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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2460
Wenbin Liu, Qiang Song, Yiting Li, Wanbang Zhao
In this paper, a novel driver model is proposed to track vehicle speed in MIL (Model-in-the-Loop) test system, which has structural consistency with HIL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) test system. First, the MIL test system which contains models of driver, vehicle and test bench is established. Second, according to the connections of the established models in Matlab/Simulink environment, the vehicle speed is calculated in vehicle model. Emphatically, through the deviation between driving cycle speed and calculated vehicle speed, PI controller in driver model adjusts the vehicle speed to ideal point through sending the torque command to drive motor, the ILC (Iterative Learning Control) controller modifies and stores P value of PI controller. Then, in order to obtain the better modification of PI controller, iterative learning control algorithm is deeply researched in term of types and parameters.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1955
Yandong Ruan, Hui Chen, Jiancong Li
Abstract An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key components of an autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and efficiency. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1952
ChengJun Ma, Fang Li, Chenglin Liao, Lifang Wang
Abstract With the load of urban traffic system becomes more serious, the Automatic Parking System (APS) plays an important role in alleviating the burden of drivers and improving vehicle safety. The APS is consisted of environmental perception, path planning and path following. The path following controls the lateral movement of vehicle during the parking process, and requires the trajectory tracking error to be as small as possible. At present, some control algorithms are used including PID control, pure pursuit control, etc. However, these algorithms relying heavily on parameters and environment, have some problems such as slow response and low precision. To solve this problem, a path following control method based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Kinematic vehicle model and path tracker based on MPC algorithm are built. Secondly, a test bench that composed of CANoe hardware in the loop (HIL) system and steering wheel system is built.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1991
Adit Joshi
The automotive industry is heading towards the path of autonomy with the development of autonomous vehicles. An autonomous vehicle consists of two main components. The first is the software which is responsible for the decision-making capabilities of the system. The second is the hardware which encompasses all aspects of the physical vehicle which are responsible for vehicle motion such as the engine, brakes and steering subsystems along with their corresponding controls. This component forms the basis of the autonomous vehicle platform. For SAE Level 4 autonomous vehicles, where an automated driving system is responsible for all the dynamics driving tasks including the fallback driving performance in case of system faults, redundant mechanical systems and controls are required as part of the autonomous vehicle platform since the driver is completely out of the loop with respect to driving.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1994
Adit Joshi
The advancement towards development of autonomy follows either the bottom-up approach of gradually improving and expanding existing Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS) technology where the driver is present in the control loop or the top-down approach of directly developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV) hardware and software using alternative approaches without the driver present in the control loop. Most ADAS systems today fall under the classification of SAE Level 1 which is also referred to as the driver assistance level. The progression from SAE Level 1 to SAE Level 2 or partial automation involves the critical task of merging autonomous lateral control and autonomous longitudinal control such that the tasks of steering and acceleration/deceleration are not required to be handled by the driver under certain conditions [1].
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2034
Bailey Hall, Benjamin Palmer, Tyler Milburn, Luis Herrera, Bang Tsao, Joseph Weimer
Abstract Future aircraft will demand a significant amount of electrical power to drive primary flight control surfaces. The electrical system architecture needed to source these flight critical loads will have to be resilient, autonomous, and fast. Designing and ensuring that a power system architecture can meet the load requirements and provide power to the flight critical buses at all times is fundamental. In this paper, formal methods and linear temporal logic are used to develop a contactor control strategy to meet the given specifications. The resulting strategy is able to manage multiple contactors during different types of generator failures. In order to verify the feasibility of the control strategy, a real-time simulation platform is developed to simulate the electrical power system. The platform has the capability to test an external controller through Hardware in the Loop (HIL).
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2496
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Alessandro Vigliani, Mauro Velardocchia
Abstract Brake systems represent important components for passenger cars since they are strictly related to vehicle safety: Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are the most well-known examples. The paper is focused on the characterization of the braking hydraulic plant and on the design of a pressure following control strategy. This strategy is aimed at pursuing performances and/or comfort objectives beyond the typical safety task. The low-level logic (focus of the paper) consists of a Feedforward and Proportional Integral controller. A Hardware In the Loop (HIL) braking test bench is adopted for pressure controller validation by providing some realistic reference pressure histories evaluated by a high-level controller. Results prove that innovative control strategies can be applied to conventional braking systems for achieving targets not limited to braking issues, i.e., comfort or NVH tasks.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0401
Ye Yuan, Junzhi Zhang, Yutong Li, Chen Lv
Abstract As the essential of future driver assistance system, brake-by-wire system is capable of performing autonomous intervention to enhance vehicle safety significantly. Regenerative braking is the most effective technology of improving energy consumption of electrified vehicle. A novel brake-by-wire system scheme with integrated functions of active braking and regenerative braking, is proposed in this paper. Four pressure-difference-limit valves are added to conventional four-channel brake structure to fulfill more precise pressure modulation. Four independent isolating valves are adopted to cut off connections between brake pedal and wheel cylinders. Two stroke simulators are equipped to imitate conventional brake pedal feel. The operation principles of newly developed system are analyzed minutely according to different working modes. High fidelity models of subsystems are built in commercial software MATLAB and AMESim respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1677
Bharathi Krishnamoorthy, Jacob Eapen, Santosh kshirsagar, Giri Nammalwar, Torsten Wulf, Miguel Mancilla
Abstract Automotive industry is witnessing a significant growth in the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) and its features owing to the focused inclination towards customer preference, comfort, safety, environmental friendliness and governmental regulations. The software components are booming as the pivotal to cater to the technology-driven trends such as diverse mobility, autonomous driving, electrification, and connectivity. This necessitates exhaustive testing to ensure quality of the system as any unpredictable failures may impose severe financial and market risk on the OEM. The industry has largely supplemented Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing to manual testing considering the testing constraints posed by the latter. Automation trends complement the demand for quick yet exhaustive testing prior to the market launch.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1683
Adit Joshi
Software for autonomous vehicles is highly complex and requires vast amount of vehicle testing to achieve a certain level of confidence in safety, quality and reliability. According to the RAND Corporation, a 100 vehicle fleet running 24 hours a day 365 days a year at a speed of 40 km/hr, would require 17 billion driven kilometers of testing and take 518 years to fully validate the software with 95% confidence such that its failure rate would be 20% better than the current human driver fatality rate [1]. In order to reduce cost and time to accelerate autonomous software development, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used to supplement vehicle testing. For autonomous vehicles, path following controls are an integral part for achieving lateral control. Combining the aforementioned concepts, this paper focuses on a real-time implementation of a path-following lateral controller, developed by Freund and Mayr [2].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0005
Yun Liu, Sung-Kwon Hong, Tony Ge
Abstract Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0001
Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0896
Philip Griefnow, Jakob Andert, Dejan Jolovic
Abstract The range of tasks in automotive electrical system development has clearly grown and now includes goals such as achieving efficiency requirements and complying with continuously reducing CO2 limits. Improvements in the vehicle electrical system, hereinafter referred to as the power net, are mandatory to face the challenges of increasing electrical energy consumption, new comfort and assistance functions, and further electrification. Novel power net topologies with dual batteries and dual voltages promise a significant increase in efficiency with moderate technological and financial effort. Depending on the vehicle segment, either an extension of established 12 V micro-hybrid technologies or 48 V mild hybridization is possible. Both technologies have the potential to reduce fuel consumption by implementing advanced stop/start and sailing functionalities.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0284
Anand Subramaniam, Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand Deshpande
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0086
Tobias Gutjahr
Abstract Data-driven plant models are well established in engine base calibration to cope with the ever increasing complexity of today’s electronic control units (ECUs). The engine, drive train, or entire vehicle is replaced with a behavioral model learned from a provided training data set. The model is used for offline simulations and virtual calibration of ECU control parameters, but its application is often limited beyond these use cases. Depending on the underlying regression algorithm, limiting factors include computationally expensive calculations and a high memory demand. However, development and testing of new control strategies would benefit from the ability to execute such high fidelity plant models directly in real-time environments. For instance, map-based ECU functions could be replaced or enhanced by more accurate behavioral models, with the implementation of virtual sensors or online monitoring functions.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0235
Juliana Lima da Silva Lopes, Cleber Albert Moreira Marques, Genildo de Moura Vasconcelos, Rafael Barreto Vieira, Flavio Fabricio Ventura de Melo Ferreira, Marcelo Henrique Souza Bomfim
Abstract This paper approaches the use of machine vision as an automation tool for verification tests in automotive Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC). A computer integrated with PXI modular instruments, machine vision software and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) composes the test system. The IPC is verified in closed-loop using the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) technique in which the HiL system simulates all Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that interact with the IPC. Every simulated ECUs signals are sent to the IPC over CAN (Controller Area Network) bus or hardwired I/O using PXI modules integrated with IDE and its responses are captured by cameras. Using machine vision such images are subjected to Digital Image Processing (DIP) techniques as pattern matching, edge detection and Optical Character Recognition (OCR), which can be applied to interpret speedometer, tachometer, fuel gauges, display and warning lights.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0157
Paulo Augusto Mayer, Anderson Petronilho, André Tognolli, Fabio Santos Batista, Jamilton Vidal da Silva
Abstract The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition. The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design. In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2359
Khashayar Olia, Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola, Abdelwahed Sherif
Although the cost-saving and good environmental impacts are the benefits that make Electric Vehicles (EVs) popular, these advantages are significantly influenced by the cost of battery replacement over the vehicle lifetime. After several charging and discharging cycles, the battery is subjected to energy and power degradation which affects the performance and efficiency of the vehicle. In addition to battery replacement cost, the electricity cost being paid by drivers is another key factor in selecting the EVs. An Energy Management System (EMS) with Model Predictive Control-based (MPC) algorithm is presented for a specific case of heavy-duty EV. Such EV draws its energy from the grid via catenary in addition to the on-board battery. Dynamic model of the vehicle will be defined by State Space Equations (SSE).
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2224
Miriam Di Russo, Jerry Ku, Juan Briones Idrovo
Abstract This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8042
Danna Jiang, Ying Huang, Xiaoyi Song, Dechun Fu, Zhiquan Fu
Abstract This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8083
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Abstract Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8010
M. Kamel Salaani, David Mikesell, Chris Boday, Devin Elsasser
Abstract Field testing of Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) systems using real actual heavy trucks and buses is unavoidably limited by the dangers and expenses inherent in crash-imminent scenarios. For this paper, a heavy vehicle is defined as having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) that exceeds 4536 kg (10,000 lbs.). High fidelity Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation systems have the potential to enable safe and accurate laboratory testing and evaluation of heavy vehicle AEB systems. This paper describes the setup and experimental validation of such a HiL simulation system. An instrumented Volvo tractor-trailer equipped with a Bendix Wingman Advanced System, including the FLR20 forward looking radar and AEB system, was put through a battery of different types of track tests to benchmark the AEB performance.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8013
Marius Feilhauer, Juergen Haering, Sean Wyatt
Abstract The way to autonomous driving is closely connected to the capability of verifying and validating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), as it is one of the main challenges to achieve secure, reliable and thereby socially accepted self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle, and they are established in automotive industry. When validating ADAS using HiL test benches, engineers face different barriers and conceptual difficulties: How to pipe simulated signals into multiple sensors including radar, ultrasonic, video, or lidar? How to combine classical physical simulations, e.g. vehicle dynamics, with sophisticated three-dimensional, GPU-based environmental simulations? In this article, we present current approaches of how to master these challenges and provide guidance by showing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2042
Chad N. Miller, Michael Boyd
Abstract This paper introduces a method for conducting experimental hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL), in which behavioral-level models are coupled with an advanced power emulator (APE) to emulate an electrical load on a power generation system. The emulator is commanded by behavioral-level models running on an advanced real-time simulator that has the capability to leverage Central Processing Units (CPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to meet strict real-time execution requirements. The paper will be broken down into four topics: 1) the development of a solution to target behavioral-level models to an advanced, real-time simulation device, 2) the development of a high-bandwidth, high-power emulation capability, 3) the integration of the real-time simulation device and the APE, and 4) the application of the emulation system (simulator and emulator) in an xHIL experiment.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2028
Maher A. Hasan, Eric Walters, Michael Boyd, Jason Wells, Jon Zumberge, Chad Miller
Abstract Experimental Hardware-in-the-loop (xHIL) testing utilizing signal and/or power emulation imposes a hard real-time requirement on models of emulated subsystems, directly limiting their fidelity to what can be achieved in real-time on the available computational resources. Most real-time simulators are CPU-based, for which the overhead of an instruction-set architecture imposes a lower limit on the simulation step size, resulting in limited model bandwidth. For power-electronic systems with high-frequency switching, this limit often necessitates using average-value models, significantly reducing fidelity, in order to meet the real-time requirement. An alternative approach emerging recently is to use FPGAs as the computational platform, which, although offering orders-of-magnitudes faster execution due to their parallel architecture, they are more difficult to program and their limited fabric space bounds the size of models that can be simulated.
2016-09-14
Journal Article
2016-01-1892
Jiao Guo, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Shiqian Qi, Xin Li, Chenghao Wang, Jun Wang
Abstract The conventional radar modeling methods for automotive applications were either function-based or physics-based. The former approach was mainly abstracted as a solution of the intersection between geometric representations of radar beam and targets, while the latter one took radar detection mechanism into consideration by means of “ray tracing”. Although they each has its unique advantages, they were often unrealistic or time-consuming to meet actual simulation requirements. This paper presents a combined geometric and physical modeling method on millimeter-wave radar systems for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) modulation format under a 3D simulation environment. With the geometric approach, a link between the virtual radar and 3D environment is established. With the physical approach, on the other hand, the ideal target detection and measurement are contaminated with noise and clutters aimed to produce the signals as close to the real ones as possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0549
Hai Wu, Meng-Feng Li
Abstract A GT-Power Fast Run Model simplified from detail model for HIL is verified with a bench test using the dSPACE Simulator. Firstly, the conversion process from a detailed model to FRM model is briefly described. Then, the spark timing, fuel pulse with control for FAR, and torque level control are developed for proof of concept. Moreover a series of FRM/Simulink co-simulation and HIL tests are conducted. In the summary, the test results are presented and compared with GT detailed model simulations. The test results show that the FRM/dSPACE HIL stays consistent in most variables of interest under 0.7-0.9 real-time factor condition between 1000 - 5000 RPM. The same steady-state can be reached by RCP controllers or with GT-Power internal controllers. The transient states are close using different control algorithm. The main purpose of HIL application is achieved, despite inconsistencies in performance data like fuel consumption.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0572
Stephanie Stockar, Marcello Canova, Baitao Xiao, Wengang Dai, Julia Buckland
Abstract Engine downsizing, boosting, direct injection and variable valve actuation, have become industry standards for reducing CO2 emissions in current production vehicles. Because of the increasing complexity of the engine air path system and the high number of degrees of freedom for engine charge management, the design of air path control algorithms has become a difficult and time consuming process. One possibility to reduce the control development time is offered by Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) or Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation methods. However, it is significantly challenging to identify engine air path system simulation models that offer the right balance between fidelity, mathematical complexity and computational burden for SIL or HIL implementation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0328
Scott Curran, Paul Chambon, Randall Lind, Lonnie Love, Robert Wagner, Steven Whitted, David Smith, Brian Post, Ronald Graves, Craig Blue, Johney Green, Martin Keller
Abstract Rapid vehicle powertrain development has become a technological breakthrough for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer. Recently, advances in large scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop with preproduction mule chassis testing. This paper details a case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridging the powertrain-in-the-loop development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). For this case study, the use of a component-in-the-loop laboratory with math-based models is detailed for the design of a battery electric powertrain to be implemented in a printed prototype mule. The ability for BAAM to accelerate the mule development process via the concept of computer-aided design to part is explored.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0052
Jihas Khan
Abstract HILS is a proven and essential part of the embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which is made to believe that it is sitting inside a real vehicle and there by the intended functionalities implemented in the same could be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. An inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which could lead to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which validates that the test system designed is robust and caters to the actual requirement. The Design stage starts by a requirement gathering phase where the analysis of the device under test is executed in detail.
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