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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16412
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for the electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Nadeem Yamin, Abhishake goyal
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mohd Waqar Naseer Siddiquee, Vasu Kumar
To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. On the other hand, the growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. The use of oxygenated fuels like alcohols showed tendency to decrease internal combustion engine emissions. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency. The very low cetane number limits the usage of neat alcohols in diesel engines so they should be blended with diesel fuel without any modifications in the engine fuel system.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Ioan Campean, Tim Beattie, David Richardson
In addition to the pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, the expected introduction of new emission legislation focused on particulate number emissions (Pn) adds considerable challenge to the Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine calibration task, in order to avoid an increase in complexity and cost of the aftertreatment system. The research presented in this paper focuses on the development of a calibration optimisation methodology aiming to deliver an enhanced trade-off between high level attributes such as the CO2 and Pn emissions and drive-ability, for a GDI engine with multiple injection ECU capability. The work is based on steady state engine test experiments conducted in the Powertrain Research Centre at the University of Bradford. The paper describes the engine mapping experiments which were based on an innovative sequential space-filling DoE test plan. This is underpinned by a space filling screening experiment aimed to explore efficiently the variable space and study the effect of the calibration variables on Pn and CO2, followed by mapping experiments consisting of iterative model building – model validation DoEs based on optimal space filling criteria.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Ioan Campean, David Richardson
The development of engines to achieve improved performance, fuel consumption, emissions and drivability, in response to the demands of the market and the requirements of legislation, and within reduced development times, is an increasing challenge. To meet this challenge an increasing number of control devices, such as variable valve timing, are being introduced all of which require additional calibration requirements for the engine electronic control unit (ECU). These technologies ease the task of achieving targets for emissions and fuel economy. However, they increase the complexity in the powertrain development process due to increasing development time and the cost of testing the engine at different settings of input variables. This paper presents the development of a multidisciplinary design optimisation framework to study the camshaft control strategies for a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine equipped with Variable Camshaft Timing (VCT). The aim of this research is to investigate the advantages of camshaft control strategies for the GDI engine considering the trade-off between technology improvement and cost effectiveness.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Tapio Pohjalainen, Martti Larmi
This study presents a novel crank mechanism which enables easy and fast compression ratio adjustment. The novel crank mechanism and piston travel is explained and highlighted. The basic idea is to have an eccentric crank pin. The eccentricity is easily adjustable. The first full scale engine demonstration test runs were made in Oulu University engine laboratory. The first test are explained. The first demonstration version is modified from an existing commercial SI engine. A GT-Power simulation model of the engine is made. The benefits of the new crank mechanism are demonstrated by the help of the simulation model. The new mechanism offers great possibilities for ex. to increase the part load performance in SI engines or make the engine adjustable for different fuels with best possible efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed methane-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed resulting in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The effect of lambda, start of injection and diesel substitution ratios on nozzle tip temperature was determined using an instrumented DI injector with a thermocouple inserted in the nozzle tip. From this study a baseline case was selected with a nozzle tip temperature of 325 °C. From the baseline case, λ, SOI and diesel substitution was changed individually creating 3 high temperature cases and 3 low temperature cases with the nozzle tip temperature 350 °C and 305 °C respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method. Many papers which show the result which the fuel produced by transesterification method can apply as diesel fuel are announced. It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with crude oil. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PES) which is a promoter of cancer. It is necessary to measure PEs contained in Jatropha crude oil and PM in exhaust gas for safe use. Measurement of un-vaporized fuel sprays which was injected into pressurized vessel by high speed video camera and ignition characteristics by ignitability evaluation equipment of fuel (FIA-100) of Jatropha blended fuel were performed. The conventional jerk type fuel injection system which is used for industrial diesel engine and the high pressure common rail type fuel injection systems which is used for modern automobile diesel engine were examined. The engine performance and exhaust emission including Particulate Matter (PM) was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Annika Talus, Lisen Johansson, Francesco Regali, Ali Saramat
Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Ageing of biodiesel increases the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water in the fuel, degradation products that are known to increase the corrosion of metals in the system and thereby cause internal injector deposits (IID) and fuel filter blocking (FFB) which damage the fuel system. When performing accelerated corrosion tests in laboratory, biodiesel continues to degrade further, resulting in too aggressive system. In order to avoid exaggeration of degradation products in aged biodiesel, a stable test fuel that resembles biodiesel but otherwise is resistant to additional ageing during testing is needed. In this study a stable test fuel has been prepared and doped with impurity (methanol) and degradation products such as SCFA and water. The prepared test fuel was evaluated with regards to its structure using GC-MS, water content using Karl Fisher volumetric titration, SCFA using extraction ion chromatography and methanol using GC-FID, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Stamatios Spyridon Kalligeros, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois, George Anastopoulos
Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel in winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend cloud point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent vehicle stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that saturaded monoglyceride content were a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters. It was also discovered that saturated diglycerides, were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest procedure in order to predict the content of the saturated monoglycerides even with uncertainty which can vary from -50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as it introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013. The model is based on the assumption that saturated fatty esters, saturated fatty acids and saturated monoglycerides are present in the same proportions in the FAME.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Juhani K. Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Paivi Aakko-Saksa, Sari Mannonen, Ville Vauhkonen, Pirita Roslund
UPM BioVerno, a high quality “drop-in” renewable diesel fuel from tall oil, was studied as a component in regular mineral-oil based fossil diesel fuel. For this work, UPM teamed up with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland for field testing. The aim was to evaluate the functionality and performance of four (4) passenger cars by taking into account e.g. fuel consumption and exhaust emissions when compared to fossil reference fuel. The field test included 20.000 km on-road driving with each car by experienced drivers from VTT with variable trip lenghts, traffic and climate conditions. Initial, mid-term and final in-laboratory tests were run for perfor¬man¬¬ce and emissions. Four other make/model cars were subjected to similar tests with UPM BioVerno test blend and reference diesel. Apart from regulated exhaust emissions, a list of non-regulated species were also measured. The main parts of these field and in–laboratory tests are discussed in this article. UPM BioVerno proved to be a high quality blending component that did not change the functionality nor the emission characteristics of the tested diesel passenger cars.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ekarong Sukjit, Jose M. Herreros, Karl Dearn, Athanasios Tsolakis
The interest in ethanol as a fuel blend component in compression ignition engines is increasing especially in non-petroleum producing countries, due predominantly to the potential emissions benefits of the oxygen in the ethanol molecules. However, the use of fuel blends with high percentages of ethanol can lead to poor fuel quality, affecting for example fuel miscibility, cetane number, viscosity and lubricity. An approach which can be used to improve these properties is the addition of biodiesel forming ternary blends (ethanol-biodiesel-diesel). To avoid the use of first generation of biodiesel derived from edible sources (bypassing potential foodstock supply issues), the addition of castor oil-derived biodiesel (COME) with methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH) as a principal constituent provides an attractive alternative. The addition of C18:1 OH into ethanol-diesel blends provides high viscosity and improved lubricity. This study reports the findings of an investigation of the physical properties of ethanol-diesel blends with the addition of hydroxylated biodiesel derived from castor oil.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Oliver M. Smith, Alexander Michlberger, Doug Jayne, Alex Sammut, Mike Sutton
It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress. Conventional tribological techniques have proved adequate in the past at allowing development of the lubricated tribocouple system. In the past, basic approximations to the tribological conditions in the power-cylinder have been used to guide engineering systems design and lubricant formulating on a macro scale. Compromise and informed assumption allowed simple simulations to be conducted on a bench-top scale. By employing this approach much knowledge has been generated that increases our understanding of the tribology of piston assemblies beyond what would have been possible from engine testing alone.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Wolfgang Ruck
Increasing the proportion of renewable energy in the transport sector and therefore the reduction of the dependence on fossil oil is a prime political and economic goal in Europe and also in many other parts of the world. On the diesel sector, especially vegetable oil methyl ester is introduced. The blending of commercial diesel fuel with up to 7 % of biodiesel leads to a lot of problems in the range of engine oil in cars. Because of the regeneration of the particle filter there is an increase of the fuel entry of unburnt fuel in the engine oil. The first effect of this fuel entry is the engine oil dilution which can be observed for all diesel fuels. Unlike biodiesel, commercial diesel fuel can mostly evaporate out of the engine oil because of its lower boiling point. Biodiesel has a boiling point of about 360 °C which is the reason for its accumulation in the engine oil. High temperatures and atmospheric oxygen have a big influence on the oil and thus also on the fuel in engines. The underlying effect is an autoxidation reaction which is known as oil aging.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian
Nanolubricants are suspensions of nanoparticles in base fluids, a new challenge for thermal sciences provided by nanotechnology.The objective of this work is to analyze the thermal, tribological properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nano lubricants. Nanosized YSZ particles were prepared by milling YSZ (10µm) in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials using tungsten carbide balls. After 40 hrs, milled YSZ nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 70-90nm were obtained . The nanoparticles were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis(EDXA), Scanning Electron microscope(SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter and non contact 3D surface profilometer and the images of the same were obtained. The heat transfer properties of automotive engine lubricants were determined by utilization of measured thermal conductivity, viscosity index, density, flash point, fire point and pour point revealed that lubricants with additive constituents have a significant effect on the resultant heat transfer characteristics of the lubricants.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Damien Browne, Mark Dewey, Mike Sutton, Sarah Graham
Final Version Internal review completed: Fuel economy continues to be a significant driver of engine lubricant development. The cost of vehicle ownership, energy security and the need to limit greenhouse gas emissions are all factors in driving legislation that promotes vehicle fuel economy. These factors, as well as rising fuel costs, are forcing large fleet operators such as bus companies to investigate every possible area for improving the efficiency of their fleets. One area of interest for these companies is engine lubricants which are known to have a significant effect on the overall efficiency of a vehicle. Particularly since the incremental cost of such lubricants for the efficiency benefit obtained is a very good economic decision. One of the primary methods for delivering this benefit is by lowering the viscosity of the engine oil. However, the additive chemistry also plays an important role by maintaining the durability of the engine but also further improving the fuel efficiency by reducing the friction within the engine itself.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
n the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 Celsius. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 oC. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion. In this paper a study is presented where a second injector is installed in a Scania D13 cylinder head for urea injection purposes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions, ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic. This paper presents a brief review of recent literature on the subject as well as the results of a detailed experimental programme carried out under laboratory conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Hyunsup Yang, Kyung Seok Cho, Chi Yong Park, Dae Bok Keon, Chang Ha Lee, Yong Sun Park
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) is zero emission vehicles because it produces only water as a byproduct. The other advantages are a long driving range and a quick refueling time compared with the pure electric vehicle. The air compressor supply compressed air to the cathode of fuel cell stack to chemically react with the hydrogen from the compressed hydrogen tank to generate electric power. The majority of the companies have used displacement type screw compressor for their current and next generation air supply systems. The screw type air compressor was used for the supercharged internal combustion engines. Screw type air compressor has some advantage in increasing pressure ratio but it has disadvantage in NVH (Noise, Vibration and harshness), efficiency and productivity. Among them NVH is the greatest factor that inhibits the marketability of FCEV because it has no noise source such as internal combustion engine. Because of that, the screw type air compressor should have very expensive noise cover and muffler for the reducing of the pressure fluctuation to improve NVH level.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16412