This AIR describes the current scientific and engineering principles of gas turbine lubricant performance testing per AS5780 and identifies gaps in our understanding of the technology to help the continuous improvement of this specification.
Using the PCS Instruments Micro pitting Rig (MPR) to characterize the micro pitting performance of 5 cSt aviation turbine oils
This method is currently under development in the E-34C Lubricating Characteristics subcommittee as a technique to predict the micropitting performance of 5 cSt turbine oils. The PCS Instruments Micro pitting rig (MPR) is currently used by the Industry to look at both macro and micro pitting resistance of lubricating oils on gears and bearings. Using the test methods and profile developed from testing performed by Powertrib, and then further discussions between PCS Instruments (the instrument manufacturer) and the E-34C committee, a set of proposed test conditions have been agreed. Once the specimens have been manufactured, a small round robin is planned to look at repeatability and reproducibility.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the surface pretreatment, temperature and baking time required to cure AS5272 lubricant when it is applied over the surfaces of manufactured parts of various metals.
Test Method for the Determination of Total Acidity in Polyol Ester and Diester Gas Turbine Lubricants by Automatic Potentiometric Titration
The test method describes the procedure for determination of the total acid number of new and degraded polyol ester and diester based gas turbine lubricants by potentiometric titration technique. The method was validated to cover an acidity range 0.05 to 6.0 mg KOH g-1. The method may also be suitable for the determination of acidities outside of this range and for other classes of lubricant.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is an application guide for fixed and variable displacement hydraulic motors. It provides details of the characteristics of fixed and variable displacement hydraulic motors, architectures, circuit designs, controls, and typical applications. The applications include airborne and defense vehicles with emphasis on high performance applications.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance standards for equipment used as secondary alternating current (AC) electrical power sources in aerospace electric power systems.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) presents a procedure for evaluating cleaning methods with respect to contaminant removal and element degradation particularly for metallic filter elements. A procedure for checking durability of cleaning equipment and a referee cleaning method are also included. It is applicable only to the evaluation of cleaning methods proposed for removal of service dirt and not for built-in dirt, liquid oxygen (LOX) cleaning, etc. Supporting information for use with the ARP is also included.
Performance Testing of Lubricant Filter Elements Utilized in Aircraft Power and Propulsion Lubrication Systems
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews performance testing parameters for non-cleanable, often referred to as disposable, filter elements utilized in aircraft power and propulsion lubrication systems, including gas turbine engines and auxiliary power units (APUs), propulsion and transmission gear boxes, and constant speed drives and integrated drive generators (IDGs). This document is confined to laboratory testing of filter element performance to qualify the filtration medium and filter element construction as opposed to qualification of the complete filter assembly. The testing discussed here is usually followed by laboratory and on-engine testing of the entire lube filter assembly (including filter element, housing, valving, etc.), which is outside the scope of this AIR.
This document establishes standard gland dimensions for low pressure static radial O-ring seal applications and provides recommendations for modifying these glands in special applications. No provisions are made in this document for anti-extrusion devices.
An airplane fuel tank inerting system provides an inert atmosphere in a fuel tank to minimize explosive ignition of fuel vapor. This AIR deals with the three methods of fuel tank inerting systems currently used in operational aircraft: (1) on-board inert gas generation systems (OBIGGS), (2) liquid/gaseous nitrogen systems and (3) Halon systems. The OBIGGS and nitrogen systems generally are designed to provide full-time fuel tank fire protection; the Halon systems generally are designed to provide only on-demand or combat-specific protection. This AIR does not treat the subject of Explosion Suppression Foam (ESF) that has been used for fuel tank explosion protection on a number of military aircraft. ESF is a totally passive, full-time protection system with multiple and simultaneous hit capability up to 23 mm. The primary disadvantages of foam are weight, reduction of usable fuel, and the added maintenance complexity when the foam must be removed for tank maintenance or inspection. AIR4170A is an excellent reference for the use of ESF for fuel tank explosion protection .
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) prescribes requirements for the various types of nozzles that are used for the refueling of aircraft fitted with pressure fuel servicing systems. It is to be used as a replacement for MIL-N-5877, MS29520 and for all commercial applications.
Multi-Pass Method for Evaluating Filtration Performance of Fine Lube Filter Elements Utilized in Aerospace Power and Propulsion Lubrication Systems
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the multi-pass method for evaluating the filtration performance of fine lube filter elements, commonly utilized in aerospace power and propulsion lubrication systems: gas turbine engines, auxiliary power units (APUs), helicopter transmissions, constant speed drives (CSDs), and integrated drive generators (IDGs).
No scope available.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents historical information and background data related to hydrant valves and couplers used in worldwide ground refueling of commercial aircraft (hereafter generically referred to as hydrant devices). Military hydrant devices are not included since their mission requirements demand approaches that may differ.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes software capability guidelines for computer controlled test equipment, hereinafter referred to as automatic test equipment (ATE), for testing hydraulic components. A typical ATE system is shown. The items herein have been selected as potential features which may or may not be applicable to a particular application. This document does not address software development requirements, qualification procedures, or hardware design requirements, but encourages users to refer to existing documents for guidance on such issues.
Evaluation of Coking Propensity of Aviation Lubricants in an Air-Oil Mist Environment using the Vapor Phase Coker
This method is designed to evaluate the coking propensity of synthetic ester-based aviation lubricants under two phase air-oil mist conditions as found in certain parts of a gas turbine engine, for instance, bearing chamber vent lines. Based on the results from round robin data in 2008-2009 from four laboratories, this method is currently intended to provide a comparison between lubricants as a research tool; it is not currently a satisfactory pass/fail test. At this juncture a reference oil may improve reproducibility (precision between laboratories); a formal precision statement will be given when there is satisfactory data and an agreed on, suitable reference oil if applicable.
This specification covers the general requirements for aircraft tank mounted, centrifugal type, fuel booster pumps, used for engine fuel feed and / or fuel transfer.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design and test requirements for factory precharged, welded bellows hydraulic accumulators.
This document reviews briefly the subject of woven metal screens. Conditions that can promote damaging corrosion in stainless steel filter screens are discussed and recommendations are listed for minimizing corrosion damage. This is a general document only; for specific applications it is suggested that the reader refer to the technical literature, and selected references listed below.
This document provides a summary of names commonly used throughout the industry for aircraft fuel system components. It is a thesaurus intended to aid those not familiar with the lexicon of the industry.
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
This document covers the performance requirements for solid dry film lubricants, air dried, or heat cured for use in aerospace applications. These lubricants are intended to prevent galling, and may be capable of remaining effective for extended periods of time after exposure to extreme environmental conditions.
Lubricating Characteristics and Typical Properties of Lubricants Used in Aviation Propulsion and Drive Systems
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) establishes guidance for the specification of formulated lubricant properties which contribute to the lubricating function in bearings, gears, clutches and seals of aviation propulsion and drive systems.
Evaluation of Coking Propensity of Aviation Lubricants Using the Single Phase Flow Technique
This method is designed to evaluate the coking propensity of synthetic ester-based aviation lubricants under single phase flow conditions found in certain parts of gas turbine engines, for instance in bearing feed tubes. This method is applicable to lubricants with a coking propensity, as determined by this method, falling in the range 0.01 to 3.00 mg.
Comparison of Hydraulic System Cleanliness Procedures and Requirements for Ten Aerospace Companies
In May 1979 Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver Division, completed a survey of missile hydraulic system cleanliness and contamination control procedures and practices as several aerospace companies. The intent of this survey was to gather and assemble the data from companies that manufacture missiles with hydraulic systems, similar to the Titan III System, from a contamination control standpoint. The survey concentrated on 15 subject areas of interest.
Procedure and Method for Conducting Test of Hydraulic Components in Contamination Controlled System
This procedure will be generally applicable to three classes of hydraulic components as listed below: Class A - Motors, Pumps, Actuators, Accumulators, Reservoirs, and Non-metering Valves Class B - Servo Valves and Metering Valves Class C - Special short Life Duration Components
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to define and recommend to the Aerospace Industry standardized test procedures for establishing fuel nozzle operating performance including types of tests, controlled and measured parameters, and test configurations.
Gas compressors (air and other compressible fluids) have been used sporadically since the 1940's for various utility functions in aerospace applications. They have been used to provide power to gun purge and drive systems, engine or APU starters (recharge accumulators), reservoir pressurization, cockpit pressurization, braking systems, canopy seals, engine control divides, landing gear activation, and boosted flight controls (see Table 1). In current state-of-the-art aircraft, most pneumatic system power is extracted from a stage of compression in the turbo-jet engine. As more and more demands are put on new generation engines for fuel economy and performance there is an increasing need for a new source of pneumatic power. This document is intended to describe current state-of-the-art technology in compressors, define the limitations, discuss enhancements needed and attempt to predict the needs of the future.
This specification covers a neopentyl polyol ester fluid (See 8.2) with AS5780 HPC or MIL-PRF-23699 HTS Class performance.
This specification established (1) the common requirements for hydraulic units capable of functioning as starters and as pumps suitable for use in aircraft and missiles and (2) the methods to be used for demonstrating compliance with these requirements.