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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16419
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo Bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andrew Smallbone, Amit Bhave, Peter Man
In this paper we combine experimental data, physics-based models and advanced numerical techniques to investigate 1) sources of friction losses in heavy-duty IC engines and, 2) fuel efficiency losses (and CO2 sources) in an engine and vehicle model over 160 ‘real-world’ and legislated drive cycles. These two applications are both typical examples where a multi-dimensional design space means that it is challenging to interpret and communicate the influence of each design parameter effectively and identify those of most importance for your chosen objective. In this paper, the authors present new methods to support a) the parameter estimation (model calibration) with respect to experimental data and, b) advanced global sensitivity analysis using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR).
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Miroslaw Wendeker, Grzegorz Baranski, Pawel Magryta
Applying electronic control to the fuel injection system has improved dynamic performances and reduced noxious emissions and fuel consumption. Air-fuel ratio (AFR) is a critical parameter for emission controls in internal combustion engines. An incorrect AFR metering causes high toxic gases emissions formulation. To achieve catalyst efficiency it is necessary to exactly meter the injected fuel by controlling the injectors opening time. The goal of a fuel-air controller is to control the fuel-air mass ratio of the mixture entering the engine, typically at or near the stoichiometric point for the fuel. It does this by measuring a number of parameters and calculating the length of time the fuel injector should be open for each intake stroke of the engine. The dynamics of in-direct fuel injection of the spark ignition engines are complicated. To develop a suitable air–fuel ratio control strategy for such fuel injection system, it is necessary a mathematical representation. In the case of gasoline injection a two states dynamic model is used to describe liquid and vapour fuel mass flows into the intake manifold, accounting for both the partial impingement of the injected liquid fuel on the manifold walls and the evaporation process.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Krisada Wannatong, Sompach Kongviwattanakul, Thananchai Tepimonrat, Thanadech Priroon
End of line test (EOL) of engine control units (ECU) is the process of ECU functions validation before releasing ECUs to the car assembly process. Examples of ECU function that need to be validated are idle control, air path control and faults manager function. To perform EOL, a vehicle and a chassis dynamometer are used to enable control functions validation inside the ECU. However, this poses high operating cost and long setup time. This paper presents the development of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system, which imitates real vehicle behavior on a chassis dynamometer. The engine model was developed using AVL Boost RT software, an engine cycle simulation modeling approach. The vehicle model is developed using AVL CRUISE software. In order to interface the engine and vehicle models with the ECU, HiL system is implemented. In the new EOL process, the vehicle is operated following the extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) including short engine idling time. During the test, the control and safety functions check are performed.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Felician Campean, Tim Beattie, David Richardson
In addition to the pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, the expected introduction of new emission legislation focused on particulate number emissions (Pn) adds considerable challenge to the Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine calibration task, in order to avoid an increase in complexity and cost of the aftertreatment system. The research presented in this paper focuses on the development of a calibration optimisation methodology aiming to deliver an enhanced trade-off between high level attributes such as the CO2 and Pn emissions and drive-ability, for a GDI engine with multiple injection ECU capability. The work is based on steady state engine test experiments conducted in the Powertrain Research Centre at the University of Bradford. The paper describes the engine mapping experiments which were based on an innovative sequential space-filling DoE test plan. This is underpinned by a space filling screening experiment aimed to explore efficiently the variable space and study the effect of the calibration variables on Pn and CO2, followed by mapping experiments consisting of iterative model building – model validation DoEs based on optimal space filling criteria.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Felician Campean, David Richardson
The development of engines to achieve improved performance, fuel consumption, emissions and drivability, in response to the demands of the market and the requirements of legislation, and within reduced development times, is an increasing challenge. To meet this challenge an increasing number of control devices, such as variable valve timing, are being introduced all of which require additional calibration requirements for the engine electronic control unit (ECU). These technologies ease the task of achieving targets for emissions and fuel economy. However, they increase the complexity in the powertrain development process due to increasing development time and the cost of testing the engine at different settings of input variables. This paper presents the development of a multidisciplinary design optimisation framework to study the camshaft control strategies for a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine equipped with Variable Camshaft Timing (VCT). The aim of this research is to investigate the advantages of camshaft control strategies for the GDI engine considering the trade-off between technology improvement and cost effectiveness.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Bo Hu, Colin Copeland, Chris Brace, Sam Akehurst, Alessandro Romagnoli, Ricardo Martinez-Botas, J.W.G Turner
Turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speed and load cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. Meanwhile, engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. The expansion-cooling concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by recovering some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any twin charged (supercharger and turbocharger) engine system with an intercooler in between. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is overboosted. After the intercooler, the supercharging system behaves like a turbine to expand the over-compressed intake charge and reduce its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the camshaft. It is anticipated that such a concept has benefits for knock resistance and energy recovery while suffering higher pumping losses.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Michael Bunce, Hugh Blaxill
With an increasing global awareness of the need to conserve fuel resources and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the automotive sector has been seeking gains in engine efficiency. One such method for achieving these gains on a spark ignition (SI) engine platform is through lean burn operation. Lean burn operation has demonstrated the ability to increase thermal efficiency, but this increase is often accompanied by increases in criteria pollutants, namely nitrogen oxides (NOx). By contrast, ultra-lean operation (λ>2) has demonstrated the ability to increase thermal efficiency and significantly reduce NOx due primarily to lower mean gas temperatures. Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI), a pre-chamber-based combustion system, is a technology that enables ultra-lean operation through an effective de-coupling of the λ values in the pre-chamber and the main combustion chamber. TJI is also an effective knock mitigation system due to the distributed nature of main chamber ignition, resulting in rapid burn rates.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Patrick Smith, Wai K. Cheng, John Heywood
The effects of piston top-land crevice size on the indicated fuel conversion efficiency are assessed in a single cylinder SI engine with 465 cc displacement. The operating conditions are at 3.6 and 5.6 bar net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP), and at 1500 and 2000 rpm speeds. The crevice volume is varied from 524 to 1157 mm^3 by changing the top land height from 3 to 7 mm, and by changing the top-land clearance from 0.247 to 0.586 mm. For a 1000 mm3 reduction in the top land crevice volume (measured cold), the indicated net fuel conversion efficiency increases by 1.8 percentage points at 3.6 bar NIMEP, and by 1.6 percentage points at 5.6 bar NIMEP. The results are not sensitive to the engine speeds under test. These values are consistent with a simple crevice filling and discharge/oxidation model.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Patrick Smith, John Heywood, Wai Cheng
With ever tightening CO2 emissions standards, engine efficiency has jumped to the forefront of automotive engine focus. A proven way to realize efficiency gains is through the increase of engine compression ratio. Various experimental and simulation studies are compiled to quantify the effect of compression ratio on modern spark ignited engine efficiency. Four studies are taken from research conducted at the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at MIT and three are from the literature. Compression ratios range between 8 and 13.4 looking at gross indicated efficiency, net indicated efficiency, and brake efficiency. Curves of efficiency versus compression ratio are fit to the data points for each of the studies and normalized about a compression ratio of 10. Average curves for each of the three efficiency types across all data available show that increasing from a compression ratio of 10 to 13 results in relative increases of 5.1% for brake efficiency, 4.6% for gross indicated efficiency, and 4.5% for net indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Le-zhong Fu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Xiao Yu
Internal combustion rankine cycle engine could have high fuel efficiency and ultra-low emission performance. In an ideal ICRC engine, high temperature liquid water is injected into the cylinder near top dead center to control the combustion temperature and cylinder pressure rise rate, and then enhances the thermo efficiency and work. The reason is the extra work fluid into the cylinder in the form of water vapor which can make use of the combustion heat more effectively. Moreover, the high temperature water can be heated up through heat exchanger by exhaust gas and engine cooling system, and the waste heat carried away by engine cooling system and exhaust gas can be recovered and utilized. In this paper, a retrofitted, single-cylinder, air-cooled SI engine with propane fuel is adopted in the test. To simplify the experiments preparation, water is heated up in an electric heater in a high-pressure rail and injected into the cylinder with a solenoid diesel injector. The water injection pressure is obtained from a N2 tank and amplified through the pressure amplifier up to 15~25MPa.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohsen Salem Radwan, Osayed Sayed Mohamed Abu-Elyazeed, Y. A. Attai, M. E. Morsy
Jojoba bio-diesel is one of the most promising bio-fuels to substitute gas oil in diesel engines. Therefore, since the ignition delay is an important parameter in combustion, emissions and engine noise , the present work was dedicated to measure and correlate the pressure rise ignition delay of jojoba bio-diesel and its blends with gas oil behind incident shock waves. For this purpose, a shock tube test set up was designed and manufactured. It was fully instrumented for delay measurement with two piezo-electric pressure transducers, dual mode charge amplifier, data acquisition card and a computer with suitable LabVIEW software. The test variables included the type of fuel (percentage of Jojoba bio-diesel in the blend with gas oil), equivalence ratio, ignition temperature and ignition pressure. It was found that jojoba bio-diesel exhibited a lower ignition delay in comparison with that of gas oil. Rich or lean mixtures produce long delays, whilst the minimum delay occurred near the stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on spray and soot formation. We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated bio-fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. The numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). We conducted a 3-D numerical study using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting a gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model, including soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. In this numerical study, the ambience temperature and density were set at 900 K and 12 g/cm3, respectively to reproduce the in-cylinder conditions almost similar to a low load and speed condition in the ordinary light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andreas Schmid, Beat Von Rotz, German Weisser, Kai Herrmann
During their lifetime, marine diesel engines are operated with a broad variety of fuels and fuel qualities. For their commissioning, the engines run on marine diesel oil whereas the rest of their rather long service life the engines mostly experience a variety of heavy fuel oils with a broad spectra of qualities. Especially viscosity, density, aromatic content and cetane number vary significantly depending on origin and batch number of the bunkered fuel. To ensure reliable engine operation irrespective of fuel quality, manufacturers have to make sure that injection systems and in-cylinder conditions allow the application of these fuels throughout the operating range. To do so, the optimization of combustion systems of large 2-stroke marine diesel engines still relies largely on extensive testing. However, experiments are more and more supported by CFD simulations, in spite of limitations regarding the applicability of the available spray, evaporation, combustion and emissions formation models to those systems.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pedro M. Barroso, Judith Dominguez, Mario Pita Sr, Xavier Ribas
An experimental study was carried out in order to determine the effect on performance and pollutant emissions of converting an existing heavy-duty diesel engine for alternative fuel use. More specifically, a HD diesel engine used in commercial vehicle applications with Euro II baseline emission level was studied in two ways: on the one hand the diesel engine was converted to a dedicated lean burn CNG engine and on the other hand the baseline diesel engine was converted to a dual-fuel engine (diesel + LPG) with multi-point LPG injection in the intake cylinder ports. The CNG engine conversion was achieved by means of some important modifications, such as the reduction of the compression ratio by increasing the volume of the combustion chamber in the piston, the design of a spark plug adapter for the installation of the spark plugs in the cylinder head, the design of a gas injection system to attain efficient multi-point gas flow and injection, and the implementation of a complete electronic management system by means of an engineered gas ECU.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amrit Singh, David Anderson, Mark Hoffman, Zoran Filipi, Robert Prucka
The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with the addition of intake fumigated natural gas. Fumigated dual-fuel systems replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated. A heavy duty diesel engine with the capability of running both natural gas and diesel is operated at points where knock occurs and the cylinder pressure traces are recorded.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Marek Flekiewicz, Grzegorz Kubica, Bartosz Flekiewicz
THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IN SI ENGINES FOR SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS Abstract The analysis of overall performance of the engine powered by selected gaseous fuels has been presented in this paper. Primary objective of the research was to determine the influence of fuel type on efficiency of energy conversion in the tested engine. The scope of the research featured: • the application low-carbon fuels, • the use of DME as a renewable fuel in blends with LPG. The use of low-carbon gaseous fuels gives the opportunity to reduce exhaust emissions. Changes in global economy including energy sources, are currently oriented onto the gradual replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources. World widely present activities include promotion of alternative fuel systems both in the vehicles as well as in stationary engines. The basic assumption in the presented research was the use of gaseous fuels, which main component is methane. The main problem taken into consideration was excessive duration of the combustion process, which is one of the causes of the engine overall efficiency reduction when running on gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jay Anderson, Scott Miers, Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
In recent years, increasing difficulty of crude oil production combined with rising oil prices and the popularization of green motoring have fostered greater research interest in alternative combustion fuels. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fuel that provides beneficial combustion properties, low tailpipe emissions and benefits from significant domestic production resources in the United States. Mainly because of these factors, CNG has begun see utilization in passenger vehicles. This work seeks to provide a practical evaluation of CNG as compared to gasoline as a fuel for use in passenger vehicle engines. To this end, two similar compact sedans were selected. The first is equipped with a gasoline combustion engine, while the second is powered by a modified version of this engine fueled with CNG. Both vehicles are factory configurations available for purchase. The vehicles were subjected to a number of chassis dynamometer tests including the UDDS, HWFET and US06 driving schedules as well as selected steady state testing.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Schaberg, Mark Wattrus
In many countries fuel standards permit the limited addition of FAME to diesel fuel. For example, in Europe, diesel fuel complying with the EN590:2009 regulation may contain up to 7% FAME, and the low carbon fuel standards being considered in many regions encourage the consideration of even higher levels of FAME addition. Standards organisations such as CEN, ASTM, and CARB are also contemplating standards for paraffinic diesel fuels such as GTL (Gas-to-Liquids) diesel and HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil), an example being CEN Technical Standard 15940:2012. Since these standards may also allow the addition of FAME, it was decided to perform an extensive evaluation of the properties and performance of blends of GTL diesel and FAME, including emissions performance which is reported on in this paper. Fuels that were variously considered in the study were blends of GTL and EN590 diesel containing 0, 7, and 20 vol% of SME and RME (Soy and Rapeseed Methyl Ester). Part of the study focussed on European engine technology, and tests were performed on a Euro 4 passenger vehicle and engine, and a Euro V heavy-duty engine.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16419