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Viewing 1 to 30 of 985
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Marco Amrhein, Brian Raczkowski, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Sean Field, Jason Gousy
Analyzing and maintaining power quality in electrical power systems of electrical equipment, weapons systems, and installations is essential to ensure that power generation, distribution, and loads function as expected within their designated operating regime. Standards such as MIL-STD-704, MIL-STD-1399, MIL-E-7894, MIL-STD-1332, etc., and associated documents provide the framework for power quality metrics that need to be satisfied under varying operating conditions. These can include steady-state time-domain metrics, limitations on spectral content (frequency-domain), and transient limitations during normal and abnormal operation. Frequently, test methods for the metrics exists that allow system integrators and subsystem providers to determine power quality performance within a controlled environment as part of acceptance testing. However, analyzing and enforcing these power quality metrics within a fully integrated electrical power system based solely on measurements of relevant signals (commonly voltages and currents measured at certain points within the system) is a different challenge that requires a separate framework containing rules for data acquisition, metric calculations, and applicability of metrics in certain operating conditions/modes.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Ralf Cremer, Alfred Engler
The implementation of power electronics in aircraft is progressively going up on the last aircraft developments. For instance, the power-by wire technique leads to significant weight and performance improvements on the A380 airplane implementing two independent electro-hydrostatic actuators into the standard hydraulic flight controls. These actuators are driven by power electronics systems that needed to be adapted to the aerospace constraints. Other systems have the potential to become more electrical or all electrical like the environmental climate system, the wing ice protection system, the landing gear or the taxiing for instance. The increase of power electronics system will also strongly influence the architecture of the aircrafts e.g. high voltage DC networks, electrical distribution power centers, and centralized and modular power converters issues. The range of applications is wide and the flexibility and the intelligence of power electronics system will surely optimize the future airplanes in term of consumption and performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yves C.J. Lemmens, Tuur Benoit, Rob De Roo, Jon Verbeke
Vives College University and Kulab (KU Leuven University campus Ostend) in Belgium are undertaking an aeronautical research program about the development of a new Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV is aimed at performing scientific missions along the Belgian coast line above the North Sea. The main performance requirement of the UAV, named Litus, is a range of 160km with a payload up to 5kg. A canard configuration with swept wings and a vertical tail at each wing tip was chosen. A propulsion system of two electrical brushless DC motors had been selected in order to minimize the environmental impact during operations by avoiding gas emissions and reducing noise emissions. Test flights of the Litus are planned in the summer of 2014. The Litus has a wing span of 6m and has a total mass of 65kg. Since the UAV is completely electrically powered, the analysis of the energy management of the integrated electrical system is critical to the development of the UAV. LMS, A Siemens Business, is involved in the project to support the development of a multi-physics simulation model for electro-thermal analysis of the aircraft [1].
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida
Identification of propeller traction power specifications in aircraft mathematical description problems Under the mathematical simulation of the aircraft dynamic motion, an identification problem for a number of constants and functions which cannot be analytically calculated appears. Dependences of aerodynamic gap coefficients of the aircraft body and the airflow, as well as the traction power specifications of the active propulsors used in flight by the aircraft, are related to such functions. Nowadays, propellers only are used in the airships and other aerial vessels with the aerostatic keeping in-flight principle. In the automatic flight control systems, they act as actuation devices. When constructing a mathematical aircraft model, the thrust developed by the propulsor is often taken for an input control. However, there are a great many phases of transforming forces, moments, and kinds of energy, between the real input control (customarily, it is introducing fuel or power supply to the servomotor input) and the rotor thrust load.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Matthieu Hutchison, Grégoire Lenoble, Umberto Badiali, Yannick Sommerer, Olivier Verseux, Eric Desmet
Fuel pressure surge is an essential topic for modern aircrafts and a main driver for airframe fuel system sizing. This phenomenon can occur both during normal and abnormal operations, notably resulting from a sudden change of fluid velocity due to the opening or closure of an engine valve. During aircraft development phase, Airbus specifies to engine manufacturers a pressure limit at the interface between the engine and airframe. The verification activities performed by engine manufacturers shall then ensure that the maximum pressure surge will not exceed these requirements. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology developed by Airbus with the support of LMS Engineering (a Siemens PLM Software division) for the assessment of accurate fuel pressure surge at early program stages in the complete aircraft and engine environment. This methodology will help to avoid late airframe fuel system redesign and secure entry-into-service by driving the engine manufacturer verification & validation process.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Michael Baldwin
This paper will illustrate how the increasing electrical demands to power military and aerospace applications can continue to successfully be met by high performance electromechanical relays. To meet these higher demands engineering compatibility must be properly understood between the intended application demands and relay switching performance parameters. With high performance electromechanical relays continuing to play a critical part in military and aerospace applications it is more important than ever that engineers capture all of the military and aerospace electrical power switching requirements. A critical area within powering military and aerospace systems is relay life when capacitive load switching. Capacitive loads generate high current levels that are transient in duration and often adversely affect the relay lifespan at the component level and reliability of military or aerospace application at the systems level. In this paper practical examples of inrush current reduction of capacitive transient high current loads and corresponding increase of relay contact life rating will be reviewed and the explored in detail.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Darcy Allison, Edward Alyanak
The design challenges associated with advanced supersonic aircraft are best handled with a multidisciplinary approach. These aircraft are highly coupled in that small changes to one subsystem can have far-reaching effects on others. For the class of aircraft called the efficient supersonic air vehicle (ESAV), particular attention must be paid to the propulsion system design as a whole including installation effects in the airframe design. The propulsion system assumed for the ESAV is a three-stream variable cycle engine. A computational model has been built with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) software to analyze this engine. Along with the variable cycle NPSS model, a three-ramp external compression inlet model meant for conceptual design has been developed. This inlet model will be used to capture installation effects so that they are accounted for during the aircraft conceptual design. The NPSS and inlet models are parameterized so that they can be used in a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) process.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Arthur V. Radun
There is a continuing need to simulate power electronic circuits that include magnetic components. It is necessary to determine the interaction of the magnetic component with the rest of the power electronic system so that a dynamic circuit model of the magnetic components including material saturation and iron losses is required. The magnetic component model must be valid when the magnetic component’s excitation is not sinusoidal. A dynamic magnetic circuit model is derived from Maxwell’s equations along with useful theorems for building circuit models from the structure of the magnetic device. The developed circuit models are general including magnetic saturation and iron losses Dynamic magnetic circuit models are developed for selected magnetic components to illustrate the application of the modeling technique. Simulation results for a DC/DC converter employing a conventional gapped inductor and a gapped coupled inductor are presented. Extensions to more complex components are also shown.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Arthur V. Radun
An important aspect of the Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program has been the development of an integrated aircraft system model. The Robust Electric Power System (REPS) modeling poses particular challenges because of the highly dynamic and short time constant line replaceable units employed. In addition to the technical challenges is the challenge of protecting proprietary information that could be lost in the exchange of models. This paper describes simplified non-physics based line replaceable unit models for units anticipated to be part of a 6th generation aircraft power system. A typical 6th generation power system model is constructed as an example using the unit models. Selected model verification and validation results will be presented.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Ennes Sarradj, Thomas Geyer, Christoph Jobusch, Sebastian Kießling, Alexander Neefe
Abstract The development of energy-efficient and lightweight vehicles is a major challenge for researchers and engineers in the automotive industry, with one solution being the use of micro gas turbines in serial hybrid vehicles. Among other advantages, the use of a micro gas turbine instead of a reciprocating engine enables a high reliability and low emissions. What makes the concept of using a gas turbine even more interesting are its special NVH characteristics, which are quite different from those of a reciprocating engine. Besides the fact that a gas turbine in general produces less noise and vibration than a diesel engine of the same power, the characteristic noise spectrum is also very different. In this paper, the noise characteristics of a micro gas turbine are compared to those typical for a common reciprocating engine and the sources of the noise are considered. The data that form the basis for these analyses were obtained using measurements on a 70 kW micro gas turbine that is designed to be used in a serial hybrid concept for buses.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrew Haughton, Andy Dickinson
Abstract This paper describes the design and development steps taken to realise a functioning Turbo-generator Integrated Gas Energy Recovery System (TIGERS®). The main areas covered focus on simulation, machine design, control system development and validation. The mechanical design for this application is particularly challenging for a number of reasons. The turbine is capable of rotating the shaft at speeds greater than its critical rotating limit. Rolling element grease filled bearings are used to allow application flexibility; these have an operating temperature limit of 200°C. The exhaust gas can reach temperatures greater than 900°C in spark ignition applications, whereas the turbine upper functional limit is 850°C. The power electronics are integrally mounted in the machine and have a maximum thermal operating limit of 120°C. Considering that TIGERS is expected to harvest energy from the exhaust gas it is essential that it not only survives in this harsh environment, but it must also produce work with no adverse impact on vehicle performance or fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper
2013-12-20
Matthew Spencer, Timothy Shepherd, Richard Greenwood, Mark Simmons
In the development of a more accurate laboratory scale method, the ability to replicate the thermal oxidative degradation mechanisms seen in gas turbine lubricants, is an essential requirement. This work describes an investigation into the influence of key reaction parameters and the equipment set up upon extent and mechanism of oil degradation. The air flow rate through the equipment was found to be critical to both degradation rate and extent of volatilization loss from the system. As these volatile species can participate in further reactions, it is important that the extent to which they are allowed to leave the test system is matched, where possible, to the conditions in the gas turbine. The presence of metal specimens was shown to have a small influence on the rate of degradation of the lubricant. Loss of metal from the copper and silver specimens due to the mild corrosive effect of the lubricant was seen. The Total Acid Number and viscosity of a series of oil samples from two service gas turbines are discussed.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Edwin Corporan, Matthew DeWitt, Christopher Klingshirn
Measurement of turbine engine particulate matter (PM) requires diligent handling of the sample to maintain integrity and minimize any alteration due to sampling or transport artifacts. PM sample dilution at the probe tip is a common and widely used technique to condition the sample in order to reduce PM losses and potentially “freeze” chemical reactions that may occur throughout the sampling train to the instruments. Diluting the PM sample at a location downstream in the sample line is preferred by engine manufacturers as probes used for gas emissions can be used for PM; however, implications on PM characteristics and comparisons against probe-tip dilution are unknown. The present study compares the characteristics of turbine engine PM diluted at the probe tip and at a location downstream in the sampling train. Downstream dilution was accomplished by injecting nitrogen through a commercial ejector (operated both as a diluter and pump) and a through simple concentric tube arrangement. The tests were conducted using the exhaust of a T63 turboshaft engine as the source of PM.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Patrick Morelle, norbert kill, Flavio d'Ambrosio
The paper presents first a description of the methods used for the analysis of global dynamics of rotating systems like jet engines but also auxiliary power units. Different methodologies are described so to model rotating parts using beam, but also Fourier multi-harmonic, three dimensional models or to take into account cyclic symmetry and multistage cyclic symmetry concepts. Advantages and disadvantages of the different model types are discussed and compared. The coupling of the rotating parts with casings and stators is then discussed both in the inertial frame and in the rotating frame. The effect on global dynamics of bearing and other linking devices is taken into account for different type of analysis from critical speed analysis, to harmonic and transient analysis. The effect of gears and gear boxes coupling different rotors (like it is the case for auxiliary power units in a jet engine) is then discussed and appropriate methods described so to model this coupling effect. Finally, the question of the simulation of bearings with clearances is discussed and a new formulation proposed for the harmonic analysis of such situation.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Greg Kilchenstein, F. Matthew Juarez, Matthew Moseley, Jonathan Cheverie, Marcio Duffles, Jonathan Acker
Small media ingestion has been known to cause erosion and result in corrosion to compressor components of gas turbine engines. Compressor degradation negatively impacts fuel consumption, engine performance, reliability, and maintenance costs. Power losses in the compressor section are often unrecoverable without increasing fuel consumption; therefore, protecting the compressor from excessive erosion/corrosion may extend the life of an engine, and reduce fuel, maintenance costs, and emissions. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a new compressor blade and vane erosion/corrosion resistant coating on two Rolls-Royce T56-A7-B engines. The study included a comprehensive sand ingestion test that compared the performance and hardware condition of uncoated and coated compressor airfoils before, during, and after sand ingestion of 135 pounds of sand mixture. As part of the objective, the benefits of a new erosion/corrosion resistant compressor airfoil coating were quantified in regards to fuel efficiency, engine-time-on-wing (ETOW), emissions, fuel costs, maintenance, and engine readiness.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, David Kwapisz, Thomas Holst, Michael Hafner
Blade tip clearance is a key design parameter for gas turbine designers. This parameter is often measured during engine testing and development phases as part of design validation but has yet to be utilized during normal engine fleet operation. Although blade tip clearance measurements are often mentioned for fleet operation in the context of active clearance control, the use of blade tip clearance measurements can provide an additional benefit for engine health monitoring. This paper explores the use of blade tip clearance sensors for engine condition monitoring of hot section blades. Blade tip clearance, especially in the first stage turbine, has an impact on exhaust gas temperature. The use of tip clearance measurements can provide supplementary information to traditional EGT measurements by providing a direct measurement of wear on the blade tips. In addition, blade creep and cracking can be measured and tracked if the sensors are able to provide clearance values of individual blades.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Chris Hickenbottom, Kyusung Kim, Onder Uluyol
This paper discusses recent improvements made by Honeywell's Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) Center of Excellence (COE) to Mechanical Health Management (MHM) algorithms. The Honeywell approach fuses Condition Indicators (CIs) from vibration monitoring and oil debris monitoring. This paper focuses on using MHM algorithms for monitoring gas turbine engines. First an overview is given that explains the general MHM approach, and then specific examples of how the algorithms are being refined are presented. One of the improvements discussed involves how to detect a fault earlier in the fault progression, while continuing to avoid false alarms. The second improvement discussed is how to make end of life thresholds more robust: rather than relying solely on the cumulative mass of oil debris, the end of life indication is supplemented with indicators that consider the rate of debris generation. Another improvement discussed is an approach for allowing rapid modifications to the logic that fuses vibration and oil debris indicators.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Kirby J. Keller, Jeanne Maggiore, Robab Safa-Bakhsh, William Rhoden, Michael Walz
The Sensory Prognostics and Management Systems (SPMS) program sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and Boeing developed and evaluated designs to integrate advanced diagnostic and prognostic (i.e., Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) or Health Management (HM)) capabilities onto commercial airplanes. The objective of the program was to propose an advanced HM system appropriate for legacy and new aircraft and examine the technical requirements and their ramifications on the current infrastructure and regulatory guidance. The program approach was to determine the attractive and feasible HM applications, the technologies that are required to cost effectively implement these applications, the technical and certification challenges, and the system level and business consequences of such a system. The scope of the SPMS program included consideration of data collection and communication from the continuous monitoring of aircraft systems, observation of current system states, and processing of this data to support proper maintenance and repair actions.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Rebekah Lee Puterbaugh, Jeffrey Brown, Ryan Battelle
Recent turbine engine numerical modeling developments have significantly improved the capability to accomplish integrated system-level analyses of aircraft thermal, power, propulsion, and vehicle systems. Combining desired aircraft performance with thermal management challenges of modern aircraft, which include increased heat loads from components such as avionics and more-electric accessories, as well as maintaining engine components at specified operating temperatures, demands we look for solutions that maximize heat sink capacity while minimizing adverse impacts on engine and aircraft performance. Development of optimized aircraft thermal management architectures requires the capability to directly analyze the impact of thermal management components, such as heat exchangers, on engine performance. This paper presents a process to evaluate the impact of heat exchanger design and performance characteristics (e.g., volume and pressure drops) on engine performance. As we are only concerned with sensitivity to the presence of heat exchangers, there has been no effort to optimize the heat exchanger design or the turbine engine flows to improve thermal or engine performance.
Technical Paper
2012-10-22
Bernard L. Koff
The remarkable evolution of the gas turbine engine has made the world much smaller and provided power for worldwide use. I often think of growing up in a farm environment, being fascinated with machinery and then having the opportunity to take part in the design and development of the world's most complex product. I worked with brilliant engineers and experienced the transition from slide rules and “hand calculation” methods to computers and more precise finite element modeling. Perhaps this story will present insight for current and future design engineers who create the manufactured products used by mankind.
Technical Paper
2012-10-20
Mohammad Ahmadi Bidakhvidi, Dean Vucinic, Steve Vanlanduit
The flapping flight is advantageous for its superior maneuverability and much more aerodynamically efficiency for the small size UAV when compared to the conventional steady-state aerodynamics solution. Especially, it is appropriate for the Micro-air-vehicle (MAV) propulsion system, where the flapping wings can generate the required thrust. This paper investigated such solution, based on the piezoelectric patches, which are attached to the flexible plates, in combination with an appropriate amplification mechanisms. The numerical and experimental flow analyses have been carried out for the piezoelectric flapping plate, in order to characterize the fluid structure interaction induced by the swinging movement of the oscillating plate. The time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on a piezoelectric flapping wing with finite span operating at 84.8 Hz in air in order to validate the numerical simulations, and the comparison showed good matching, as reported in this paper.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Bhupendra Khandelwal, Liu Bao, Karamveer Singh Kumar, Vishal Sethi, Riti Singh
Significant development in the gas turbine technology has brought about an increase in the performance requirements for modern engines. This has generated a significant interest in researching into implementation of novel technologies for various engine components, which will allow for the design of engines to match the new performance requirements. One such technology is the use of hybrid diffusers in gas turbine combustors against conventional combustors like dump diffusers. The hybrid diffuser concept has been around for a while and has the potential of giving a greater performance than conventional diffusers. However, due to limited information available in the public domain, not much has been fully understood about the mechanism of the hybrid diffuser concept. Much of the previous work done on hybrid diffusers are done on designs having a vortex chamber bleed, based on the belief that vortex chambers helps to stabilize the flow separation. However, this paper takes looks into the proposition that the primary mechanism of a hybrid diffuser is the air bleed rather than the vortex chamber itself.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Douglas F R Silva, Joao Barbosa, Alberto Adade Filho
The current pressure for fuel burn savings and increasing performance in the commercial aerospace market demands highly complex engine control systems to optimize fuel consumption throughout the engine operating envelope, as well as meet the regulatory requirements in terms of safety and performance. These conflicting objectives normally lead to trade-off solutions that are difficult to precisely estimate. Therefore some decisions to characterize the engine controller still reside on experience from previous designs and, as a result, add subjectivity and increase the potential for wrong parameter selection. This paper proposes an algorithmic approach to design a turbojet engine controller in a multivariable, two-degree-of-freedom configuration, obtaining H-infinity robust stabilization. It introduces an optimized loop shaping design procedure, with the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA), to further improve the control system performance, as well as bring the experience applied by controller designers and engineers to an automated process, when setting the parameters to shape the frequency response of the engine control loops.
Technical Paper
2011-06-13
Harold E. Addy, Jr., Joseph P. Veres
Ice accretions that have formed inside gas turbine engines as a result of flight in clouds of high concentrations of ice crystals in the atmosphere have recently been identified as an aviation safety hazard. NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has made plans to conduct research in this area to address the hazard. This paper gives an overview of NASA's engine ice-crystal icing research project plans. Included are the rationale, approach, and details of various aspects of NASA's research.
Technical Paper
2011-06-13
Ryan D. May, Ten-Huei Guo, Joseph P. Veres, Philip C. E. Jorgenson
Ice buildup in the compressor section of a commercial aircraft gas turbine engine can cause a number of engine failures. One of these failure modes is known as engine rollback: an uncommanded decrease in thrust accompanied by a decrease in fan speed and an increase in turbine temperature. This paper describes the development of a model which simulates the system level impact of engine icing using the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k). When an ice blockage is added to C-MAPSS40k, the control system responds in a manner similar to that of an actual engine, and, in cases with severe blockage, an engine rollback is observed. Using this capability to simulate engine rollback, a proof-of-concept detection scheme is developed and tested using only typical engine sensors. This paper concludes that the engine control system's limit protection is the proximate cause of iced engine rollback and that the controller can detect the buildup of ice particles in the compressor section.
Technical Paper
2011-06-13
Chuck Califf, Anabel Rodriguez, Eduardo Lemini, Chiong Tan
The study of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) has received greater attention in the Aviation industry since the ATR-72 accident in 1994, which was attributed to SLD. This type of icing cloud usually consists of droplets of up to a millimeter in diameter and mean volumetric diameter (MVD) greater than 40 microns1. The analyses of the ice accretion process with SLD have focused mainly on the wing and stabilizers, particularly on the leading edges where accretion can occur beyond the ice protected areas. There are several numerical and empirical models to predict the mass and shapes of ice accreted from SLD, but there are few published papers that focus on SLD accretion within aircraft turbofan engines2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. SLD droplets have higher inertia than conventional icing droplets, which leads to their trajectories being less influenced by the aerodynamic forces. However, large droplets are more likely to breakup than smaller droplets when subjected to highly shear flows. In addition, SLD tends to splash on impact resulting in smaller droplets in the process.
Technical Paper
2011-06-13
James MacLeod, John Jastremski
The Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research (GLACIER) facility has been constructed in Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. This project involves the construction and operation of a facility which will provide icing certification tests for large gas turbine engines, as well as performance, endurance and other gas turbine engine qualification testing. MDS Aero Support, in partnership with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Pratt and Whitney Canada, and Rolls Royce Canada, has developed a globally unique outdoor engine test and certification facility. The prime purpose of this facility is for icing certification of aviation gas turbine engines, initially for Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney, two of the three largest gas turbine manufacturers in the world. The facility will provide the aviation industry with the required environmental conditions (by virtue of its location), and capability to meet the growing demands for icing certifications and other adverse cold weather conditions.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Jan Macek, Oldrich Vitek, Zdenek Zak
The physical 1-D model of a radial turbine consists in a set of gas ducts featuring total pressure and/or temperature changes and losses. This model has been developed using the basic modules of generalized 1-D manifold solver. The tools for it were presented at SAE 2008 and 2009 World Congresses. The model published before is amended by a semi-empiric mechanical loss and windage loss modules. The instantaneous power of a turbine is integrated along the rotating impeller channel using Euler turbine theorem, which respects the local unsteadiness of mass flow rate along the channel. The main aim of the current contribution is to demonstrate the use of measured turbine maps for calibration of unsteady turbine model for different lay-outs of turbine blade cascades. It is important for VG turbines for the optimal matching to different engine speeds and loads requirements. The turbine model calibration parameters (flow direction angles, loss coefficients, leakage coefficients) are identified by means of the same model applied to a steady flow turbocharger testbed simulation using optimization to find the best fit.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Melih Cemal Kushan, Zhongxiao Peng, Shuzhi Peng
This paper presents the study of a defect warning and control system. The developed system has the following functions: (a) detect possible defects in advance by controlling gas turbine compressors (GTC), (b) warn the user, and (c) ensure necessary intervention to prevent the defect from happening or growing is made. The defect warning and control system is a product with a predicting maintenance approach. It measures the vibration, oil pressure, exhaust exit heat and engine speed parameters via sensors during the performance of the gas turbine compressors. It also monitors the action and warns the user in case of danger. If the evaluated parameters reach critical values which may cause a defect, the system detects this in advance and prevents unexpected defects. The application of this system has verified and demonstrated that its designed functions have been achieved successfully.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
P. Gemin, M. Shah, R. Raju, K. Sivasubramaniam, S. Galioto, R. Zhou, K. Joerger
Pairing of a high-speed, high-temperature superconducting, homopolar inductor alternator (HTSHIA) with a gas turbine engine as prime mover results in a power dense generator-set well suited to applications requiring large step load accepts and rejects. Though the HTSHIA's low synchronous reactance allows it to respond to large step loads, typical gas turbine engines require seconds to ramp from idle to full power. A mismatch between load and turbine power during a step transient will result in generator speed droop. If the speed droops too severely either the generator or gas turbine engine may no longer be able to maintain rated power. This paper presents a generator set and control approach which exploits the HTSHIA's flywheel properties (high speed and relatively high rotor inertia) to power large, repeated step loads. The gas turbine engine, generator, power conditioning system (PCS), load, and control were modeled to evaluate the system performance, develop control, and to allow system level trades to be made.
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