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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17224
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0739
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Venkatesan Kuppusamy
This paper aims at studying the effect of oxygen enriched combustion on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using the blend of Pyro oil obtained from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell and conventional diesel as fuel. A single cylinder water-cooled, agricultural purpose, direct injection diesel engine was used. The intake system of the engine was modified to accommodate excess oxygen in the incoming air. A separate oxygen cylinder was used for storing pure oxygen and supplying it along with intake air. Base line data was generated using diesel as fuel. Subsequently experiments were repeated with the blend of 40% of Cashew nut shell oil and 60% diesel by volume (called CSO40D60) at different oxygen concentrations such as 21%, 22% 23%, 24% and 25% in the intake air. Engine performance, emission and combustion parameters were obtained at different power outputs and analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0877
Preetham Churkunti, Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Christopher Depcik
Biodiesel derived from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) has gradually become more competitive in comparison to diesel (ULSD), but suffers from increased fuel consumption without calibration to change injection timings or pressures. Increasing biodiesel injection pressure has been found to mitigate problems associated with the high viscosity of biodiesel, decreasing fuel consumption. In addition, literature indicates increasing fuel injection pressure with biodiesel may be associated with decreased emissions (particularly NOx emissions). This study explores the usage of ULSD, WCO biodiesel, and their blends, with injection pressure adjustment in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Fuel injection pressures and timings for WCO biodiesel and blended fuels are adjusted to bring about combustion that mimics the in-cylinder pressure profile of operation with ULSD.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0829
Andrew McDaniel, Terrence Dickerson, Dianne Luning-Prak, Len Hamilton, Jim Cowart
The US Navy is in the process of evaluating Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion Jet fuel (CHCJ-5) for inclusion in the JP-5 specification, MIL-DTL-5624, and evaluating Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion Diesel fuel (CHCD-76) for inclusion in the F-76 specification, MIL-DTL-16884. CHC fuels are produced from renewable feedstocks such as triglycerides, plant oils, and fatty acids. A Catalytic Hydrothermolysis process chemically converts these feedstocks into a mixture of paraffins, cycloparaffins, aromatics, olefins, and organic acids. The resulting mixture is then hydroprocessed and fractionated to produce a kerosene (or diesel) product having a distillation profile comparable to traditional petroleum derived fuels. The end product is a fuel that is able to meet the jet (or diesel) chemical and physical MIL-SPEC requirements without blending with conventional petroleum fuels.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0838
Yinhui Wang, Rong Zheng, Shi-Jin Shuai, Yanhong Qin, Jianfei Peng, He Niu, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, Min Hu
An experimental study of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions was conducted on a direct injection gasoline (DIG) engine and a port fuel injection (PFI) engine which both were produced by Chinese OEMs to investigate the impacts of fuel properties from China market on particulate and VOCs emissions of modern gasoline vehicles. The objective of this work is to provide some experimental data and analysis on the impacts of fuel properties and vehicle technologies on particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in China. In this paper, two testing fuels with different aromatics were blended to research on the influences on primary particulate emission including particle mass (PM), particle number (PN), size distribution and compounds, regulated gaseous emissions and VOCs emissions. The test results demonstrated that fuel compositions impacted obviously on particulate and VOCs emissions of both DIG and PFI engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0839
Wenbin Yu, Wenming Yang, Balaji mohan, Kunlin Tay, Feiyang zhao, Yunpeng zhang, Siawkiang chou, Markus Kraft, Malcolm Andrew Alexander, Alfred Yong, Kwokhow Lou
In this study, the internal nozzle flow and macroscopic spray characteristics of a kind of wide distillation fuel (WDF) – kerosene were investigated both with numerical and experimental approaches. Simulation results indicate that compared with diesel fuel, kerosene cavitates more due to higher turbulent kinetic energy as a result of lower viscosity. The results from experiment indicate that under lower charge density, the spray penetration for kerosene is obviously shorter than that for diesel, especially for the lower injection pressure. This is because lower fuel viscosity results in a reduction in the size of the spray droplets, leading to lower momentum. However the spray angle of kerosene is larger compared with diesel due to stronger turbulence in the nozzle flow caused by increased cavitation for kerosene, which also accords well with the simulation results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1279
Ko Wei Lin, Ya Lun Chen, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ta-Wei Tang
Biodiesel is a kind of alternative fuel and it could be made from animal or plant oil. It’s chemically different from petroleum diesel. Some different fuel properties such as oxygen content, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and so on. They cause oxidation reaction of biodiesel easier than diesel. This may cause deposit formation on piston rings and clogging of fuel filter etc. Research biodiesel using management rule is important. The storage life of biodiesel depends on the type of biodiesel and additives and local climate and quality control etc. This article was primarily concerned with Taiwan B2 storage life, and performed three tests such as static state of tank test, dynamic state of tank test and long-term placement vehicle cold-start performance test. The fuel D100 was control group and B2 was experiment group. The first section was a static state test, and four kinds of tanks (Buses / vans / trucks /passenger car) have been put under outdoor condition for one year.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0234
Roberto Cipollone, Davide Di Battista, Andrea Perosino, Federica Bettoja
Nowadays, in road transportation the reduction of CO2 emissions is a strategic goal and especially heavy duty vehicles, could play an important role to contribute to this objective in a significant way. The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector, in particular as regards heavy commercial vehicles. However, about one third of the fuel energy used in an internal combustion engine is rejected to the environment as thermal waste through the exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering this energy and converting it into useful electric power on board: this is very interesting in particular for long hauling vehicles, which run for miles at the same operating point. In this activity, an ORC-based power system was developed and coupled with a heavy duty diesel engine. The recovery unit, that used as working fluid R245fa, was designed in order to maximize the waste heat recovery and the electrical energy produced.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1132
Eduardo Mondragon-Parra, Gregory Ambrose
The required Fuel Economy improvement to meet increasing CAFE standards and the global trend to reduce CO2 emissions has prompted automakers to look at new technologies and optimize current technologies. One area of focus is the reduction of mechanical energy losses in driveline systems, which translate to less fuel consumption. Even though the driveline and chassis components account for only 2% (approximately) of the total mechanical losses in passenger vehicles, automakers have shown interest in maximizing the mechanical efficiency of driveline systems. A key component of any driveline system is the Halfshaft (HS), consisting of two Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ’s). The efficiency of CVJ’s is dependent on the joint architecture, angle of operation, transmitted torque, rotational speed and the grease selected for lubrication. Premium Tripots have the highest mechanical efficiency among CVJ’s. Balltype joints (i.e. fixed joints) tend to have lower efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1142
Andrew Moskalik, Aaron Hula, Daniel Barba, John Kargul
In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has refined and revalidated their Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. As part of the validation of ALPHA, the EPA obtained model year 2014 Dodge Chargers equipped with 3.6 liter V6 engines and either a NAG1 five-speed transmission or an 845RE eight-speed transmission. Examples of each vehicle were tested on a chassis dynamometer, with eight-speed vehicles averaging 6.5% reduction in unadjusted combined city-highway CO2 emissions over five-speed vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an iterative improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team's math-based design tools for use in evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture tweaks, controls code development and testing. This paper includes the results of the team's work in the EcoCAR 2 competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Plant model validations and advancements brought the vehicle plant model directionally closer to the actual vehicle's experimental data and achieved a significant error reduction in 10 of 11 metrics detailed in the research. The EcoCAR 2 competition events provided the opportunity for the team to get experimental data of the vehicle's behavior on the vehicle chassis dyno and the vehicle on road testing from General Motors proving ground test tracks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0699
Jacob McKenzie, Wai K. Cheng
An ignition delay correlation encompassing the effects of temperature, pressure, residual gas, EGR, and lambda (on both the rich and lean sides) has been developed. The procedure uses the individual knocking cycle data from a boosted direct injection SI engine (GM LNF) operating at 1250 to 2000 rpm, 8-14 bar GIMEP, EGR of 0 to 12.5%, and lambda of 0.8 to 1.3 with a certification fuel (Haltermann 437, with RON=96.6 and MON=88.5). An algorithm has been devised to identify the knock point on individual pressure traces so that the large data set (of some thirty three thousand cycles) could be processed automatically. For lean and for rich operations, the role of the excess fuel, air, and recycled gas (which has excess air in the lean case, and hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the rich case) may be treated as effective diluents in the ignition delay expression.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0704
Jacob McKenzie, Wai K. Cheng
Traditional analysis of the SI engine knocking process focuses on the auto-ignition process. This paper considers instead the combustion process after auto-ignition. The three classical modes of knock combustion are discussed in terms of the energy release rate and the size of the exothermic center. In the “flame” mode, acoustic expansion of the exothermic center is fast enough to prevent local pressure build up; normal flame propagation is initiated by the ignited region without development of acoustic wave. In the “knock” mode, the local pressure build-up sets up a pressure wave which excites the engine structural vibration, but the wave is not sufficient to ignite the end gas; normal flame propagation is again initiated by the ignited region. In the “detonation” mode, the end gas is ignited by the pressure wave to create a very fast Chapman Jouguet type denotation. For the “knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0799
George Karavalakis, Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, Maryam Hajbabaei, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
We assessed the emissions response from a waste hauler fitted with a 2011 model year spark-ignited stoichiometric natural gas 8.9L Cummins Westport ISL-G engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalyst (TWC). Five fuels were employed for this study including two high methane number fuels and three high Wobbe number fuels. The vehicle was exercised on each fuel over the William H. Martin (WHM) refuse truck cycle (RTC). Emissions measurements were obtained using the CE-CERT Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). For all tests, standard emissions measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM), were measured. Measurements of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbonyl compounds were also made. Particles were characterized in terms of total and solid particle number emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1260
Shubhangi S. Nigade
The fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and the prices are going up day by day. The vegetable oils converted into biodiesel have the potential of alternative fuels. There are several types of vegetable oils, edible & non-edible, which can be used for biodiesel production. Very little published work has been found on utilization of Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production including optimization of transesterification process. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production using acid, base and heterogeneous (micro & nano) catalyst. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0235
Serenat Karagoz, Murat Karaer, Nurettin Ali Dasdemir
Durability tests of heavy duty engines are made at R&D Test Center in Ford Otosan Inonu Factory. These tests take average 22 hours in a day without problem at engine. The total heat supplied to the engine in the form of fuel, approximately 40% is converted into useful mechanical work; the remaining heat is expelled to the environment through exhaust gases and engine cooling systems. Here, there is huge waste heat energy and it throws away to atmosphere. Project aim is recover this waste heat energy and use it at facility needs. System are designed to remove thermal energy from the exhaust gas of diesel and transfer it to water circuit. In winter, the extracted heat will be used for space heating of test cell or office. In summer, absorption chiller will use waste heat at cooling process of chiller water. With the aid of exhaust heat energy, natural gas consumption of boiler will be decreased in winter, the electric consumption of chiller will be decreased in summer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0916
Nebojsa Milovanovic, Shant Hamalian
The future emission legislations for diesel passenger cars are likely to include more dynamic test cycles than we have today, such as the WLTP and RDE cycles in the EU and very challenging SULEV legislations in the USA. In order to meet these emission legislations and stringent CO2 targets, more complex exhaust gas after treatment systems - EGATS and corresponding calibration strategies are needed. The calibration strategies have to provide the best possible fuel consumption and NOx emissions across entire engine map for all tested cycles. The aim of this paper is to describe an adaptive calibration strategy for a D segment vehicle equipped with a novel EGATS consisting of a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), SCRonDPF (Selective Catalytic Reduction on Diesel Particulate Filter) and small uf SCR (under floor SCR). The experimental results are presented and the potentials of the different calibrations for the optimisation of fuel consumption and NOx emissions are discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0801
Dimitri Seboldt, David Lejsek, Marlene Wentsch, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
The growing transport sector and the associated environmental pollution due to combustion engine emissions raise public awareness with respect to the development of economical and low-emission propulsion systems. In the scope of this problem the use of CNG as fuel for internal combustion engines appears to be even more as the right choice compared to the conventional liquid fuels. Especially, the direct injection of natural gas provides a strong potential to establish this environmentally friendly propulsion. But due to the fact that this technology is not ready for series production there is still major need for research on a suitable injection system and mixture formation. Despite the fuel's gaseous state and the lack of evaporation the mixture preparation is made worse by the low mass density. This property leads to an enhanced jet deflection by the in-cylinder flow which is for itself extremely spatial and time dependent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0903
Ram Vijayagopal, Kevin Gallagher, Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau
The energy density and power density comparisons of conventional fuels and batteries is often taken as an indicator for the comparison of conventional vehicles and electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are a few order of magnitudes behind fuels like gasoline. However this analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For comparison purposes we can expect the useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same, i.e. to drive 300 miles with the payload of about 300 lbs. Both Conventional and BEV will have a much different test weight based on what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0996
Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis Kahlbaum, Shon Van Hulzen, Robert L. Furey
In 2006-2008, EPA and DOE tested fifteen Tier 2 vehicles on 27 fuels. The fuels were match-blended, meaning that as ethanol levels changed, other blendstocks were added to try to maintain prescribed distillation temperatures. EPA's analysis of the EPAct data showed that higher aromatics and to a lesser extent, higher levels of ethanol increase PM emissions. In their analysis of fuel effects, EPA found that RVP, T50, T90, and ethanol affected emissions. However, EPA did not evaluate the effects of other distillation temperatures, like T70. The fuel blender added blendstocks with boiling points in the T50-T80 range to ethanol fuels to hit certain T50 and T90 targets. It is likely that the addition of these higher boiling blendsotcks increased PM emissions and the omission of a distillation parameter between T50 and T90 (like T70) as a explanatory variable for PM modeling increased the predicted response of PM to ethanol.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0810
Massimo Cardone, Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
The interest of the vehicle producers in fulfill the emission legislations without adopting after treatment systems is driving to the use of non-conventional energy sources for modern engines. A previous test campaign on the use of blends of diesel and propane in a CI engine has pointed out the potential of this non-conventional fuel for diesel engines. The soft adaptation of the common rail injection system and the potential benefits, in terms of engine consumption and pollutant emissions, encourage the use of propane/diesel blends if an optimization of the injection strategies is performed. In this work, the performances of a propane/diesel preformed mixture in a research diesel engine have been investigated. The injection strategies of Euro 5 calibration have been used as reference for the develop of optimized strategies. The aim of the optimization process was to gather the same engine power output and reduce the pollutant emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0422
Robert A. Smith, Christopher Rudzinskas
“Molecular Analysis of Automotive Electrical Components Contaminated with Engine and Powertrain Performance Fluids” Robert A. Smith and Christopher R. Rudzinskas, Advanced Materials Group, Delphi Electrical/Electronic Architecture, Warren, Ohio Increased government regulations for increased fuel efficiency to combat rising fuel costs and environmental concerns has led to marked reduction in the size of cars. Automobile downsizing has reduced engine compartment volumes - decreasing separation of polymeric electrical components from fluid accesses and reservoirs and increasing the risks of spillage onto the components. The spatial separation has been reduced even further with trends toward high performance turbo-charged engines with enhanced automotive performance. Once contaminated, the polymeric component is then exposed to heating, due to engine performance, which could exacerbate fluid contamination into the interior of the part through imbibition into amorphous regions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0056
Bjoern Steurich, Klaus Scheibert, Axel Freiwald, Martin Klimke
Only few topics in automotive security are currently enjoying similar attention as the desire to extend the in the field software update capability of electronic control units (ECU). As the prospect of further means of continuous firmware improvements is compelling the request goes far beyond already existing update capabilities in infotainment systems. Two critical aspects determine the customer acceptance: the protection against manipulation attacks and the availability of the vehicle. While the first obviously also includes the protection of the manufacturer’s IP, the availability of the vehicle substantially depends on the timing of the firmware update on ECU level (hence during the driving cycle or at key-off). In our study, we started with a detailed system analysis (incl. the impact of the board net architecture, the connectivity and the requirements on the vehicle battery), followed by numerous discussions with diverse OEMs in the US and Europe.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent. This yearly increase in fuel economy standards and the increasing price of oil are driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to increase fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0837
Per A. Risberg, Sara Alfredsson
A problem for the diesel engine that remains since its invention is injection nozzle hole fouling. More advanced injection systems and more complex fuels, now also including bio-components, have made the problem more intricate. Zinc and biodiesel have often been accused of being a big part of the problem, but is this really the case? In this study, nozzle fouling experiments were performed on a single cylinder engine. The experiments were divided in three parts, the first part studied the influence of zinc neodecanoate concentration on nozzle hole fouling, the second part studied the effect of neodecanoates of zinc, sodium, calcium, copper, and iron on fuel flow loss and in the last part it was examined how RME concentration in zinc neodecanoate contaminated petroleum diesel affected nozzle hole fouling propensity. After completed experiments, the nozzles were cut open and the deposits were analyzed in SEM and with EDX.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0149
Mehdi Jalalmaab, Mohammad Pirani
This paper presents a multi-agent estimation approach to identify unknown parameters of autonomous vehicle environment in presence of communication fault in vehicular network. For some application, e.g. look-ahead road condition estimation, it is required for an agent to have access to other agents’ measurements, particularly frontal vehicles to predict the upcoming situations. By taking the advantage of the hybrid nature of the cooperative estimation problem, short time scale for V2V communication and longer time scale for single agent estimation convergence, the authors provide a multi agent consensus estimation, with an observer to access other agents’ measurements even for out of range agents in faulty network. Furthermore, the described estimation strategy is implemented in an adaptive model predictive collision avoidance policy for unknown road condition driving situation to demonstrate the application of proposed cooperative estimation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1287
Kazutaka Kimura, Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato
In recent years, in order to reduce greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, automobile manufacturers are developing various eco-friendly cars, such as HV, PHV, REV, EV, and FCV. But there are few commercial solar vehicles in the market. One of the reasons why automobile manufacturers did not focus their attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles at the real conditions were unclear. There are two difficulties to measure the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles: (1) Vehicles travel under various insolation conditions (2) Insolation conditions differ in each region. To address the problem, we used the combinational analysis on the basis of the internet survey of 5,000 people and the public metrological data of 48 observation points in Japan. This survey gave us the information on car conditions such as place to park, whether the car is in the sunshine or in the shade, the operating region, and the trip distance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0702
Gautam Kalghatgi, Kai Morganti, Ibrahim Algunaibet, Mani Sarathy, Robert Dibble
The phasing of knock onset in a PFI engine using a gasoline could be predicted using a simple equation for ignition delay of an appropriate surrogate fuel made up of toluene and PRF (TPRF) as shown in an earlier paper- SAE 2015-01-0757. The applicability of this approach is confirmed in this paper in a different engine using different fuels of different RON and sensitivity and different composition – including ethanol blends. An Arrhenius type equation with a pressure correction is found from interpolation of previously published data for any gasoline if its RON and sensitivity are known. Then, using the measured pressure and estimated temperature in the unburned gas, the ignition delay is found at different crank angles for an individual knocking cycle. Then the Livengood-Wu integral is estimated as a function of crank angle to predict the occurrence of knock.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0680
Renhua Feng, Yangtao Li, Jing Yang, Jianqin FU, Daming Zhang, Guangze Zheng
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are considered as the new energy vehicles with the most commercial prospects. Most hybrid electric vehicles have adopted Atkinson cycle engine as the main drive power. Atkinson cycle engine uses late intake valve closing (LIVC) to reduce pumping losses and compression work in part load operation. It can transform more heat energy to mechanical energy, improve engine thermal efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. In this paper, the investigations of Atkinson cycle converted from conventional Otto cycle gasoline engine have been carried out. First of all, high geometry compression ratio (CR) has been optimized through piston redesign in order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of Atkinson cycle in that combustion performance deteriorates due to the decline in the effective compression ratio (CR).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0998
Shuli Wang, Xinda Zhu, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature make all tested fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0999
Yuesen Wang, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, lihui dong, Hanzhengnan Yu, Yajun Wang, Zhijun Li
In this paper, the influence of sulfur and ash fraction in lubricating oil on particle emissions was investigated via experimental works. Especially, we focus on the characterizations like size distribution, morphology and elements fraction in diesel particles. All of the research was done on a two-cylinder diesel engine under different load conditions. Five kinds of lubricating oils with different levels of sulfur and ash fraction were used in this study, among which a kind of 5W-30 (Castrol ACEA, C1) oil was used as baseline. Diesel particles were collected by thermophoretic system and filter, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum technique, respectively. Conclusions drawn from the experiments suggest that the sulfur and ash change the particle emissions directly. Both the sulfur and ash fraction in oil increase the amount of particles with large diameter and shift the size distribution to large size area.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17224