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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16533
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0070
Amit Gawande, Virendra Bheda, Dinesh D. Welukar
Light weighting is the Current trends in automotive to achieve better fuel economy which helps for meeting fuel economy standards & to offset the higher fuel prices. Thus there is a need to develop composite running board which is light weight & structurally sound enough to meet the performance. The present paper provides a composite running board assembly for an automobile. The running board assembly includes a board, an insert body and a plurality of brackets. Upon stepping of a passenger on the board, the board transfers load on the insert body which subsequently transfers the load to the plurality of brackets thus facilitating even distribution of the load on the automobile body. This paper also put lights on the use of improved TRIZ application - an approach to inventive problem solving for designing highly affordable & light weight running board.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0148
Jagadeesh Selvaraj, Dayalan Purushothaman, P T Haridas
Fuel economy is an important parameter which determines the position of either On-road or Off-road vehicles in the market. Earth-movers are heavy duty Off-road vehicles that are used for construction works. Currently fuel consumption in earth-movers is quantified as fuel consumed per unit time (Liters per hour). Similarly, conventional measure of productivity of the earth-movers is in terms of volume of soil trenched per hour. Measurements using the above scales showed wide variations in measured fuel consumption and productivity, • for the same equipment between measurements • two equipment of same make at different trench locations and • against the competitor equipment The reason for this variation includes the difference in soil density at different places at different depths. Thus the earth-mover in trenching operation might consume less fuel/hour and gives more productivity for the soil density being less and vice versa for the soil density being high.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0064
Asmita Manwatkar, Prasad S Phale, Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf
Used oil analysis plays an important role in the field of engine development, considering that it can give brief idea about performance of lubricant/ oil being used, its compatibility with the system under considerations. Presently, regular testing are done like elemental analysis using ICP which can give idea about wear elements and additive elements. But it does not give information on morphological characterization of particles. In present work, Scanning Electron Microscopy technique with EDAX detector is used for characterizing the used oil. Oil is filtered on suitable paper and the particles collected on paper are analyzed. This gives the information on morphology and size of particles, their elemental analysis and mapping so that the sources can be judged. Size of wear metal particle is very important factor as even few bigger size particles are more detrimental than large number of smaller particles.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0052
Ashish Jashvantlal Modi, Dhiren Patel
As concerned with the IC engine now a day’s energy conservation and higher thermal efficiency are the main issues. As there is a big amount of heat loss in atmosphere due to which the efficiency is lower for the standard engine. There is one possible solution to reduce such problem by converting the conventional CI engine in to the LHR engine. For the current work the performance and emission characteristics are evaluated for the twin cylinder ceramic coated water cooled CI engine using blends of diesel and neem bio diesel. For the present work the bio-diesel was prepared in laboratory from non-edible vegetable oil (neem oil) by transesterification process with methanol, where potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used in as a catalyst. Inside Cylinder of combustion chamber, Piston top surface (crown) and valve faces were coated with the Magnesium Zirconate (MgZrO3).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Plant origin vegetable oils are long considered as a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine applications. However, higher viscosity and density compounded with poor cold flow properties of these oils lead to serious operational and durability problems in diesel engines like injector chocking, higher deposit formations, poor combustion characteristics etc. In this context, application of additives in neat vegetable oil to enable them for engine application seem to present a promising alternative for rural stationary diesel engines where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not feasible. In the present study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, S D Rairikar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission . In this case study, simulation model of a CNG LCV is used to analyse the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0213
Christoph Poetsch, Peter Priesching, Henrik Schuemie, Reinhard Tatschl
The operation of spark-ignition engines (SI-engines) is characterized by a non-repeatability of the instantaneous combustion rate of the individual engine cycles at nominally identical engine operating parameters, commonly referred to as cyclic combustion variability (CCV). CCV are responsible for the engine knock behavior and the related engine performance and fuel consumption. In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the analysis of CCV and their impact on engine efficiency and fuel consumption on component, sub-system and system level. On the component level, a 3D-CFD Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is used for the calculation of multiple engine cycles in order to analyze the impact of the flow field and mixture formation on the cycle-resolved flame propagation and hence on the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0117
Deepak Sharma, Sreenath K Reghunath, Ashwini Athreya
In the era of increasing the emission standards, hybrid technology is emerging to be the future mobility due to its reduced emissions and also for its fuel economy benefits. In Hybrid Vehicles, IC Engine sometimes operates in inferior efficiency points due to non-availability of secondary power unit support during low torque requirement. This happens due to lack of sufficient energy in the secondary energy storage system. The paper presents the concept of intelligent Stored Energy Control in Hybrid vehicles, utilizing the route information from the vehicle navigation system. Route terrain information is processed to analyze the future energy consumption pattern of the secondary unit. Based on the secondary power unit characteristics, a dynamic equivalent energy reserve calculation is done. The activation and deactivation of the secondary power unit is decided based on continuous monitoring of the level of stored energy and the reserve calculation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0053
Chandrakant Awate, Jayesh Zadokar, Sanjay Patel, Anay Malaviya, Vinti Arora
Abstract With ever increasing population growth and increase in per capita income, there is a lot of demand on energy requirements. Also due to depletion in fossil fuels, rocketing fuel prices and CO2 emissions standards, it is imperative to find solutions which are cost-effective and from sustainable energy sources. Being in the sunny tropical belt, India has high solar insolation, and so it should adopt a policy of developing solar power as a dominant component of the renewable energy mix. This paper describes the best possible ways to use solar energy for automotive application. This paper explains various types of photovoltaic (PV) technologies - crystalline and thin film solar cells for automotive use. A medium sized sedan vehicle with mild hybrid technology and roof mounted PV panel has been used for all experiments. The paper describe the benefits and limitations of each PV technology with experimental measurement and payback period analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Abstract Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in pollutant emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however - the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for three different operating points on a research single cylinder engine. Special focus lies on the partially/unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions which are typically high when CNG is well premixed and burning in a globally lean combustion environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0057
K. R. Patil, S. S. Thipse, Arundhati Warke
Abstract Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel used for diesel engines, owing to its high ignition quality. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effects of DEE blends with diesel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. The engine tests are carried out for 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the full load. In this study, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of DEE (by volume) are blended with diesel. Beyond 25% DEE blend, the viscosity and density of the blended fuel reduces as compared to the acceptable limits, that can further reduces the lubricity and create potential wear problems in sensitive fuel injection pump and fuel injector design. The laboratory fuel tests showed that DEE can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel. The blended fuel retains the desirable physical properties of diesel fuel but includes the cleaner burning capability of DEE.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0049
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, Ashish Singh, Dhruv Gupta, Jitesh Singh Patel
In the past few decades, use of energy resources in industrial and transportation sector have reached to its peak resulting in depleting resources and environment squalor. Vegetable oils, which have properties comparable to diesel fuel, are considered promising alternative fuels for unmodified diesel engines. However, high viscosity of vegetable oils is a major challenge which could be reduced by blending with alcohols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of Orange peel oil and n-butanol blends as an alternative fuel for CI engine. Various blends of butanol with Orange peel oil were prepared on volumetric basis and named as B10OPO90 (10% n-butanol and 90% Orange peel oil), B20OPO80 (20% n-butanol and 80% Orange peel oil), B30OPO70 (30% n-butanol and 70% Orange peel oil) and B40OPO60 (40% n-butanol and 60% Orange peel oil). All blends were found homogenous and various physico-chemical properties were evaluated in accordance to relevant standards.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0010
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Yuvaraj Khairate, Chandrakant Awate
Abstract Reckoning today's environmental rules, legislative regulation and market requirements- the automotive industry of late has witnessed an increased vigor and enthusiasm by auto makers towards electrification of vehicles across all platforms in a bid to improve fuel economy and performance. Hybridization of a vehicle often involves the use of expensive high performance motors and large battery packs. However due to the challenges associated with the packaging of bulky battery and motor systems in existing drive train, mild hybrid systems have been preferred over strong or full hybrids especially in current production models as they don't entail any major change in architecture and the reduced battery size, both of which provide for easier packaging of components.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0051
Srinivas Jilakara, Jaikumar V Vaithianathan, Saravanan Natarajan, Venkateswara R Ramakrishnan, GP Subash, Mathew Abraham, Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Lalit Mohan Das
Abstract Hydrogen is considered as one of the potential alternate fuel and when compared to other alternate fuels like CNG, LPG, Ethanol etc., it has unique properties due to absence of carbon. In the current work, Hydrogen engine of 2.5 L, four cylinder, spark ignited Turbocharged-Intercooled engine is developed for Mini Bus application. Multi-point fuel injection system is used for injecting the hydrogen in the intake manifold. Initially, boost simulation is performed to select the optimum compression ratio and turbocharger. The literature review has shown that in-order to get the minimum NOx emissions Hydrogen engines must be operated between equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. In the present study, full throttle performance is conducted mainly with the above equivalence ratio range with minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) ignition timing. At each operating point, the performance, emissions and combustion parameters are recorded and analyzed in detail.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0056
Pedro M. Barroso, Xavier Ribas, Mario Pita Sr, Judith Dominguez, Edgard De Seia
Abstract This work is based on the development of heavy-duty diesel engines for alternative fuel use. Three diesel engines for commercial vehicle applications were studied: a 13L diesel engine was converted to a dedicated lean-burn NG engine and two diesel engines (14 and 4.25L) were converted to a dual-fuel operation with diesel-NG and diesel-LPG respectively. The dedicated NG engine conversion was achieved by means of some relevant modifications such as the reduction of the compression ratio, design of a gas injection system, design of a spark plug adapter, and implementation of a complete EMS. In relation to dual-fuel cases, some minor modifications were made to the diesel baseline engines such as the installation of the gas train components and the implementation of a gas ECU for the management of the diesel and gas injection using some CAN bus J1939 signals.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0058
Sukrut Thipse, Ajit Vinayak Kulkarni, Suresh J Vispute, S D Rairikar, Shailesh B Sonawane, Vinayak Shivalink Sagare, Subhanker Dev, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, Parag Mengaji, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Neelkanth V Marathe, Kausik Sinha
Abstract Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines. A dual fuel (Diesel-CNG) engine is a base diesel engine fitted with a dual fuel conversion kit to enable use of clean burning alternative fuel like compressed natural gas. In this engine diesel and natural gas are burned simultaneously. Natural gas is fed into the cylinder along with intake air; the amount of diesel injection is reduced accordingly. Dual fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, higher compression ratio, and better efficiency and less modifications on existing diesel engines. It is an ecological friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0047
Darshan Jain, Saravanan Kumarasamy, K. C. Vora
Abstract:- Jatropha curcus.L, which is often referred to as “Jatropha” is a plant that produces seeds with high oil content. The plant can be grown on low fertile land with no intensive water supply. The seeds are toxic and are non-edible which make it an important source for producing bio-diesel in developing countries. The Jatropha seeds consist of kernels enclosed by shells. The maximum oil content of the seed is present in white kernels.There are different types of expelling methods such as Mechanical extraction, Solvent extraction and Enzymatic extraction.The study was conducted with hand driven mechanical expeller which is most conventional way of extracting oil from seeds and with mechanical efficiency of 60-80% for single pass. The study includes various combinations of parameters like seed treatment, sun drying, pre-heating, soaking at different temperatures and different de-hulling compositions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0116
Chinmay Kshirsagar
Engines of commercial vehicles deliver significant amount of power (more than 25% of propulsive power) for non-propulsive loads such as Air-Conditioner, Alternator, Air Compressor, Radiator Fan, Steering Oil pump, lights etc. Use of these auxiliaries cause sub-optimal utilization of engine power resulting in increased fuel consumption and emissions. A fuel cell powered auxiliary power unit (FC-APU) is proposed to isolate the auxiliaries from the engine. Use of FC-APU shall help improve load carrying capacity, gradeability, fuel efficiency, and emissions of the vehicle. This paper describes a mathematical system level model developed using MATLAB-SIMULINK to estimate auxiliary power consumption and simulate FC-APU system. A statistical analysis is performed on the power consumed by various auxiliaries during different duty cycles. The data is used to propose a FC- APU system. Fuel cell is the most expensive component in the system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0036
Marina Roche, Marco Mammetti
Accurate measurements in proving ground for fuel consumption reduction study in heavy duty vehicles Marina Roche, Marco Mammetti Applus IDIADA group ABSTRACT Heavy duty trucks running costs are strongly influenced by high fuel consumption. Even a small reduction has a big effect on fleet cost savings and pollutant contamination. From the different possible sub-systems to improve, reducing the rolling resistance of the tires is a cost-effective option due to its relatively high influence on the fuel consumption preventing to lose other performances. Even if the other causes of resistance forces like mechanical friction and aerodynamics must be optimized as well. The focus of the work is to propose an accurate methodology for the proper evaluation of resistance forces to allow fuel consumption simulations for heavy trucks. For this purpose, the results obtained in proving ground applying different resistance forces measurement methodologies were analyzed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favourable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a "Hydrogen Economy" are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0046
Sukrut S Thipse, Shailesh B Sonawane, Ashwin F D' Souza, S D Rairikar, Kishor Kumar Kavathekar, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract CNG has long since been established as a front runner amongst other available alternative fuels. In India, its infrastructure and penetration far exceeds others. While other, more efficient alternatives are been researched, CNG has established itself in the market as the alternative fuel of choice for majority of Indians. CNG technology has evolved itself from the basic venturi system to the more efficient sequential injection system nowadays. While the efficiency of an engine using sequential injection CNG has increased, the inherent problem with respect to lower volumetric efficiency and hence less power still persists. Direct injection CNG technology is seen as the solution to this age old problem. In the older days, the lack of technological expertise in SI direct fuel injection provided a stumbling block for development of direct gas injection.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0113
Prasad B. Warule, Vaibhav V. Jadhav, Ashish Ranjan
Abstract Hybridization with engine downsizing is a regular trend to achieve fuel economy benefits. However this leads to a development of new downsized engine which is very costly and time consuming process, also engine downsizing demands for expensive higher power electric system to meet performance targets. Various techniques like gear ratio optimization, reducing number of gears, battery size and control functionalities optimization have been evaluated for maximum fuel economy keeping system cost very low and improving vehicle performance. With optimized gear ratios and reduced number of gears for parallel hybrid, it is possible to operate the engine in the best efficiency zones without downsizing. Motor is selected based on power to weight ratio, gradient requirements, improved acceleration performance and top speed requirement of vehicle in EV mode.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0013
Ashwini S. Athreya, Sreenath K R, Deepak Sharma
In the era where governmental agencies are perennially pushing automobile OEMs for reducing harmful emissions and customers looking for vehicles with better fuel economy values, it is imperative on the manufacturers to implement/add new technologies to appease them. Of the many new technologies, the most promising ones are the new control strategies/algorithms which predictively access the road condition, weather, traffic situations and help automobile to function in the most efficient mode. These control strategies/algorithms are termed as “Predictive technologies”. The most common way to assess the benefit of such new technologies is to simulate the vehicle behaviour in conjunction with the existing complex control strategies of Hybrid vehicles, in the simulation environment.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9103
Waleed Faris, Hesham Rakha, Salah A. Elmoselhy
Vehicle analytical models are often favorable due to describing the physical phenomena associated with vehicle operation following from the principles of physics, with explainable mathematical trends and with extendable modeling to other types of vehicle. However, no experimentally validated analytical model has been developed as yet of diesel engine fuel consumption rate. The present paper demonstrates and validates for trucks and light commercial vehicles an analytical model of supercharged diesel engine fuel consumption rate. The study points out with 99.6% coefficient of determination that the average percentage of deviation of the steady speed-based simulated results from the corresponding field data is 3.7% for all Freeway cycles. The paper also shows with 98% coefficient of determination that the average percentage of deviation of the acceleration-based simulated results from the corresponding field data under negative acceleration is 0.12 %.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0005
Keisuke Mochizuki, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0002
Yudai Yamasaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
Abstract To determine the auto-ignition and combustion mechanisms and the components of syngas that are applicable to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the combustion characteristics and the chemical reaction process in an HCCI engine were studied numerically and experimentally using mock syngas with various mixtures of the fuel components. The mock syngas consisted of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) as the main combustible components, nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as incombustible components and a small amount of methane (CH4), assuming the composition of the gas was produced from wood by thermochemical conversion processes. The oxidation reaction process was analyzed numerically using CHEMKIN-PRO. Further experiments were conducted to investigate the validity of the calculated results. Primarily, the effects of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on auto-ignition and combustion were investigated.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0082
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Abstract Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to its opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia, Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0087
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0091
Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Although metallic compounds are widely known to affect combustion in internal combustion engines, the potential of metallic additives in engine oils to initiate abnormal combustion has been unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of combustion chamber deposits derived from engine oil additives on combustion in a spark-ignited engine. We used a single-cylinder four-stroke engine, and measured several combustion characteristics (e.g., cylinder pressure, in-cylinder ultraviolet absorbance in the end-gas region, and visualized flame propagation) to evaluate combustion anomalies. To clarify the effects of individual additive components, we formed combustion products of individual additives in a combustion chamber prior to measuring combustion characteristics. We tested three types of metallic additives: a calcium-based detergent, a zinc-based antiwear agent, and a molybdenum-based friction modifier.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16533