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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16916
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2881
Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar, Soumya Roy, Naveen Kumar
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man’s energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2852
Daniel Ribeiro, Rodrigo Chaves, Rogerio Curty Dias, Gian Marques
In order to evaluate the opportunities to use hybrid concepts for heavy commercial vehicles for emerging markets, MAN Latin America has developed a VW refuse truck with 23t GVW using the hybrid hydraulic technology. In site vehicle tests measurements has indicated a fuel savings up to 25%, which means a reduction around 4.08 liters of diesel/hour or 20 tones CO2/year . Thus, a collaborative cooperation with Rio de Janeiro Sanitation Department (Comlurb) was set for a truck evaluation on a real operation. This 03-month evaluation used one VW 17.280 6x2 hybrid hydraulic refuse truck and other VW refuse truck similar standard diesel. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. Global positioning system logging, fueling, and maintenance records are used to evaluate the performance of this hybrid hydraulic refuse truck.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2813
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions, while maintaining durability. This is a potential path to help the US reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe; however, this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2808
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2882
Abhishek Shah, R. R. Karthick, Aravindan V, Sanjay Phegade, Sappani Murugesh
Today the entire world is facing many serious problems namely population explosion, pollution and increasing fuel Prices. Increasing fuel prices is due to the depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, which will adversely affect automotive industry in very near future. Thus it's our responsibility to optimize vehicle fuel economy as much as possible and reduce the CO2 released by the vehicle. This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator & condenser fan motor according to air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator and condenser fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using AC asynchronous motors (generation and motoring action) in radiator, condenser and blower motors.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2876
Shankar Patil, P Mahesh, Krishnan Sadagopan, Senniappan Arunachalam Gokhul
In a tropical conditions , over a period of several months using 12 Nos. of New Generation 9-15T Intermediate Commercial Vehicles built with 4-Cyl 120HP BS3 Diesel engines run at regular interval from zero to 60000 Km. Field run data composed and analyzed with Intended Duty cycle for engine oil drain life estimation . The ICV trucks with sump capacity 0.083- 0.104 Liter/hp and SAE 15W40 viscosity of oil meeting API CH-4, API CI-4+ from group –I and Group-II base stocks are considered. The engine wear is more a function of silica concentration, load factor and age than the API category of oil. Oil drain interval is found proportional to the sump volume for the same stress on oil. Iron concentration and kinematic viscosity decide useful oil life with respect to the limits fixed by the engine manufacturer. In tropical conditions, field trials are carried out on 10T payload vehicles at higher temperature, humidity, dust levels and load factor than the other hemisphere conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2812
Lijuan Wang, Adam Duran, Jeffrey Gonder, Kenneth Kelly
Abstract This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2816
Andrei Radulescu, Leighton Roberts, Eric Yankovic
Cylinder deactivation (CDA) is an effective method to adjust the engine displacement for maximum output and improve fuel economy by adjusting the number of active cylinders in combustion engines. A Switching Roller Finger Follower (SRFF) is an economic solution for CDA that minimizes changes and preserves the overall width, height, or length of Dual Overhead Cam (DOHC) engines. The CDA SRFF provides the flexibility of either transferring or suppressing the camshaft movement to the valves influencing the engine performance and fuel economy by reducing the pumping losses. This paper addresses the performance and durability of the CDA SRFF system to meet the reliability for gasoline passenger car engines. Extensive tests were conducted to demonstrate the dynamic stability at high engine speeds and the system capacity of switching between high and low engine displacement within one camshaft revolution.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2819
Vasu Kumar, Dhruv Gupta, Mohd Waqar Naseer Siddiquee, Aksh Nagpal, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2809
Sajit Pillai, Julian LoRusso, Matthew Van Benschoten
Abstract Cylinder deactivation was evaluated both analytically and experimentally on a six cylinder diesel engine to understand potential fuel economy and emission improvements. The benefits of cylinder deactivation in Spark Ignited (SI) engines are well documented, however there is little information on the application of the technology for diesel engines. The analytical model was evaluated at low load, steady state conditions. The modified baseline model that includes cylinder deactivation maintains comparable emission levels through the optimization of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT). The results demonstrated reductions in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and higher exhaust gas temperatures for low and part load operating points. An experimental test validated the analytical results. Disabling fuel injectors and the valve train on half of the engine's cylinders allowed for the implementation of cylinder deactivation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2830
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2893
Ashok Patidar, Umashanker Gupta, Ankur Bansal
Abstract Market driven competition in global trade and urgency for controlling the atmospheric air pollution are the twin forces, which have urged Indian automobile industries to catch up with the international emission norms. Improvement in the fuel efficiency of the vehicles is one way to bind to these stringent norms. It is experimentally proven that almost 40% of the available useful engine power is being consumed to overcome the drag resistance and around 45% to overcome the tire rolling resistance of the vehicle. This as evidence provides a huge scope to investigate the influence of aerodynamic drag and rolling resistances on the fuel consumption of a commercial vehicle. The present work is a numerical study on the influence of aerodynamic drag resistance on the fuel consumption of a commercial passenger bus. The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool FLUENT™ is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2811
Tingjun Hu, Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Chun Lu, Jiankun Luo
When highly boosted, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines can have torque curves comparable to those of light-duty (LD) diesel engines. Hence, applications of TGDI engines have been considered to be extended from passenger cars to LD vehicles, such as Ford F150 and E150. Most modern TGDI engines employ homogeneous mixture combustion with an injection pressure  150 bar typically. Under this combustion mode, two challenges having to be faced in the engine development are: 1) fuel dilution of the crankcase oil due to interactions of fuel sprays with the cylinder wall as a result of spray impingement on the cylinder wall or on the piston top when the fuel demand is high or fuel condensation during the warmup phase; 2) low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) at high loads and low speeds, which often leads to a severe knock combustion known as the super knock. It is widely believed that LSPI is triggered by self ignition of oil particles entered the engine cylinder.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2843
Xu Kuang, Jianqiang Wang, Keqiang Li
Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by driver behavior. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers’ economic efficiency, considering driving conditions obtained from the GPS data and an online map database. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. The 12 selected characteristic indexes represent four aspects of driving behavior including speed, acceleration, engine and accessories control. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2875
Olof Lindgärde, Lei Feng, Anders Tenstam, Mikael Soderman
CONVENIENT is a project where prediction and integrated control are applied on several subsystems with electrified actuators. A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information in order to minimize fuel consumption. Another goal is to develop a control structure that both supports optimality and modularity since there is a need of adapting the controller to various truck configurations. A high-level controller denoted “Predictive Energy Buffer Control” controls several energy buffers in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. Controlling the vehicle kinetic energy means that when in cruise control mode the vehicle speed is varied with respect to the set speed in a fuel efficient way. Another focus is the communication between the driver and the control system.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2874
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
Lift axles increase the load capacity of a vehicle, allowing it to carry the extra load without the need for multiple vehicles, hence reducing operational costs. Furthermore, additional axles help to distribute the truck’s load across the road surface, reducing the chances of damage to the infrastructure. Lift axles can be raised when the vehicle has lighter load to save fuel and reduce wear and tear to the tires and axles. They can be deployed to improve traction especially in icy off-road applications. The main objective of this project was to assess the fuel-saving potential of lifting axles on unloaded semi-trailers. Part of the mandate was to identify and analyze regulations of various jurisdictions with respect to lift/loadable axles and studies leading to the setting up of these regulations. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) was used for fuel consumption track test evaluations.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2853
Enrique Busquets, Monika Ivantysynova
Over the last decade, a number of hybrid architectures have been proposed with the main goal of minimizing energy consumption of off-highway vehicles. One of the architecture subsets which has progressively gained attention is hydraulic hybrids for earth-moving equipment. Among these architectures, hydraulic hybrids with secondary-controlled drives have proven to be a reliable, implementable, and highly efficient alternative with the potential for up to 50% engine downsizing when applied to excavator truck-loading cycles. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) robust linear control strategies have been developed by the authors’ group with notorious improvements on the control of the state of charge of the high pressure accumulator. Nonetheless, the challenge remains to improve the actuator position and velocity tracking.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2850
John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Daniel Barba, Jeffra Rockwell
The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Center for Advanced Technology (NCAT), located at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been known for its development and demonstration of numerous low-greenhouse gas and fuel efficient series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain technologies and their application in commercial vehicles. Advances in these very fuel efficient hydraulic hybrid vehicle technologies have led the industry to begin manufacturing these exciting new technologies for both the commercial truck and non-road equipment markets, with development activities continuing in other markets including light-duty vehicles. The commercial emergence of these very low-greenhouse gas emitting hybrids led EPA to decide that the time had come to wind down its leadership role in developing and demonstrating these very fuel efficient technologies.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2778
Thomas Reinhart, Coralie Cooper, John Whitefoot, James MacIsaac
Medium- and Heavy Duty Truck fuel consumption and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are significant contributors to overall U.S. GHG emissions. Forecasts of medium- and heavy-duty vehicle activity and fuel use predict increased use of freight transport will result in greatly increased GHG emissions in the coming decades. As a result, the National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a regulation requiring reductions in medium and heavy truck fuel consumption and GHGs beginning in 2014. The agencies are now proposing new regulations that will extend into the next decade, requiring additional fuel consumption and GHG emissions reductions. To support the development of future regulations, a research project was sponsored by NHTSA to look at technologies that could be used for compliance with future regulations.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2798
Madhushankar Palanisamy, Jeffrey Lorch, Russell J. Truemner, Brian Baldwin
Modern diesel systems have come to rely on fuel systems with the capacity for high injection pressures. The benefits of such high pressures include improved tolerance for EGR, reduced emissions and improved performance. Current production fuel systems have typical capacities to 2500 bar, when a decade ago 1800 bar was a typical limit. Following the trend, this paper investigates the effect of rail pressures up to 3000 bar on a 1.5L single cylinder research engine. The injector nozzles tested include two variations in flow rate, the number of holes, and spray cone angle. In addition to fuel rail pressure, the effects of intake swirl, excess-air ratio, EGR, and injection timing are evaluated at speed and load points representative of A100, B100, and C100 test conditions of the U.S. EPA on-highway 13 Mode test cycle.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2772
Amy Kopin, Steven Musselman
Abstract For decades, the medium- and heavy-duty (“MD/HD”) commercial vehicle industry has focused on improving freight efficiency in order to lower customers' total operating costs. To optimize fuel efficiency, most manufacturers no longer focus on discreet components but instead look at the complete vehicle and operations. The path to future efficiency gains is not sufficiently clear when looking towards 2030; what is clear is that one solution will not work for all manufacturers or vehicle applications. Therefore, fuel efficiency regulations must be sufficiently adaptive to allow a variety of technical approaches to ensure the needs of the commercial truck market are met. This paper explores further the ideas presented in other papers that focus on regulation of engine-only emissions as an approach for HD vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2797
Meichun Peng, Yue Zheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Jiahao Wang
Abstract This paper studies the characteristics of fuel consumption and exhaust emission of city transit buses, and analyzes the fuel saving rate and exhaust pollutants reduction effect of LPG-HEV buses relative to LPG buses. The running speed, fuel consumption, exhaust emission and other variables of 3 LPG-HEV buses that aren't plug-in hybrid, and 2 LPG buses were measured by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under real driving situations of city transit buses in Guangzhou, China. The test data was analyzed to make a comparison between LPG-HEV and LPG buses. The study results show that the running speed of city buses in real driving modes is mainly distributed in the range of 0 to 35 km/h, and the average value is 18km/h, while the acceleration is distributed in a range from −0.5 to 0.5m/s2 mainly. The average fuel consumption of LPG-HEV buses is 51.02 l/100km, and is 6.23% lower than that of LPG buses.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2807
Katharina Eichler, Yousef Jeihouni, Carl Ritterskamp
Abstract In the near future engine emitted carbon dioxides (CO2) are going to be limited for all vehicle categories with respect to the Green House Gases (GHG) norms. To tackle this challenge, new concepts need to be developed. For this reason waste heat recovery (WHR) is a promising research field. For commercial vehicles the first phase of CO2 emission legislation will be introduced in the USA in 2014 and will be further tightened towards 2030. Besides the US, CO2 emission legislation for commercial engines will also be introduced in Europe in the near future. The demanded CO2 reduction calls for a better fuel economy which is also of interest for the end user, specifically for the owners of heavy duty diesel vehicles with high mileages. To meet these future legislation objectives, a waste heat recovery system is a beneficial solution of recovering wasted energies from different heat sources in the engine.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2817
Matthew Goertz, Lloyd Tull, Davis Moravec
Abstract The winter of 2013-2014 provided an opportunity to operate off-road vehicles in cold weather for extended time as part of a vehicle/tier 4 diesel engine validation program. An unexpected area of study was the performance of high efficiency, on engine, fuel filters during continuous vehicle operation in cold weather. During the program we observed unexpected premature fuel filter plugging as indicated by an increase in pressure drop across the filter while in service. Field and laboratory testing was completed at John Deere and Donaldson to understand the cause of filter plugging. Although conditions were found where winter fuel additives could cause plugging of high efficiency filters, premature filter plugging occurred even when testing with #1 diesel fuel. This fuel contained no additives and was used at temperatures well above its cloud point.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2885
Nicholas Schaut, Raja Sengupta
Abstract As part of the United States Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, Volvo Trucks and its partners were tasked with demonstrating 50% improvement in overall freight efficiency for a tractor-trailer, relative to a best in class 2009 model year truck. This necessitated that significant gains be made in reducing aerodynamic drag of the tractor-trailer system, so trailer side-skirts and a trailer boat-tail were employed. A Lattice-Boltzmann based simulation method was used in conjunction with a Kriging Response Surface optimization process in order to efficiently describe a design space of seven independent parameters relating to boat-tail and side-skirt dimensions, and to find an optimal configuration. Part 1 concerns a fully-skirted tractor-trailer system, and consists of an initial phase of optimization, followed by a mid-project re-evaluation of constraints, and an additional period of optimization.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2894
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Mithun Shetty
Abstract The performance of several aerodynamic technologies and approaches, such as trailer skirts, trailer boat tails, gap reduction, was evaluated using track testing, model wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation, in order to assess the influence of the design, position and combination of various aerodynamic devices. The track test procedure followed the SAE J1321 SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure - Type II. Scale model wind tunnel tests were conducted to have direct performance comparisons among several possible configurations. The wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 1/8 scale model of a tractor in combination with a 53-foot semi-trailer. Among others, the wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations confirmed the influences of trailer skirts' length observed during the track tests and that the wider skirt closer to the ground offer better results.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0079
Bharat Singh, Mukesh Singh, Anish Jindal, Neeraj Kumar, Praveen Kumar
In smart homes, consumers have the advantage of proper management of smart devices by scheduling them in different time slots in a day. Scheduling is done based on the price of electricity offered in a particular time slot which results in better cost and power saving. In this paper, the design of the Smart Home Energy Management System (SHEMS) is presented which gives the choice between comfort or cost saving to the consumers. The role of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) i.e. Solar PV panels in the optimal scheduling of devices and electric vehicles (EVs) is also studied.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0082
Mukesh Singh, Rubi Rana, Kuljeet Kaur
In this paper, frequency regulation in the smart grid environment is achieved by controlling the charge and discharge rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs) battery. The aggregators at the charging station (CS) level are designed which help in coordinating the group of EVs. EVs will charge or discharge based on the need of the grid for frequency regulation. It has been verified that EVs in V2G environment will stabilise the grid in terms of frequency if the coordination among the EVs are achieved through aggregators. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposal. It is finally verified that controlled charging and discharging of EVs battery can stabilise the grid in terms of frequency.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0083
Ezhil Joy
The increased penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in real time may result in voltage rise or drop at the distribution node (DN). An idea of active and reactive power exchange through EV charging station (CS) for voltage regulation at the DN is presented. A CS is modeled with multiple charging systems which enables EVs of different battery ratings to charge and discharge. The individual charging systems are composed of grid connected bidirectional three phase ac-dc and a series connected dc-dc converter with suitable controllers. The complete CS is externally controlled by a fuzzy controller and an aggregator to handle multiple EVs arrived at the CS. Voltage profile evaluation have been done with different power transfer approaches to foresee the CS behavior. Validation of the study is carried out using a realistic distribution system of a typical city considering 35 EVs of different battery ratings connected at the DN via CS.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-28-0080
Kannan Thirugnanam
Due to increasing peak power demand and decreasing quality of power delivery to consumers, the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are highly acceptable for grid support. If the EVs are exchange active and reactive power to grid during parking hours, then the peak power demand has reduced and quality of power delivery has improved. The EVs are discharged at a place to be called as a Grid Supporting Station (GSS). The GSS have multiple Discharging Units (DUs) which transfers active and reactive power from EVs’ batteries to grid. In this paper, a fuzzy based control method is described for EVs which regulate the active and reactive power for grid support. The active and reactive power flow from EVs to grid based on the node voltage and amount of energy available in the GSS. Each DU is designed for a maximum power handling capacity of 80VA. The performance of the GSS is analyzed with five set of EVs which is connected through point of Common Coupling (PCC) of distribution node.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16916