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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17483
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0012
Zhimin Lin, Kotaro Takeda, Yuki Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion have attracted much attention as a high efficiency and clean combustion system. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing because there are no a physical means of ignition. In addition, it is difficult to expand the operating range due to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and the occurrence of rapid combustion (HCCI knocking) accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations at high loads. Therefore, it is important to reduce the pressure oscillations of HCCI combustion knocking for expanding the operating range to the high load region. This study focused on the rapid combustion in HCCI. A primary reference fuel (0 RON) was used as the test fuel. The influence of external exhaust gas recirculation (cooled EGR) on HCCI knocking was investigated. HCCI combustion flame behavior with pressure oscillations were visualized by using a two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0011
Keito Agui, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yuki Takamura, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
This study focused on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, which is regarded both in Japan and abroad as a promising combustion system for achieving highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. With HCCI combustion, the premixed mixture of fuel and air supplied to the cylinder is autoignited by piston compression. Because a lean premixed mixture is burned in HCCI combustion, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) can be reduced simultaneously. Moreover, an HCCI system enables the engine to achieve higher thermal efficiency because it can operate stably at a sufficiently high compression ratio in a lean premixed combustion regime induced by autoignition. However, HCCI combustion has formidable unresolved issues. One is the difficulty of controlling the ignition timing owing to a lack of a physical means of igniting the mixture.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used, and two ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0015
Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Michael Zisser, Paul Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt
The partial electrification of the drivetrain permits a multitude of new control strategies like brake energy recuperation, engine start-stop operation, shifting of the engine working point, as well as in some situations pure electric driving. Overall this typically allows a reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of carbon dioxide emissions. During the development process of the vehicle various drivetrain configurations have to be considered and compared. This includes decisions regarding the topology - like the position of the electrical machine in the drivetrain (e.g. at the gearbox input or output shaft), as well as the selection of the needed components based on their parameters (nominal power, energy content of the battery, efficiency, …). To compare the chosen variants, typically the calculated fuel consumption for a given driving cycle is used.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0056
Qi-Jun Huang, Chia-Hong Chung, Yong-Fu Syu, Yuh-Yih Wu, Chao-Kai Li
Butanol is deemed as a potential alternative fuel for motor vehicle, but there are few studies about applying butanol in engine combustion. This paper focuses on application of butanol-gasoline blend fuel on scooter engine. In this research, different volume percentage of butanol-gasoline blend fuel, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are applied on 125cc scooter engine to conduct engine experiment, and higher than B60 blended fuel is declared as high concentration of butanol blended fuel. The test conditions are set at 4000 and 6000rpm under partial load and full load. After executing engine experiment, the engine performance, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), emissions and combustion analysis are discussed. Furthermore, viscosity and fuel spray test are carried out with high concentration of butanol. The engine experimental result shows that B20 fuels can increase engine performance under engine 4000 and 6000rpm.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0018
Mrinmoy Kalita, Murugesu Muralidharan, Masilamani Sithananthan, Muthan Subramanian, Yogesh Kumar Sharma, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Sarita Garg, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, Shankara Sri Venkata Ramakumar, Ramadoss Suresh
Indian Two-Wheeler Industry is the largest in the world with the annual growth rate more than 10percent year after year. More than 60% of gasoline production in India is consumed by two wheeler segment. Ever rising fuel demand and global concern on climate change have focused to develop energy efficient and eco-friendly vehicles. Several techniques such as engine design, efficient transmission and use of better quality of fuels and lubricants are applied world over to improve the efficiency of the vehicles. Low viscosity engine lubricant is one of the approaches which can be easily applied for better fuel economy. The lubricant requirement of motorcycles differs from that of passenger cars. The motorcycle engine oil is subject to both engine as well as wet clutch transmission system which operate under severe conditions.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0016
Maryam Sadeghi Reineh, Faryar Jabbari
This papers aims at using Anti-windup augmentation to an existing high performance controller to increase the range of net-power that can be obtained from a solid oxide fuel cell. The power drawn by the fan/blower is kept limited by a software/controller enforced bound that acts similar to a saturation bound. Anti-windup augmentation is then used to ensure stability and recovery of performance. The behavior of the controller, particularly the effects of the anti-windup loops on the second actuator (cathode inlet temperature), is then investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0002
Yuki Yoshida, Kotaro Takeda, Zhimin Lin, Masanori Yamada, Akira Iijima, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Hideo Shoji
Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0006
Ran Amiel, Leonid Tartakovsky
This paper provides an overview of the effect of a flight altitude on knock occurrence in reciprocating SI turbocharged engines. It presents results of the computational study aimed at investigating reasons leading to knock occurrence and methods of alleviating the knock tendency of aircraft engines. Knock has been one of the key limiting factors in the development of IC engines since the first use of the technology more than a century ago. Aviation platforms are becoming increasingly widespread around the world, and turbochargers are frequently added to improve the performance of the platforms at high altitudes. Although a turbocharger provides the benefits of improved BSFC and a downsized engine, turbocharging can result in engine knock because of increasing the intake air temperature, due to a rise in the compression ratios as the air density drops.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0005
Kotaro Takeda, Shimada Takashi, Yuki Yoshida, ZhiMin Lin, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
One of the main issues of high efficient Spark Ignition (SI) engine is knocking. In addition, the extremely rapid combustion that occurs under a high load in an HCCI engine prevents the stable operating region from being expanded. It is known that abnormal combustion occurs in an HCCI engine accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations resembling knock in spark-ignition (SI) engines. In this study, experiments were conducted in which images of SI and HCCI combustion were obtained using the same test engine and frame rate. A two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area was used in this study. In the visualization experiments, the condition in the cylinder was photographed directly with a high-speed camera through a quartz observation window installed in the top of the cylinder head. Photographs were taken at a speed of 54000 frames/s and a resolution of 256 x 256 pixels.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0007
Kento Shimizu, Shuhei Takahata, Kenta Miura, Hideo Shoji, Akira Iijima, Toshimasa Utaka, Kazushi Tamura
Abnormal combustion experiments were conducted in which engine oil additives were mixed into the test fuel in order to investigate their influence on the occurrence of abnormal combustion. A four-stroke side-valve engine that allowed in-cylinder visualization of the combustion flame and light absorption measurements were used in the experiments. Different type of calcium-based engine oil additives were mixed into the primary reference fuel (PRF 50) at the same ratios at which they are found in ordinary automotive engine oil.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0014
Amnon Eyal, Leonid Tartakovsky
This study examines the possibility of using methanol reforming products to feed a Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. By changing the composition of these products, one can manage the HCCI combustion process. These products are produced in an on-board reformer, which utilizes the energy of the exhaust gases to sustain endothermic reactions. The reactions include, in series, first dehydration of methanol to Dimethyl-Ether (DME) and H2O with support of γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and then a methanol steam reforming (SRM) process with support of a CuO/ZnO/Al2O¬3 catalyst. The two processes are separated from each other, i.e. in the first section only methanol dehydration occurs and in the second section only SRM process occurs. This is made possible due to the specific catalysts that were chosen. The DME, which is produced in the dehydration process, does not take a part in the SRM process.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0026
Meichun Peng, Jiahao Wang, Jiaru li
In order to reduce fuel consumption of the HONDA Energy Saving Race car, by analyzing the driving characteristics, the road condition of track and racing rules, a fuel consumption model of racing car was developed based on automobile kinematics theory. The model was applied to study the eco-driving scheme which was mainly focused on optimizing design of throttle opening and the speed range of acceleration and deceleration based on the racing track condition. Several eco-driving schemes ware proposed, and it is gotten the optimum results which is the engine throttle opening is controlled at 60% to 80%, and the vehicle speed is remained in 5 to 65km/h when acceleration and deceleration. In addition, the racing car should coast in neutral fully within the allowable running time by the racing rules. The eco-driving scheme was described in driving cycle and input into the vehicle fuel consumption simulation model developed, and calculated the average fuel consumption.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0048
Garrett Parker, Stuart Bartley, Michael Nicholls
Two-stroke engine keep-clean data is presented to demonstrate the deposit removal capabilities of a premium fuel additive. In this testing, the fuel additive was added as a top-treatment to a 50:1 blended fuel-oil mixture. Engine testing was conducted on an Echo(TM) SRM-265 (25.4 cc) string trimmer run under a standardized test cycle. Test measurements included piston deposits, ring deposits, and exhaust port blockage. In addition, a more complete data set was analyzed and several variables were investigated including: different base gasoline fuels, ethanol level (E0 and E10), additive dose (none, low, and high), and fuel stabilizer dose (none and high). Post test inspection of engine parts using fuel additives showed a high level of clean surfaces, which maintained the engine at its original performance.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0075
Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam, Rahul Sharma
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on Vehicular mass emissions was investigated on a spark ignited single cylinder Closed Loop fuel injected vehicle complying Euro III emission norms. Fuels blended with 10(E10) & 20(E10) percentage by volume of ethanol were taken up to study their effect on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) without any modification to the vehicle. The cycle is a simulation of real world driving conditions. In WMTC Cycle, maximum CO emissions were obtained with E10 fuel which showed an increase of 13%. THC emissions decreased by 10% and NOx emissions remained the same when the ethanol blend increases. Fuel economy decreases by 5% with use of E20 on the cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0076
Rahul Sharma, Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on vehicle emissions was investigated in a spark ignited single cylinder carbureted vehicle meeting Bharat Stage III (BS III) emission norms. The effect of fuel blended with 10(E10) & 20(E20) percentage by volume of ethanol; was studied on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) as well as on Indian drive cycle (IDC) without any modifications on the vehicle. These cycles are simulation of real world driving conditions. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and increases leaning effect. It has been observed on IDC that addition of ethanol reduces CO up to 41%, THC emissions decreases by 9% and NOx reduces up to 12%. In WMTC Cycle, the CO reduces up to 32%, THC emission increases by 30%. NOx emissions on WMTC cycle decrease with the use of E10 by 6% while increase with the use of E20 by 7%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0092
Tomokazu Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Kosei, Sadaaki Ito, Satoshi Iijima
Due to its body configuration, the engines of scooter type two wheeled vehicle are not directly exposed to the ram air. The cylinder head and the parts in the proximity therefore are cooled by the air blown from the cooling fan directly attached to the crankshaft. That means that the amount of cooling air depending on the engine speed is always supplied to the engine regardless of the engine condition being cold or hot. Also, the cooling capacity is designed so as to prevent any thermal problems even under the highest-temperature conditions. Accordingly, just after cold start or during running under a low load condition, the engine is operated under an over-cooled condition in many cases. When operated under an over-cooled condition, the fuel economy generally becomes poor. Such a phenomenon is attributable to an increase of friction loss from the increase of oil viscosity along with a lowering of oil temperature.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0045
Joseph K. Ausserer, Marc D. Polanka, Jacob Baranski, Paul Litke
Small remotely piloted aircraft (10 25 kg) powered by internal combustion engines typically operate on motor gasoline, which has an anti-knock index (AKI) of >80. To comply with the single-battlefield-fuel initiative in DoD Directive 4140.25, interest has been increasing in converting the 1 10 kW power plants in the aforementioned size class to run on lower AKI fuels such as diesel and JP-8, which have AKIs of ~20. It has been speculated that the higher losses (short circuiting, incomplete combustion, heat transfer) that cause these engines to have lower efficiencies than their conventional-scale counterparts may also relax the fuel-AKI requirements of the engines. To investigate that idea, the fuel-AKI requirement of a 3W-55i engine was mapped and compared to that of the engine on the manufacturer-recommended 98 (octane number) ON fuel.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0034
Stephan Jandl, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt, Ute Dawin, Armin Kölmel, Stefan Leiber
The worldwide increasing energy consumption, the decreasing energy resources and the continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to counteract these problems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like Ethanol, Methanol and Butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of non-automotive applications raise the need for specific research. Therefore, a zero dimensional vaporization model was set up to illustrate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0036
Takamori Shirasuna, Ryoh Hatakeyama, Yukio Sakai
In recent years, the need is growing for a fuel efficiency enhancement of motorcycles equipped with Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT), of which the vehicle sales volume is rapidly increasing in developing countries. To develop a vehicle with excellent fuel efficiency, a precise estimation of fuel economy is required at the beginning stage of a vehicle development. One of the indices that are used for evaluation of fuel economy of a vehicle is fuel economy to a predetermined test mode of driving (mode fuel consumption). One of the parameters that plays an important role for the mode fuel consumption calculations is pulley ratio of CVT. In rubber belt CVTs for motorcycles, their pulley ratio varies at every moment depending on the balance between the traveling resistance and thrust force applied to the sidewall of the belt. The state of this pulley ratio variation differs among vehicles and/or among CVT specifications.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9075
Martijn van Essen, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Torsten Mundt, Howard Levinsky
Abstract The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at non-knocking conditions are compared with calculated pressure profiles using a model that predicts the time-dependent in-cylinder conditions (P, T) in the test engine (“combustion phasing”). This model was extended to include the effects of humidity. The results show that the extended model accurately computes the in-cylinder pressure history when varying the water fraction in air. Increasing the water vapor content in air decreases the peak pressure and temperature significantly, which increases the measured Knock Limited Spark Timing (KLST); at 4.3 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 19 °CA BTDC while at 11 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 21 °CA BTDC for the same fuel.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9076
Ulas Yildirim, Renee Webster, David Evans, Paul Rawson
Abstract Aviation turbine fuel and diesel fuel were blended with synthetic paraffins produced via two pathways and the combustion properties measured. Both aviation and diesel fuel containing synthetics produced from the fermentation of sugars, had a linear response to blending with decreasing ignition delay times from 5.05 - 3.52 ms for F-34 and 3.84 - 3.52 ms for F-76. For the same fuels blended with synthetics produced from the fermentation of alcohols, ignition delay times were increased out to 18.66 ms. The derived cetane number of the blends followed an inversely similar trend. Additionally, simulated distillation using ASTM D2887 at high synthetic paraffinic kerosene blend ratios resulted in the recovery temperatures being incorrectly reported. In this case, higher recovery volumes were at lower temperatures than earlier recovery points i.e. T90< T50, for SIP-SPK.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2246
Rod Williams, Heather Hamje, David J Rickeard, Thomas Bartsch, Corrado Fittavolini, Paul Van de Heijning, Kalle Lehto, Garry Gunter, Javier Ariztegui Cortijo, Peter J Zemroch, Zissis Samaras, Athanasios Dimaratos
The European EN 590 diesel fuel specification allows up to 7% v/v FAME to be blended into conventional diesel fuel which can then be used in most light-duty diesel vehicles. It is anticipated that higher FAME levels may be needed in order to meet the 10% renewable energy target mandated by the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/EC/28).Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2252
Gregory Guinther, Scott Smith
Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines have a well-known propensity to form intake valve deposits (IVD), regardless of operator service, engine manufacturer, or cylinder configuration. Due to the lack of a fuel-washing process that is typical of Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines, the deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to deterioration in combustion, unstable operation, valve-sticking, or engine failure. Vehicles using these engines are often forced to undergo expensive maintenance to mechanically remove the deposits, which eventually re-form. The deposit formation process has not been well-characterized and there is no standardized engine test to study the impact of fuel or lubricant formulation variables. To meet this need, a vehicle-based GDI-IVD test that is both repeatable and responsive to chemistry has been developed.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2255
Martin Krieck, Marco Günther, Stefan Pischinger, Ulrich Kramer, Thomas Heinze, Matthias Thewes
Direct injection of LPG (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG fuel, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems (LPG PFI) to downsized gasoline DI engines. Furthermore higher combustion efficiencies are achieved with LPG DI operation compared to LPG PFI. For state-of-the-art gasoline direct injection engines, mechanically driven high pressure fuel pumps are used to compress fuel prior to injection into the cylinder. Since the thermal conditions of these pumps are considerably influenced by heat transfer of the engine, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in LPG evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump. This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2256
Kristin Götz, Barbara Fey, Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Jürgen Bünger, Markus Knorr, Olaf Schröder
The climate target of the European Union (EU) is the reduction of 40 % greenhouse gas reduction from the 1990s level by 2030 [1]. Currently the transport sector is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emission producer in the EU [2]. Drop-in biofuels can contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector and so as well the total GHG emissions. Diesel R33, a new developed biofuel enables sustainable mobility fulfilling the European diesel fuel specification and can reduce the GHG emissions of about 17 % versus fossil diesel fuel. Diesel R33 is made from seven percent used cooking oil methyl ester, 26 percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and 67 percent high quality diesel fuel. HVO was produced from rapeseed and palm oil. This new biofuel was tested in a fleet of 280 vehicles (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, off-road vehicles and urban buses) covering all emission classes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2259
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Fanourios Zannikos
The fuel supply chain faces the challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms. Microbial growth is an issue usually known to be associated with middle distillate fuels and biodiesel, however, incidents where microbial populations have been isolated from unleaded gasoline storage tanks have also been recently reported. Alcohols are employed as gasoline components and the use of these oxygenates is growing esp. regarding ethanol, which can be a renewable alternative to gasoline as well. Despite their alleged disinfectant properties, a number of field observations suggests that biodeterioration could be a potential issue in fuel systems handling ethanol-blended gasoline. The impact of alcohol-fuel blends on fuel microbial susceptibility has been the subject of few studies and additional work could contribute to the understanding of this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohols on microbial proliferation in unleaded gasoline fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2261
Maira Alves Fortunato, Aurelie Mouret, Chrsitine Dalmazzone, Laurie Starck
The use of biodiesel has risen worldwide in the last decade. In Europe the authorized biodiesel content into diesel blends is 7%v/v (8%v/v in France). In Asia and in some countries in South America this percentage can go up to 15%v/v with prospects to achieve 30%v/v in some regions by 2020. In addition, different countries will use different biodiesel feedstocks to supply their needs which will depend on the resources available locally. In parallel with this feature, some problems due to biodiesel content and feedstock quality are largely pointed out in the literature, which includes cold flow properties issues of methyl esters, especially Palm Methyl esters PME. The present work was carried out on diesel-biodiesel blends from 0 to 30%PME in order to evaluate the impact of crystals formation on fuel filter plugging using a rig test. The fuel was maintained at 5°C and 20°C during soaking.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2262
Atsushi Shimada, Yuzo Shirakawa, Takao Ishikawa
The internal combustion engine wastes large amount of heat energy. The heat energy accounts for about 60% of the fuel energy supplied to an engine. If the heat energy could be converted the output power of an engine, the thermal efficiency of an engine could be improved. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency of an engine has peaked because of the each combustion properties, such as knocking, narrow combustible range in spark ignition (SI) engine. The thermal efficiency of SI engine increases as the compression ratio and the ratio of the specific heat increase. If high octane number fuel is used for the fuel of the engine, the thermal efficiency could be improved. Moreover, if fuel can burn in dilute condition, the thermal efficiency could be improved further. Therefore, an exhaust heat recovery, a high compression combustion, a lean combustion are important methods for the thermal efficiency improvement. These three methods could be combined by using hydrous ethanol as fuel.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17483