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Viewing 1 to 30 of 389
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1306
Michael Ulizio, DeWitt Lampman, Mukesh Rustagi, Jason Skeen, Chester Walawender
Abstract Automotive manufacturers are requiring lightweight materials, including glazing materials to improve vehicle fuel economy mandates. Since windshields are one of the largest glazing surface areas, reducing the thickness of the glass in its construction can significantly provide weight savings opportunities. Automotive glazing design considerations must include overall glass strength, rigidity, acoustical, and solar performance, which are affected by changes of glass thicknesses. This paper will evaluate those design considerations in the lightweighting of windshield glazings. One important design consideration for the windshield position is the impact of debris from the environment. Lightweighting of glazings in this body position affects the way the construction reacts to an impact. Use of asymmetry in glass plies in a laminated construction can have a marked effect on the part’s impact performance and surface damage creation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0184
Miyoko Oiwake, Ozeki Yoshiichi, Sogo Obata, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components for hybrid electric vehicles, understanding the effect of their structure and thermal performance on their fuel consumption and cruising distance is essential. However, this essential information is generally not available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. In this report, following a previous study of electric vehicles, a simple method is proposed as the first step to estimate the algorithm of the energy transmission and then the cruising performance for hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed method estimates the cruising performance using only the published information given to suppliers, who, in general, are not supplied with more detailed information. Further, an actual case study demonstrating application of the proposed method is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0443
Yong Hyun Nam, Gwansik Yoon
Abstract Significant effort has been expended to improve the sound made by a closing car door. This study focuses on reducing door glass rattle sounds, not only evaluating the rattle influence of door glass support but also introducing an approach to reduce glass rattle noise by using sealing components. The first part of the study is dedicated to minimizing vibration. A jig is constructed to evaluate the influence of a door glass support on the rattling. The jig is employed so that the glass meshing between the A and B pillars can be controlled; the glass holder moves in the x- and z-directions and the belt molding moves in the y-direction. An impact hammer test was adopted for investigating door glass rattle. The frequency response obtained via impact hammer testing is analyzed by varying the glass support points and important factors that should be considered in early design stages are obtained. The second study is about optimizing vibration absorption.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0262
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Koundinya Narasimha Kota, Prasad Joshi
Abstract The structure of a vehicle is capable of absorbing a significant amount of heat when exposed to hot climate conditions. 50-70% of this heat penetrates through the glazing and raises both the internal cabin air temperature and the interior trim surface temperature. When driving away, the air conditioning system has to be capable of removing this heat in a timely manner, such that the occupant’s time to comfort will be achieved in an acceptable period [1]. When we reduce the amount of heat absorbed, the discomfort in the cabin can be reduced. A 1D/3D based integrated computational methodology is developed to evaluate the impact of vehicle orientation on cabin climate control system performance and human comfort in this paper. Additionally, effects of glazing material and blinds opening/closing are analyzed to access the occupant thermal comfort during initial and final time AC pull down test.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0024
Daisuke Sugio, Shinpei Okazaki, Mitsuo Kaneko
Abstract Glass fiber reinforced plastic of polyamide is applied as one of the materials used for the high strength exterior parts of a motorcycle, such as a rear grab rail or a carrier, to which both strength and good exterior appearance are required. However, Glass Fiber reinforced Polypropylene (PPGF), which is relatively inexpensive material, has a property that the contained glass fibers are prone to be exposed at the surface and, therefore, the requirements for good appearance are hardly met by using PPGF. In this study, Heat and Cool molding method (H&C molding) was employed to realize a cost reduction by using PPGF yet without applying painting process, and the established method was applied to mass production while fulfilling the requirements for a good exterior appearance. In H&C molding, the metal molds are heated up by steam and cooled down by water after molding.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1830
Denis Blanchet, Luca Alimonti, Anton Golota
Abstract This paper presents new advances in predicting wind noise contribution to interior SPL in the framework of the Wind Noise German Working Group composed of Audi, Daimler, Porsche and VW. In particular, a new approach was developed that allows to fully describe the wind noise source using CFD generated surface pressure distribution and its cross-correlation function and apply this source on an SEA side glass. This new method removes the need to use a diffuse acoustic field or several plane waves with various incidence angle to approximate the correct acoustics source character to apply on the SEA side glass. This new approach results are compared with results previously published which use more deterministic methods to represent the side glass and the interior of a vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0246
Rupesh Sonu Kakade, Prashant Mer
Abstract Vehicle occupants, unlike building occupants, are exposed to continuously varying, non-uniform solar heat load. Automotive manufacturers use photovoltaic cells based solar sensor to measure intensity and direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Use of the time of the day and the position - latitude and longitude - of a vehicle is also common to calculate direction of the direct-beam solar radiation. Two angles - azimuth and elevation - are used to completely define the direction of solar radiation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system. Although the use of solar sensor is common in today’s vehicles, the solar heat load on the occupants, because of their exposure to the direct-beam solar radiation remains the area of in-car subjective evaluation and tuning. Since the solar rays travel in parallel paths, application of the ray tracing method to determine solar insolation of the vehicle occupants is possible.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0379
Gilles Robert, Olivier Moulinjeune, Benoit Bidaine
Abstract Short glass fiber reinforced polyamides (SFRPs) are a choice material for automotive industry, especially for in the engine compartment. To develop their application field to more and more complex hydrothermal and mechanical environments, reliable or even predictive simulation technologies are necessary. Integrative simulation takes into account the forming process during final Finite Elements Analysis (FEA). For SFRPs, injection molding is taken into account by computing glass fibers orientation. It is further used to compute a specific anisotropic constitutive model on each integration point of FEA model. A wide variety of models is now available. Integrative simulation using Digimat has been proved very efficient for static and dynamic loadings.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0260
Yoshiichi Ozeki, Hideaki Nagano, Itsuhei Kohri
Abstract In order to develop various parts and components of electric vehicles, understanding the effects of their structures and thermal performance on the energy consumption and cruising distance is important. However, such essential and detailed information is generally not always available to suppliers of vehicle parts and components. This paper presents the development of a simple model of the energy consumption by an electric vehicle in order to roughly calculate the cruising performance based only on the published information to give to suppliers, who otherwise cannot obtain the necessary information. The method can calculate the cruising distance within an error of 4% compared to the published information. The effects of the glass and body heat transfer characteristics on the cruising performance in winter were considered as an example application of the proposed model.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0373
Mohammadreza Eftekhari, Ali Fatemi, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh
Abstract An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the variable amplitude fatigue behavior of a neat polymer (polypropylene impact co-polymer) and a polymer composite made of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) with 30 wt% short glass fibers. Fatigue tests were conducted on un-notched and notched specimens at room temperatures. Plate-type specimens were prepared in the transverse direction with respect to the injection mold flow direction and a circular hole was drilled in the center of notched specimens. Two-step loadings (high-low and low-high) tests at two damage ratio of 0.2 and 0.5 at stress ratios of R = 0.1 and -1 were conducted to investigate load sequence effects and prediction accuracy of the linear damage rule. Different behaviors were observed for unreinforced and short glass fiber reinforced polymers under the two-step loading tests.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1401
Thomas M. Cleary, Timothy Huten, Daniel Strong, Chester S. Walawender
Abstract The use of lightweight materials to produce automotive glazing is being pursued by vehicle manufacturers in an effort to improve fuel economy. As glazing’s become thinner, reduced rigidity means that the critical flaw size needed to create fracture becomes much smaller due to increased strain under load or impact. This paper documents experiments focused on the impact performance of several alternative thin laminate constructions under consideration for windshield applications (including conventional annealed soda-lime glass as well as laminates utilizing chemically strengthened glass), for the purpose of identifying new and unique failure modes that result from thickness reduction. Regulatory impact tests and experiments that focused on functional performance of laminates were conducted. Given the increased sensitivity to flaw size for thin laminates, controlled surface damage was introduced to parts prior to conducting the functional performance tests.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0388
Abhijeet Pandey, Mohit Kr. Singhal, John Kovacich, Christopher Rau
Abstract In amorphous solids such as fused quartz, the failure mechanism under cyclic loading is very different when compared to metals where this failure is attributable to dislocation movement and eventual slip band activity. Standard mechanical fatigue prediction methodologies, S-N or ε-N based, which have been historically developed for metals are rendered inapplicable for this class of material. The fatigue strength of Fused Silica or Fused Quartz (SiO2) material is known to be highly dependent on the stressed area and the surface finish. Stable crack growth in Region II of the V-K curve (Crack growth rate vs Stress intensity factor) is dependent on the competing and transitional effects of temperature and humidity, along that specific section of the stress intensity factor abscissa. Fused glass (under harsh environment conditions) finds usage in Automotive, Marine and Aerospace applications, where stress and load (both static and cyclic) can be severe.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2301
Maxwell Hill, Dan Luo, Mark Moeller
Abstract Wind noise can be a significant event for automotive design engineers. The greenhouse glass plays an important role in the wind noise process. Robust estimates of the greenhouse glass damping are necessary for both understanding and modeling the role of the glass in the wind noise process. One unanswered question is whether the aerodynamic loads affect the window glass damping. To make this determination a method to assess the operational damping is required. The civil engineering community uses the random decrement technique to assess operational damping due to wind loads. The random decrement technique has been shown to be a normalized autocorrelation function. In this paper the damping is estimated directly from the autocorrelation function. In the first section the relationship between the damping and autocorrelation function is examined for white noise excitation. A single oscillator is examined as the first case. Extension to higher modal densities is discussed.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2325
P. Bremner, C. Todter, S. Clifton
Abstract The authors report on the design and application of a high resolution micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) microphone array for automotive wind noise engineering. The array integrates both sensors and random access memory (RAM) chips on a flexible circuit board that eliminates high channel count wiring and allows the array to be deployed on automobile surfaces in a convenient “stick-on/peel-off” configuration. These arrays have potential application to the quantitative evaluation of interior wind noise from measurements on a clay model in the wind tunnel, when used in conjunction with a body vibro-acoustic model. The array also provides a high resolution turbulence measurement tool, suitable for validation of computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wind noise. The authors' report on the wavenumber-frequency structure of flow turbulence measured in different flow regions on a side glass and the corresponding contributions to interior wind noise.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0709
Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yibing Li
Abstract Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film and SentryGlas® Plus (SGP) film have been widely used in automotive windshield and architecture curtain serving as protective interlayer materials. Viscoelasticity is the unique property of such film materials, which can contribute to improving impact resistance and energy absorbing characteristics of laminated glass. In this study, the uniaxial tensile creep and stress relaxation tests are conducted to investigate the viscoelasticity of PVB and SGP films used in laminated glass. Firstly, tensile creep and stress relaxation tests of PVB film (0.76mm) and SGP film with three thickness (0.89mm, 1.14mm and 1.52mm) are conducted using Instron universal testing machine to obtain creep and stress relaxation curves. Afterwards, both viscoelastic models (Burgers model, Maxwell-Weichert model) and empirical equations (Findley power law, Kohlrausch equation) are applied to simulate the creep and stress relaxation results.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1376
Thomas Leonhard, Thomas Cleary, Michael Moore, Shane Seyler, W Keith Fisher
Abstract This paper proposes a novel concept for lightweight vehicle design, offering a step change in weight reduction for automotive glazing. Reducing window weight can be achieved by decreasing the thickness of the glass plies used to form vehicle windows. However, reducing the thickness of conventional automotive windows also decreases its effective strength; therefore, concerns about glass breakage become a limiting factor for weight reduction. Chemically strengthened ultrathin Corning® Gorilla® Glass offers the potential to go beyond existing thickness limitations. Its higher strength compared to standard soda lime window glass allows the design of thin, low weight window constructions. In addition, its unique manufacturing process delivers pristine glass surfaces and precise thickness control for high quality window optics. While this concept can be applied to all vehicle openings, this study focuses on automotive windshield design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1427
Jay Przybyla, Jason Jupe, Thomas Rush, Rachel Keller
Abstract Vehicles involved in rollover crashes can leave debris trails which can include glass from broken windows. The glass patterns can be useful to identify the vehicles path during the rollover and the location and orientation of the vehicle at various vehicle-to-ground impacts. The location of glass, which is often window specific, can be used to identify where the window fractured during the rollover sequence. The longevity of the glass debris fields, subject to various real-world conditions and disturbances (i.e. slope, weather, mowing, soil type, etc.), was tested over a period of two years. The glass debris fields were placed and mapped in multiple locations across the United States. Periodically during each year, the glass debris fields were examined and the new field extents were mapped. The comparison between the original debris field and the subsequent debris fields are presented.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0546
Seyyedvahid Mortazavian, Ali Fatemi, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh
Abstract An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of water absorption on tensile and fatigue behaviors of an impact-modified short glass fiber polyamide-6 and a short glass fiber polybutylene terephthalate. Specimens were prepared in the longitudinal and transverse directions with respect to the injection mold flow direction and immersed in water. Kinetics of water absorption was studied and found to follow the Fick's law. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature with specimens in the longitudinal and transverse directions and with various degrees of water absorption. Mathematical relations were developed to represent tensile properties as a function of water content. Load-controlled tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted in both longitudinal and transverse directions and correlations between tensile and fatigue strengths were obtained.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1049
Danielle Zeng, Cedric Xia, Jeffrey Webb, Li Lu, Yuan Gan, Xianjun Sun, John Lasecki
Abstract Long glass fiber reinforced (LGFR) composites have been widely used in automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and maintain relatively high mechanical performances. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of fiber orientations varies at different locations and through the panel thickness, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties. The current practice of computer modeling of these materials is generally using isotropic properties adjusted by a certain scale factor. The effect of fiber orientation is not carefully considered due to the complexity of fiber orientation distribution in the LGFR parts. The purpose of this paper is to identify key factors affecting vehicle attribute performances where LGFR composites are used; and provide an efficient way for accurate CAE modeling of LGFR composites. In this study, tensile coupons cut from a simple geometric injection molded plaque are tested.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0417
M. Ray Fairchild, Ralph Taylor, Carl Berlin, Celine Wong, Beihai Ma, U. (Balu) Balachandran
Abstract The propulsion system in most Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) requires an internal combustion engine in combination with an alternating current (AC) electric motor. An electronic device called a power inverter converts battery DC voltage into AC power for the motor. The inverter must be decoupled from the DC source, so a large DC-link capacitor is placed between the battery and the inverter. The DC-link capacitors in these inverters negatively affect the inverters size, weight and assembly cost. To reduce the design/cost impact of the DC-link capacitors, low loss, high dielectric constant (κ) ferroelectric materials are being developed. Ceramic ferroelectrics, such as (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 [PLZT], offer high dielectric constants and high breakdown strength. Argonne National Laboratory and Delphi Electronics & Safety have been developing thin-film capacitors utilizing PLZT.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1001
Yunkai Gao, Na Qiu, Jianguang Fang, Shanshan Wang
Abstract For achieving vehicle light weighting, the motion deviation is calculated for substitution of PMMA glazing for inorganic glass. In this paper, a test method is proposed to measure and calculate the motion deviation of the dual-curvature glass. To simulate the dual-curvature glass, the torus surface is fitted with least square method according to the window frame data, which are measured by Coordinate Measuring Machine. By using this method, the motion deviation of PMMA glazing and inorganic glass can be calculated, which can not only validate the effectiveness of motion simulation, but also compare the performances. The results demonstrate that the performance of PMMA glazing is better than that of inorganic glass and the simulation results is validated.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0703
Yoshiichi Ozeki, Yuko Harita, Akira Hirano, Jiro Nishihama
Abstract Solar energy through glass windows has an influence on the thermal environment in the cabin and thermal comfort of occupants. A medium-size electric vehicle (EV) is conducted for evaluating the performance of solar reduction glass under summer conditions in the climate chamber by experimental measurements. For this purpose, two kinds of glass are attached to the medium-size EV with different performance of solar reduction rate (IR-cut type and normal type). In this paper, two types of experimental measurements, steady state and unsteady state conditions, are conducted. Surface temperature, air temperature and electric consumption of air conditioner are measured under some conditions of air-conditioner. EHT (Equivalent Homogeneous Temperature) by thermal manikin, thermal sensation and thermal comfort by male and female subjects are also measured.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0592
Fred G. Mendonca, Terence Connelly, Satish Bonthu, Philip Shorter
Abstract The interior noise in a vehicle that is due to flow over the exterior of the vehicle is often referred to as ‘windnoise’. In order to predict interior windnoise it is necessary to characterize the fluctuating surface pressures on the exterior of the vehicle along with vibro-acoustic transmission to the vehicle interior. For example, for greenhouse sources, flow over the A-pillar and side-view mirror typically induces both turbulence and local aeroacoustic sources which then excite the glass, and window seals. These components then transmit noise and vibration to the vehicle interior. Previous studies by the authors have demonstrated validated CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques which give insight into the flow-noise source mechanisms. The studies also made use of post-processing based on temporal and spatial Fourier analysis in order to quantify the amount of energy in the flow at convective and acoustic wavenumbers.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0801
Xiaoqing Xu, Jingjing Chen, Jun Xu, Yibing Li, Xuefeng Yao
Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) laminated glass has been widely used in automotive industry as windshield material. Cracks on the PVB laminated glass contain large amount of impact information, which can contribute to accident reconstruction investigation. In this study, the impact-induced in-plane dynamic cracking of the PVB laminated glass is investigated. Firstly, a drop-weight combined with high-speed photography experiment device is set up to investigate the radial cracks propagation on the PVB laminated glass sheet. Both the morphology and the velocity time history curve of the radial cracks are recorded and analyzed to investigate the basic mechanism of the crack propagation process. Afterwards, a three-dimensional laminated plate finite element (FE) model is set up and dynamic cracking process is simulated based on the extended finite element method (XFEM).
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1985
Dawei Gao, Shi Guijie
A new method based on the drum surface is proposed to fit the dual-curvature glass. The drum surface is obtained from the automotive body cloud data with the kinematic equation using line element geometry and K-Local-RANSAC algorithm. Then the guide rail curve is obtained by the proportional function method based on the drum curve principle. At last, the motion deviation of the glass is analyzed and the maximum motion deviation is not more than 0.6mm. The results have completely achieved the engineering requirements, which prove that the method of fitting the glass and the guide rail is correct and reasonable.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1930
Patricia Manning, Jerome Manning, Chadwyck Musser, George Peng
The contribution of wind noise through the glasses into the vehicle cabin is a large source of customer concern. The wind noise sources generated by turbulent flow incident on the vehicle surfaces and the transmission mechanisms by which the noise is transmitted to the interior of the vehicle are complex and difficult to predict using conventional analysis techniques including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analyses are complicated by the large differences between turbulent pressures and acoustic pressures. Testing in dedicated acoustic wind tunnel (AWT) facilities is often performed to evaluate the contribution of wind noise to the vehicle interior noise in the absence of any other noise sources. However, this testing is time-consuming and expensive and test hardware for the vehicle being developed is often not yet available at early stages of vehicle design.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0801
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Since its inception in 1948, NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) has continually strived to promote and improve driver, crew and spectator safety. As the vehicles used in NASCAR have changed over the years, their windshields have evolved also. The 1948 NASCAR Rulebook specified that all cars must have safety glass. In 2013, the NASCAR Sprint cup Series will use a laminated polycarbonate windshield. This paper describes the ballistic testing of the latest polycarbonate laminated design as well as previous monolithic polycarbonate designs.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0553
John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Laurie Ramroth, Travis Venson, Matthew Rose
The objective of the study was to assess the impact of a Saflex1 S Series solar control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) windshield on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cooldown analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cooldown analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and solar control PVB configurations for the city and highway drive cycles.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0033
B. V. Shamsundara, A. V. Mannikar
Visibility through windscreen along with front lighting system is one of the most important elements of road safety. Windscreen also provides the good visibility to driver to drive safely during night time. As per the rule windscreen visual light transmission should be minimum 70%. Windshields are made-up of tinted glass which produces light transmission varying from 70% to 95%. Windscreen installation is various from vehicle to vehicle, the visual light transmittance at different installation angle and its effect to the visibility are not fully understood. Vehicle headlamps and front fog lamps are evaluated for the illumination without consideration of driver's visibility with the combination of wind screen and its installation angle. This paper describes the effect of different ranges of tinted wind shield glass on driver's visibility at various installation angle of windshield along with the headlamp illumination.
2012-11-25
Technical Paper
2012-36-0624
Chadwyck T. Musser, Jerome E. Manning, Min Shen
In order to effectively use CAE to meet wind noise NVH targets, it is important to understand the main wind noise transfer paths. Testing confirmation of these paths by means of acoustic wind tunnel test is expensive and not always available. An on-road test procedure including a “windowing” method (using barriers) was developed to measure wind noise contribution at important higher frequencies through the main transfer paths, which were shown by test to be the glasses at a typical operating condition in which wind noise was dominant. The test data was used to correlate a full-vehicle SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) model that placed emphasis on the glass properties, main noise transfer paths, and interior acoustic spaces while simplifying all other transmission paths. A method for generating wind noise loads was developed using measured glass vibration data, exterior pressure data, and interior acoustic data.
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