were introduced to the market to treat these applications. In the present study, a series of experiments were conducted to explore the impact of magnetic fuel treatment on engine performance. The magnetic field was produced from two different sources based on permanent and electromagnetic coils. Two engines with different configurations were used. Three fuels were tested, gasoline and diesel as liquid fuels and natural gas as a gaseous fuel. Vast numbers of experiments at different operating conditions were conducted on the two engines. Fuel consumption, output power, and exhaust emissions were analyzed under the exposure of magnetic field. Gasoline was the most affected fuel while other fuels showed less or negligible effect.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0859
Haizhen Liu, Weiwen Deng, Changfu Zong, Jian Wu
Abstract This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0429
Guanyu Zheng, Indrek Wichman, Andre Benard, Hongyu Wang, Xiaohui Li, Jie Gao
Abstract Flame spread over a melting thermally thick composite polymer is investigated in a channel flow above a condensed fuel. The condensed fuel consists of an isotropic (melted layer of) liquid near the heated surface and an anisotropic (not-yet-melted) solid surrounding it. The influence of the solid anisotropy is evaluated by changing the solid conductivity (ksx or ksy) in one particular direction (x in horizontal flame spread direction or y in vertical direction, see schematics in Figure 1) while keeping the other properties fixed. Note that the liquid conductivity kl has no isotropic behavior. Numerically, it is found that the flame spread rate decreases with either increasing ksx or ksy. The decrease with respect to ksy is less than for a comparable case described by the de Ris formula for an isotropic pure solid. The flame spread rate is more accurately determined by an analytical formula derived for spread across a melting solid fuel.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0423
Raúl Ochoterena, Maria Hjohlman, Michael Försth
Abstract Fires in the engine compartments of surface and underground non-rail heavy duty vehicles are still highly frequent. Statistics show that most of the reported fires commenced in the engine compartment and that these were not promptly detected by the drivers. Fires which were not detected rapidly, spread oftentimes beyond the firewall of the engine compartment having notorious economical and environmental repercussions; furthermore, endangering the safety of the occupants. Detecting fires in the engine compartments of heavy duty (HD) vehicles with inexpensive and simple automatic detection systems is in general challenging. High air flows and large amounts of suspended pollutants, together with the complicated geometry and wide range of surface temperatures typically occurring during the normal operation of the vehicle, complicate the reliable operation of almost all types of detectors.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0426
Jeff D. Colwell
Abstract Results from a full-scale vehicle burn test involving a 1998 compact passenger car were used to evaluate vehicle fire dynamics and how burn patterns produced during the fire correlated with important characteristics of the fire, such as the area of origin. After the fire was initiated at the air filter in the engine compartment, the fire spread locally and, once the temperature near the origin reached about 750°C, the temperature at all but one location within the engine compartment began to increase. These temperatures continued to increase for the next 6 minutes and then a temperature gradient began to develop in the passenger compartment between the ceiling and the floor. About 5 minutes after the engine compartment became fully involved, the ceiling temperature reached about 590°C and flame spread within the passenger compartment increased. Over the next 4 minutes, the passenger compartment also became fully involved.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0421
Yohsuke Tamura, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Noriaki Ohtsuka, Kenji Sato
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0422
Lothar Seybold, Bryan Styles, Ioannis Lazaridis, Hans-Joerg Kneusels
The European Commission (EC) as well as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published legislations to regulate or encourage the use of low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants applied to Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) systems. Europe mandates a GWP less than 150 of MAC refrigerants for new vehicle types. The thermodynamic refrigerant properties of R-1234yf are slightly different from the properties of R-134a, currently used in MAC systems. Although the basic material data show that R-1234yf is flammable, ignition tests performed for an automotive engine under-hood environment reveal design and packaging influences of its ignition behavior. After extensive collaborative research in 2009, the Society of Automotive Engineers Cooperative Research Team (SAE CRP1234) concluded that R-1234yf is suitable for use in automotive applications. Further ignition risk assessment regarding R-1234yf usage in MAC systems was done by SAE CRP1234-4 in 2013.
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