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Viewing 1 to 30 of 473
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2039
Prashant S. Vadgaonkar, Ullas Janardhan
Avionics industry is moving towards fly-by wire aircrafts with less reliance on mechanical systems leading to increase in the complexity of in-flight hardware elements. RTCA/DO-254 and EUROCAE ED-80 plays a vital role in the design assurance of airborne electronic hardware. RTCA/ DO-254 and EUROCAE ED-80 are the industry standards for Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware. The two different agencies FAA and EU regulate and apply this design assurance guidance to the regulatory law in CFR and EASA CS respectively. This paper discusses the need for DO-254 /ED-80 certification in Aerospace industry, the advantages and benefits to the avionics manufacturers. The paper presents the study made on similarities and differences between DO-254/ED-80.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0031
Wenxu Niu, Ke Song, Yucheng He, Tong Zhang
Abstract X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a new validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. With XiL platform the requirements of reproducible test, optimization and validation, in which hardware, equipment and test objects are located in different places, could be realized. In the view of different location and communication form of hardware, equipment and test objects, time delay problem exists in the XiL platform, which could have a negative impact on development and validation process. In this paper, a simulation system of time delay prediction and compensation is founded with the help of BP neural network and RBF neural network. With this simulation system the effect of time delay in a vehicle dynamic model as well as tests of geographically distributed vehicle powertrain system is improved during the validation process.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2416
Charles E. Oberly, Michelle Bash, Benjamin R. Razidlo, Travis E. Michalak, Fernando Rodriguez
Abstract An IPTMS hardware facility has been established in the laboratories of the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Paterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This hardware capability was established to analyze the transient behavior of a high power Electrical Power System (EPS) coupled virtually to a Thermal Management System (TMS) under fast dynamic loading conditions. The system incorporates the use of dynamic electrical load, engine emulation, energy storage, and emulated thermal loads operated to investigate dynamics under step load conditions. Hardware architecture and control options for the IPTMS are discussed. This paper summarizes the IPTMS laboratory demonstration system, its capabilities, and preliminary test results.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2453
Danilo Andreoli, Mario Cassaro, Manuela Battipede, Goodarz Ahmadi, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0352
Rahul Shashikant Patil
Abstract The tailgate is the fifth or the rearmost door of an SUV (Sports Utility Vehicle)[1]. It can be side opening or top opening. It is attached to the BIW (Body In White) with two hinge arrangement. The hinges are designed to take the cantilever load of a normal side opening tailgate along with the passenger ingress/egress load. This means that apart from the doors own weight, the hinges have to take the extra load which a passenger exerts on it by resting his/her forehand on the handle. The hinges are designed to take these loads and under normal circumstances, they do not fail for acceptable number of cycles of opening and closing of the tailgate. But in case of an armored vehicle side opening tailgate, it is quite a challenge for the normal hinges to take the heavy load of the tailgate along with passenger ingress / egress load. The normal hinges (Refer figure-1) obviously fail under such heavy loads either in their design or material configuration.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0363
Sangil Kim, Seungwoo Seo, ChungHwa Jung, SeungHyun Baek, ChangGi Ha, KiRyun Ahn, MunBae Tak
Abstract Recently, the demand for improving the merchantability of hood open system has been increasing. A novel concept hood open system was proposed by Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in 2012, which was based on a two-step open latch mechanism. The new hood opening mechanism satisfies Safety laws and improves merchantability.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0190
Kamil Svancara, John Priddy, Tomislav Lovric, Joseph D. Miller, Maciej Kudanowski, William J. Forbes
Two methods are allowed in ISO 26262-5 for hardware analysis of random hardware failures. The 1st method is called “Evaluation of Probabilistic Metric for random Hardware Failures”. The 2nd method is called “Evaluation of each cause of safety goal violation”. Advantages of the 2nd method during development of ASIL D Generation 3 Electric Power Steering are presented in this paper. A reliability analysis is one of the important prerequisite for the hardware analysis and this paper shows the best practice for hardware part failure rate estimation using industry standards such as IEC TR 62380. The equally important focus is on a diagnostic coverage of each safety mechanism with respect to residual faults and with respect to relevant dual/latent point faults because any safety design can either benefit from low failure rates or from high diagnostic coverage of safety mechanism to mitigate faults. FMEA is highly recommended by ISO 26262-5 as a part of hardware analysis.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3140
Vincent Rossignol
Historically, the majority of avionics display manufacturers have sought custom solutions to support the development of cockpit displays, head-up displays and other avionics on-board and ground displays, from specification through to target. This was however a decision borne out necessity rather than choice since the inherent wisdom of a ‘commercial-off-the-shelf’ (COTS) approach had been understood and demonstrated in other parallel domains for some time. So, with this in mind, why was a more costly custom approach selected?
2009-11-10
Technical Paper
2009-01-3178
Imad Khazali, Marc-André Boulais, Phil Cole
AFDX is gaining traction all over the avionics market, and even in some surprising areas outside of avionics, because it offers adopters the advantages of Ethernet network connectivity and bandwidth that they have been waiting to make use of for many years. This paper will begin by outlining some basic principles of AFDX versus standard Ethernet and explaining why it is such an important standard with respect to providing the inherent safety and security mechanisms that the avionics community requires. It will then discuss AFDX end system implementation options by contrasting many of the most common arguments for and against the implementation of an end system AFDX stack in software versus hardware. This paper will go on to provide some insight by examining a real software AFDX end system implementation and will provide some insight on performance and throughput.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3274
James A. Robles
The Systems Engineering Relationship between Qualification, Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), and Reliability is often poorly understood: as a consequence resources are expended on efforts that degrade inherent hardware reliability and vitiate reliability predictions. This article expatiates on the Systems Engineering relationship between Qualification and ESS, and how their proper application enhances inherent reliability and supports credible reliability predictions. Examples of how their uninformed application degrades inherent hardware reliability and vitiates reliability predictions, and how program/equipment managers can avoid this, are presented.
2009-11-10
Journal Article
2009-01-3263
Gopal Raghav, Swaminathan Gopalswamy
Cyber-physical systems consisting of networks of interacting systems are often developed by distributed teams in a production environment. Processes, tools and work products supporting development of cyber-physical systems are continuously evolving through the different design phases. A growing trend to manage the development process has been the use of model-based development approaches. However, these approaches primarily use behavioral models to represent complex systems, rendering them inadequate to address collaborative and non-functional program requirements. This paper discusses an architecture-driven process that can address the challenges posed during the development of cyber-physical systems. Two key enabling technologies – the SAE AADL (Architecture Analysis and Design Language) and the IME (Integrated Modeling Environment) are leveraged in this process.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0066
Mauro C. Andreassa, João R. Tiusso
Experience shows that when a Electrical & Electronic concern is identified in final assembly in automotive application, the failure analysis is expensive and major time consuming to determine the real root cause tracing components, subsystems, computer software or even a combination of them. This paper discusses typical failure mechanisms for hardware — Electrical Over-Stress (EOS), electrical static discharge (ESD) and computer software catastrophic events. Avoidance of failures in software is inextricably linked to failures in the hardware (sensors and actuators). Finally, practical examples are given to illustrate how small changes can cause big incidents.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2355
Greg Diderich, Chris Matty
During International Space Station (ISS) campout protocol extravehicular activity preparations, the crew is isolated overnight in a small airlock volume in a reduced-pressure, oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Special software considerations must therefore be taken into account in terms of air composition, pressure control, and emergency responses. First, the ISS software must monitor and manage two distinct atmospheres. The small airlock volume is also especially sensitive to small environmental changes, so what would be a minor emergency in the larger vehicle volume can have catastrophic results in the isolated airlock. Finally, in cases of emergency, the crew would need to rapidly egress the airlock, which would require an aggressive automatic repressurization to equalize pressure on the hatch. This paper describes the software that is modified for the airlock campout protocol.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2446
Clinton Balmain, Mark Fleming
In spaceflight operations, the training a crewmember receives on responding to onboard emergencies is of utmost importance. In a high-stress, high-adrenaline situation, crewmembers will have to rely heavily on the training they have received to properly execute the correct procedural response. Working within multiple constraints, NASA instructors have developed and continuously fine-tuned the emergency response training in an effort to make it both as efficient and effective as possible.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0617
Adrian Brdarski, Justin Kern, David Woldring, Hakan Yilmaz, Mark Christie, Klaus Müller-Haas
High technology, spark ignition direct injection (SIDI), engines are currently capable of achieving optimum horsepower and ULEV emissions levels. However, to meet the requirements of modern automotive powertrains, the task of increasing power density, improving fuel economy and reaching SULEV2 emissions is much more challenging. To achieve this, direct injection (DI) fuel systems offer the greatest precision and flexibility for engine fuel control. Features like high pressure start and improved catalyst heating, through multiple injections per combustion cycle, produce low engine-out emissions without the need for a secondary air injection system. This paper describes the analytical and experimental work done to achieve SULEV emissions levels for a twin-turbocharged derivative of General Motors (GM) high feature V6 engine.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0040
R. H. Somashekhar
The speed of innovations and pressure for reducing cost has forced automotive industry to move towards standardization. This standardization enhances the ease and success of Global Product Development (GPD) from a technology viewpoint. However, for overall success, an effective process model shall, additionally, support GPD. The process needs of the present day GPD programmes and more so the future ones, heavily, challenge the prevalent process maturity models. This paper presents a process framework that can be adapted by the industry to achieve industry-wide process maturity for GPD.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3805
Ken Stevens, Travis Siegfried
Abstract Virtualization technologies have been used to improve the efficiency of operating and managing IT environments. Many of the benefits of using virtualization technologies for IT can be realized by applying these technologies in the Embedded Systems Lifecycle Management (ESLM) solution for aerospace and automotive electronic and mechatronic systems. Furthermore, benefits of virtualization of embedded systems can be realized in the future once distributed embedded systems mature to the point of becoming an even more highly integrated and shared network of resources as IT environments are today. Virtualization technologies can be applied not only to the optimization of aerospace and automotive mechatronic and control systems designs, but also to improving the quality of requirements validation and testing of these systems.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3223
James F. Russell, Robyn L. Carrasquillo
Spacecraft hardware trade studies compare options primarily on mass while considering impacts to cost, risk, and schedule. Historically, other factors have been considered in these studies, such as reliability, technology readiness level (TRL), volume and crew time. In most cases, past trades compared two or more technologies across functional and TRL boundaries, which is an uneven comparison of the technologies. For example, low TRL technologies with low mass were traded directly against flight-proven hardware without consideration for requirements and the derived architecture. To provide for even comparisons of spacecraft hardware, trades need to consider functionality, mission constraints, integer vs. real number of flight hardware units, and mass growth allowances by TRL.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0833
Stamat Stamatov, Mohan Krishnan, Sandra A Yost
Real time dynamic simulation of mechanisms with kinematically closed loops requires solving systems of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAE). Examples of such mechanisms are racing car suspensions and certain robotic arms. Simulating such systems in real time requires significant computational power. This paper explores an alternative approach in an attempt to minimize computational effort. A hybrid, two-step approach is employed of first applying symbolic math methods followed by numerical simulation. Explored is the possibility of optimizing formulae and precalculating coefficients to speed up real time simulation. Quasi-linearization is suggested as a method of solving and simulating nonlinear DAE in real time. The equations of motion are linearized in every point of the state space. The result is a system of linear ordinary differential equations with varying coefficients.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-21-0019
Helmut Fennel, Stefan Bunzel, Harald Heinecke, Jürgen Bielefeld, Simon Fürst, Klaus-Peter Schnelle, Walter Grote, Nico Maldener, Thomas Weber, Florian Wohlgemuth, Jens Ruh, Lennart Lundh, Tomas Sandén, Peter Heitkämper, Robert Rimkus, Jean Leflour, Alain Gilberg, Ulrich Virnich, Stefan Voget, Kenji Nishikawa, Kazuhiro Kajio, Klaus Lange, Thomas Scharnhorst, Bernd Kunkel
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
2006-09-12
Technical Paper
2006-01-3120
Len Reid
Typical aerospace hardware and fittings; especially those that penetrate bulkheads, are usually large and heavily flanged, requiring a thick or large diameter pad-up around the penetration hole. The assembly is often complex with multiple holes to accept satellite fasteners to attach the fitting to the structure. This process adds weight to the structure, limits design flexibility, is labor intensive and often time consuming to install. This paper introduces an innovative method of installing aerospace fittings and hardware using proven cold expansion technology. This advanced bulkhead fitting system provides a fast and robust installation process that reduces both cost and assembly complexity compared to traditional methods, while providing a lighter weight installation, increased structural design options and improved fatigue life.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2280
Daniel H. Nguyen, Joshua Abel, Christine Cottingham, Joe Mandi, Jong Kadesch
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 and has undergone several Servicing Missions that have replaced and repaired various scientific and support hardware. As preparations begin for Servicing Mission Four (SM4) in 2008 and the life extension activities that follow, the Telescope Thermal Math Model (TMM) has been improved using the latest thermal analysis software and techniques. Several efforts have been made to improve the HST system-level TMM since launch. A brief history of the major model updates, as well as the motivation behind the changes has been provided. The current improvements have provided the HST systems-level TMM a greater level of detail, while making model control more user-friendly and the results easier to verify. Several modeling techniques useful for spacecraft thermal design and operations support are discussed.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0481
Richard S. Stroud
Surround sound provided by stereo and 5.1 systems may not be satisfying all its listeners. Whether in the automobile or in the home, customers complain of “nothing from the rear speakers”, or about the sound “not filing the room”, etc. While 5.1 systems promise more surround, the economics of music production and concerns of music professionals are likely causing stereo to dominate production resources and causing 5.1 mixes to miss their full potential. The author believes that post-processing electronic and acoustic manipulation can produce sound that customers will prefer. A controlled experiment was performed which compared reference stereo and surround systems to ones augmented by extra surround equipment.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0170
Everett Lumpkin, Michael Gabrick
In today's extremely competitive, technically challenging and cost sensitive market place, the design process must be reviewed to shorten the design time and remove the expenses associated with building engineering development controllers. Embedded system software is steadily increasing in size and sophistication, as well as the complexity of the hardware and environmental interfaces which adversely impacts the Embedded Control Unit (ECU) time-to-market and quality. To remedy the increasing complexity, the trade-offs between software and hardware can now be investigated via concurrent development early in the design cycle. Virtual systems provide a method to evaluate the interaction of microprocessors, memories, peripheral devices as well as software prior to hardware realization. This paper discusses and demonstrates the productivity improvements that can be realized using new virtual system design tools and methodologies to enhance the traditional design process.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1556
Rafael Zalman, Tobias Wenzel, Dian Tresna Nugraha, Birundha Damodharan
In modern automotive systems, the complexity is growing by incorporating highly sophisticated microcontrollers running with more than 100MHz and consisting of more than 2500 registers. Software complexity is also growing in a similar, if not higher, rate. As semiconductor suppliers are also expected by their customers to include a hardware-dependent software layer in their products, testing must now include not only the hardware product but the delivery bundle of hardware and software modules. Testing this hardware-dependent software is complicated by the big amount of possible hardware-dependent configurations for this software layer which also extensively change the hardware test bench used in verification. The challenge of configuration complexity is solved by extensive use of test automation for both software generation, test bench configuration and test case runs.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1444
Anant Wanpal, M. Ganesh Babu, Nilesh Kankariya, Keshav Mundhra, S. A. Sundaresan, Amit S. Deshpande
This paper discusses the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) system based test facility at TATA Motors used for engine controller testing. This test platform was built to test embedded software and the control units for vehicle programs. The platform is also targeted at other applications such as development of new control algorithms, and for training engineers. The HIL system was set up using Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) components and Emmeskay's Model based Vehicle Engineering (MoVE) architecture and component models in Simulink®. The system was set-up and validated in a short duration using a sequence of well-defined phases.
2005-10-23
Technical Paper
2005-26-310
Rajesh Purohit, Rakesh Sagar
Aluminum matrix composites are finding increased application in automotive, aircraft and aerospace industries and hold the greatest promise for the future growth. In the present work an attempt has been made to access the opportunity for Al-SiCp composites as an alternative material for the poppet valve guides. The finite element analysis of the Al-SiCp composite poppet valve guide was done using Ansys software. The temperature, principal stress and principal strain distribution over the entire surface of the poppet valve guide were obtained. The stresses were found to be well below the allowable stress for the Al-SiCp composites.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2744
Renee Rogge, Amanda Chappell, Sudhakar Rajulu
Three-dimensional whole body scan data from a single static pose of a subject was processed to create a three-dimensional whole body surface model for anthropometric and biomechanical evaluation of space hardware. While this static surface model had benefits over traditional anthropometric measurements, the single scanned posture was not an ideal pose for evaluating the biomechanical requirements of specific tasks. Therefore, the ability to reposition the whole body surface data into various postures without sacrificing the integrity of kinematic parameters (such as segment lengths, widths, depths, etc) was required. The surface data for the upper extremities has been successfully repositioned using a technique that combines thin-plate spline theory and a kinematic model. The accuracy of this technique is being validated by creating representative models of cross-sections near each joint and performing an analysis of the shape and position of each section.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1044
Mark D. Robison
Ongoing hardware, software, and networking advances in low-cost, general-purpose computing platforms have opened the door for powerful, highly usable, integrated test platforms for demanding industrial applications. With a focus on the automotive industry, this paper reviews the pros and cons of integrated test platforms versus single-purpose and stand-alone testers. Potential improvements in in-process testing are discussed along with techniques for effectively using such testing to improve daily production quality, to maintain high production rates, to avoid unplanned downtime, and to facilitate process and product improvements and refinements through the use of monitoring, data collection, and analysis tools.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1317
George Saikalis, Shigeru Oho, Andrew Wabnitz
In the past few years, the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity have amplified the need for graphical programming and automatic generation of controller software. This paper discusses the implementation of graphical code generation in the context of a fully automated calibratable system. Generally, controller parameters coarse tuning is done at the simulation level with a virtual plant and then fine-tuned when the code is downloaded onto the target controller. The tuning process is then based on trial and error approach relying on experienced calibrators to perform this tedious work. We are proposing an innovative concept that will automate the whole process of controller development. This process goes from the control algorithm code generation to the real-time calibration of the controller parameters on the actual target controller.
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