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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1691
Manabu Matsumoto, Masayoshi Mori, Tomohide Haraguchi, Makoto Ohtani, Tomoya Kubo, Kanji Matsumoto, Hiroshi Matsuda
Exhaust heat recovery units that use a thermoelectric element generate electricity by creating a temperature difference in the thermoelectric element by heating one side and cooling the other side of the thermoelectric circuit (module). In this case, the typical structure does not directly join the thermoelectric module with the heat sink, and instead presses the thermoelectric module against the heat sink using bolts or other means in order to prevent thermoelectric element damage due to the difference in linear expansion between the cooled and heated sides of the thermoelectric module. However, this poses the issues associated with a complex, heavy and expensive structure. Therefore, a new vacuum space structure was devised that houses the thermoelectric module in a vacuum chamber and presses the module against the heat sink using atmospheric pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram Jadhav
In this study, the heterogeneous catalyst is used instead of homogeneous catalyst. This is because to overcome the problems faced viz; Catalyst recovery, Thermal stability and excessive use of water. This paper are shows the use of heterogeneous catalyst and optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the heterogeneous transesterification for the production of Mahua oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Heterogeneous catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst such as ZnO, MgO and CaO. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1678
Akshay Kumar, Dhruv Gupta
Increased demand and use of fossil fuels in transportation sector accompanied by the global oil crisis does not support sustainable development for the future generations to come. Not only that, today’s on-road vehicles produce over one third of the CO and NOX present in our atmosphere and over twenty per cent of the global warming pollution. This air pollution carries significant risks for human health and the environment. Through clean vehicle and fuel technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce air pollution from our vehicles. In such a grim situation, Compressed Air Vehicles (CAV) powered by pressurized air stored in high pressure storage tanks seem to be one of the practical solutions available for tackling the fuel crisis and environment related issues.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1679
Lynn C. McLean, Mohamed El-Sayed
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a byproduct of both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. As a chemical, propane (C3H8) is a nontoxic, colorless, and virtually odorless hydrocarbon. In it liquefied form propane is highly compactable and therefore extremely economical to store and transport. Due its availability and adoptability as engine fuel, propane is quickly becoming one of the most viable alternative fuel in the world known as Propane Autogas. While thousands of LPG fueled vehicles such as buses, taxis, delivery and other fleet vehicles are on the road few comprehensive studies on LPG as alternative fuel in mass transportation are documented. In this paper, a comprehensive commercial study for LPG as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel is conducted. The study includes the required infrastructure for fueling, the fuel supply, the fueling station, and the conversion of the fleet vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1680
David H. Myszka, Andrew Murray, Kevin Giaier, Vijay Krishna Jayaprakash, Christoph Gillum
Regenerative brake and launch assist (RBLA) systems are used to capture kinetic energy while a vehicle decelerates and subsequently use that stored energy to assist propulsion. Commercially available hybrid vehicles use generators, batteries, and motors to electrically implement RBLA systems. Substantial increases in vehicle efficiency have been widely cited. This paper presents the development of a primarily mechanical RBLA that stores energy in an elastic medium. An open differential is coupled with a variable transmission to store and release energy to an axle that mainly rotates in a single direction. The concept applies regenerative braking technology to conventional automobiles equipped with only an internal combustion engine where the electrical systems of hybrid vehicles are not available. Governing performance equations are formulated and design parameters are selected based on an optimization of the vehicle operation over a simulated urban driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1659
Peter A. Dennis, Michael J. Brear, Harry C. Watson, Pedro J. Orbaiz, Payman Abbasi Atibeh
This paper presents results obtained using a combined experimental and numerical method developed for analysing energy flows within a spark ignition, internal combustion engine. Data from engine dynamometer testing is combined with an in-cylinder convection model and a model of the thermal impedances of the engine to permit closure of the First Law of Thermodynamics over the entire engine system. Notably, the charge, coolant and metal temperatures are not assumed constant with respect to the engine operating point. A six-cylinder, hydrogen-fueled engine operating from near stoichiometric conditions to 500% excess air was used to test the model over a wide range of thermal conditions. The model was also used to investigate the effects of compression ratio and combustion chamber geometry on in-cylinder heat transfer and the performance of hydrogen-fueled engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0199
Stefan Fuchs, Hans-Peter Schmidt
Real-time data transfer over Ethernet, with an inhomogeneous physical layer is studied. Within the Ethernet network 100Base-TX and BroadR Reach© physical layers are used. Synchronization of the transferred data is investigated and synchronized transfer of video streams is shown. Purpose-built Ethernet-Physical Layer Adapters (E-PLAs) are applied It is demonstrated that an Ethernet network with different physical layers may be used for real-time data transfer with just a little trade-off in synchronization and transfer delay. Keywords— Real-time Ethernet; Ethernet AVB; Unshielded twisted single pair; Physical layer; Synchronization;
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0288
Virendra Kumar, William Whyte
IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)’s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For that reason the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0907
Dhanesh G. C. Goberdhan, Robin Hunt
The Impact of Fuel Solvency on Middle Distillate Cold Flow Performance Abstract for SAE 2015 World Congress, Detroit, Michigan, USA, 21st -23rd April 2015 Dhanesh Goberdhan and Robin Hunt, Infineum UK Studies to date on Cold Flow Performance have focused on the n-alkane wax that precipitates from the fuel and how they interact with additives. Little attention has been paid to the role the solvent system of the fuel itself exerts. There has been increasing changes in refining processes, which is resulting in significant changes in the fuel solvent system, as well as the n-alkane wax. For example, increasing levels of hydrogenation to upgrade fuel components is resulting in higher levels of paraffinicity of the fuel. The addition of GTL and HVO components can lead to a decrease in the overall aromaticity of the finished fuel. The use of FAME components results in increasing polarity in the solvent system of the finished fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0903
Neeraj Mittal, Pradeep Patanwal, M Sithananthan, M Subramanian, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh, B P Das
N-butanol is a promising alternative fuel which requires no engine modification when it is used as a blend with diesel. The miscibility of n-butanol with diesel is excellent at a wide range of blending ratio's. N-butanol has high oxygen content & comparable energy content, specific gravity and viscosity that of diesel, which makes it attractive for diesel engines as an alternative fuel. An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the performance of new generation passenger car with respect to power, fuel economy and emissions using 5%, 10% and 20% (by vol.) N-butanol blends with diesel (NBD). Computer controlled DC motor driven chassis dynamometer, Horiba OBD 2200 emission measuring system and AVL FSN smoke meter were used for measuring wide open power, road load simulation (RLS) fuel economy, emissions & smoke in WOT and steady speed driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0901
Terrence Dickerson, Andrew McDaniel, Sherry Williams, Dianne Luning-Prak, Len Hamilton, Eric Bermudez, Jim Cowart
A new Alcohol To Jet (ATJ) fuel has been developed using a process which takes biomass feedstock to produce a branched butanol molecule. Further dehydration, reforming and hydro-treating then produces principally a highly branched C12 iso-paraffin molecule. This ATJ fuel with a low cetane value (DCN = 28) was then blended with Navy jet fuel (JP5) in various quantities and tested in order to determine how much ATJ could be blended before diesel engine operation becomes problematic (the US Navy and Marine Corps may use jet fuel in their diesel engines). Blends of 20%, 30% and 40% ATJ were tested with jet fuel. The Derived Cetane Number (DCN) falls from 45 for the base JP5 to 38 with the 40% ATJ component blended in. Engine start performance using two Yanmar engines, plus a Waukesha CFR diesel engine show that engine start times increase steadily with increasing ATJ content.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0909
Karthik Nithyanandan, Jiaxiang Zhang, Li Yuqiang, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee
Alcohols, especially n-butanol have received a lot of attention as potential fuels and have shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. ABE, the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is being studied as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0819
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Compression ignition (CI) engines are facing strong restrictive emission standards globally, which demand extremely low NOx and PM emissions. HCCI engine is a very attractive solution to meet these stringent emission challenge due to its capability of simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM. In this study, HCCI combustion was investigated using different fuels as dieseline (15% gasoline with diesel), diesohol (15% ethanol with diesel) and diesosene (15% kerosene with diesel) vis-a-vis baseline mineral diesel. A dedicated fuel vaporizer was used for homogeneous fuel- air mixture preparation. The experiments were performed at a constant intake charge temperature (180ºC), fixed EGR (15%) at different engine loads. Stable combustion characteristics was found for diesosene however dieseline and diesohol yielded improvement in emissions compared to baseline diesel HCCI combustion. At higher loads, diesosene and diesoline showed higher knocking tendency as compared to diesel, and diesohol.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0773
Yongliang xie, Zuohua Huang, Jinhua Wang, Meng Zhang, Wu Jin
The combustion of syngas will play an important role in advanced power systems. While the most commonly discussed option is to burn syngas in gas turbine engines in IGCC system, another possibility is to burn the syngas in internal combustion engine(IC). Laminar burning velocity is an important parameter which can provide the information about the combustion and emission performances of the internal combustion engine. In addition, laminar burning velocity can be also used to validate the simulated calculation of the internal combustion engine and the chemical reaction which is very important for HCCI engines. Thus, the main objective of the present work is to provide the data of laminar burning velocity of syngas mixtures at elevated pressures using spherically expanding flames. Laminar burning velocities of syngas mixtures with various components were measured and effects of different components on the laminar burning velocity were discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0895
Senthil Kumar Masimalai
Waste cooking oils (WCOs) find very attractive among other vegetable oils to use as fuel in diesel engines as they are easily available, renewable and most of the properties are very close to diesel. Past studies reported that the effective way of using WCO is by modifying it as biodiesel by transesterification and using as fuel in CI engines. However, producing biodiesel is a complex process and expensive one. In addition biodiesel production results in certain byproducts such as glycerol and fatty acids which cannot be used as fuel in diesel engines. Oxygen enriched combustion finds an attractive and one of the effective methods for reducing smoke and improving performance of slow burning fuels such as vegetable oils and animal fats in compression ignition engines. It is a simple method which needs no modification in the fuel or in the engine to operate a diesel engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0899
Jacob Benjamin Jeppesen, Jean-Francois Devaux, Jean-Luc Dubois
As a result of research made during EuroBioRef, five alternative biodiesel fuels have been produced and tested. The fuels were tested in a 1.6L light-duty high-speed road going turbocharged engine with an EGR-system. The engine was configured with standard injectors and standard ECU settings. The tests were performed on an eddy current dynamometer in four different modes. The fuels consisted of three different products made from castor oil: Esterol A, Esterol Lot BP093 and POM-methyl. One fuel was named POM-Methyl 2.8 and one 3-methylheptane. For the test, the fuels were blended with a reference diesel at a 30%vol rate. Analysis shows that the NOx level was increased slightly for Esterol A, Methyl-UCT and POM-methyl 2.8. It also showed that CO level was higher for POM-Methyl 2.8 and 3-Methylheptane during highest speed and load.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0897
Finding clean and renewable alternative vehicle fuels is becoming more and more urgent due to the excessive consumption in petroleum and the serious pollution in atmosphere. Among all the alternative fuels, dimethyl ether (DME) as a promising diesel substitution has been researched extensively. Containing the similar molecular structure, diethyl ether (DEE) has some analogous attractive properties to DME for apply in diesel engines. DEE can be easily produced from a dehydration reaction from two ethanol molecules. Moreover, DEE also has some extra advantages compared to DME, such as higher cetane number and higher energy density. While DME is a gaseous fuel at normal temperatures and pressures, DEE is in liquid form and it can easily overcome the problems of fuel delivery infrastructure and current vehicle technology. Thus it is a promising diesel alternative which has gained extensive attention recently.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0891
Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the world now. Compared to ethanol, butanol is another very promising renewable fuel for internal combustion engines. It is less corrosive, and has a higher energy content, lower vapor pressure and lower solubility in water. However, Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation shows a cost advantage over ethanol and butanol and has attracted much attention recently. In this study, three high-alcohol-content gasoline blends (85% of ethanol, butanol and ABE, referred to as E85, B85 and ABE85) were investigated in a port-injected, spark-ignition engine. ABE has a component ratio of 3:6:1. In addition, pure gasoline was also tested as a baseline for comparison. All fuels were tested under the same conditions (1200 rev/min, lambda = 0.8-1.2, MBT, BMEP= 3 and 5 bar).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0955
Hejun Guo, Qining Xun, Shenghua Liu, Xuanjun Wang
Utilization of clean energy resources for modern automotive engines has been attached great importance in recent years. Biofuel has been well known as one of the alternative fuels for diesel engine, which is able to burn completely during engine operation and thereby can give rise to a significant smoke reduction. In the present paper, a new biofuel ethylene glycol monomethyl ether soyate has been developed. The biofuel was synthesized with a refined soybean oil and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as reactants and sodium as catalyst under 90℃. The synthesized crude product was purified and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR and GPC analyses. The physicochemical properties of the biofuel and its addition effects on properties of diesel fuel were investigated according to China national standard test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0951
JM Desantes, FJ Salvador, M Carreres, D Jaramillo
The influence of pressure and temperature on some of the important thermodynamic properties of diesel fuels has been assessed for a set of fuels. The study focuses on the experimental determination of the speed of sound, density and compressibility (via the bulk modulus) of these fuels by means of a method that is thoroughly described in this paper. The setup makes use of a common-rail injection system in order to transmit a pressure wave through a high-pressure line and measure the time it takes for the wave to travel a given distance. Measurements have been performed in a wide range of pressures (from atmospheric pressure up to 20 MPa) and temperatures (from 303 to 353 K), in order to generate a fuel properties database for modelers on the field of injection systems for diesel engines to incorporate to their simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0965
There is a need to understand the effects of increased alcohol concentration on the marine recreational industry. Unique to this market segment is a large number of two-stroke engines, which are susceptible to enleanment under normal operating conditions, due to their inability to compensate for an increase in oxygen concentrations in the fuel. Enleanment due to increased alcohol concentration can lead to catastrophic engine failure. In 1990, Roy Douglas developed a method to calculate the air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method is considered an advancement for its time, there is a current need to expand upon this method to incorporate oxygenated fuels. This study serves as a means to modify the Roy Douglas method to be applicable for oxygenated fuels. A modified Spindt method, Brettschneider method, as well as the ISO #16183 standard were used to evaluate the modified Roy Douglas method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0961
Corey Ruch, Najeeb Kuzhiyil
Col weather related wayside fuel filter plugging was found in major North American railroads. Review of fuel quality from suppliers and in-house quality assurance tests did not reveal any abnormalities with the fuel. Most notably Cloud Point and Pour points were within the expected range which indicated that the problem is caused by an unknown parameter. Analysis of the filter deposits on SEM and FTIR confirmed the presence of carboxylate salts. A new cold soak filtration method was developed to represent the actual behavior of the fuel in the field. The development of this test and the experiments conducted to determine the repeatability of the test are described.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0957
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Diep Vu, Robert Russell, Akua Asa-Awuku, Thomas Durbin
Biofuels have been the subject of significant political and scientific attention, owing to concerns about climate change, global energy security, and the decline of world oil resources that is aggravated by the continuous increase of the demand for fossil fuels. Among the different oxygenated biofuels being used globally today, ethanol is the most widely employed, although geographically its usage is somewhat restricted to U.S., Brazil, and Canada. An alternative bio-alcohol for use in spark ignition (SI) engines without modification is butanol or butyl alcohol (C4H9OH). Butanol offers a number of advantages over ethanol for transportation use. Butanol is less corrosive than ethanol, has a higher energy content than ethanol, and more closely resembles gasoline. This study evaluated the potential emissions impacts of different alcohol blends on a fleet of modern gasoline vehicles. Testing was conducted on a fleet of 9 vehicles over different combinations of 10 fuel blends.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1242
Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
Ethanol has demonstrated strong, anti-knock performance in spark ignition (SI) engines, and this is one important reason for its increasing use around the world. Ethanol’s high octane rating is attributed to both its low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling capability. Further, whilst detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms have been developed for gasoline surrogates and ethanol, little work has been done to investigate whether autoignition in modern, SI engines with ethanol/gasoline blends can be reproduced by these mechanisms, in particular for cases with direct fuel injection. This paper therefore presents a numerical study of the trace knocking of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results of these numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained in a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1172
Wan Yu, Xu Sichuan
A fuel cell system consists of a stack, a hydrogen fuel supply and an air supply system. This provides the required air flow and pressure which allows the stack to properly react on the cathode side to recombine Oxygen with the Hydrogen's protons and electrons resulting in water and heat. In addition the air flow and pressure are supporting directly or indirectly the water management. In this paper different type air compressors for automotive application are compared: blower, screw compressor, Scroll Compressor/Expander, Variable Delivery Compressor/Expander, Integrated Compressor/Expander, roots compressor, turbocompressor, electrical turbo charger. Different technologies and control strategies allow the fuel cell system integrators and researchers to find the optimum between performances, weight, volume and cost.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1171
Hyun suk Choo
This paper proposes the several methods for recovering the performacne of fuel cell stack for FCEV, which is focused on the reduction of platinum surface oxide layer formed on cathode side during the vehicle operation. As a result of application of recovering methods, it is possible to partially rehabilitate the performance of degraded fuel cell stack by about 25-30% and to increase the durability of fuel cell stack ultimately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1173
S.M. Hosseini, Amir Hossein Shamekhi, Arya Yazdani, Behzad Elmiyeh
Due to increasing energy crisis and problems of environmental pollution, fuel cell hybrid vehicles are considered as an alternative for internal combustion (IC) vehicles. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the most proper kind of fuel cells for portable usage due to high power density and low performance temperature. In this paper, by using a dynamic model, power train system of a real car, SAMAND, is modeled and simulated by the MATLAB/SIMULINK© software. Five important subsystems in the model are: the cathode air supply system, the anode fuel supply system, the electric motor, the battery and the power transmission system. Finally, the parameters like the power and the voltage produced by the fuel cell, the electric motor torque and the vehicle speed are demonstrated as results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1169
Akira Yamashita, Masaaki Kondo, Sogo Goto, Nobuyuki Ogami
Development of High-pressure Hydrogen Storage System on Toyota new FCV, lightening, downsizing, cost reduction, and performance improvement in hydrogen refueling are presented. Two kind of larger diameter tanks have been newly developed, due to reduce the number of the four 70MPa tanks installed in 2008 model. These two tanks were arranged under a rear seat and a trunk without sacrificing any passenger space. The lamination constitution of the container each layer, and shape of the bosses were optimized for the container lightening, and the container mass efficiency of 5.7wt% was achieved. As for the carbon fiber for the container where high grade type had been adopted in 2008 model, the carbon fiber manufacture struggled to improve the strength of the general-purpose type, and we could change the fiber grade. Hereby, reduction of the fiber quantity, downsizing of the container, and the cost reduction were realized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0287
Javier Adolfo Alcazar, David Weber
A method to merge onto highways using V2V communications is proposed. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC are capable of broadcasting vehicle’s GPS data to neighboring vehicles. The vehicle entering the highway shares traffic information, via DSRC, with other vehicles traveling in the highway; such information allows speed adaptation to merge into the traffic flow. Vehicles equipped with GPS and DSRC can provide smoother traffic flow and fewer collisions.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16720