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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17468
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0017
Mengying Yang
Pure electric vehicle becomes one of the important development direction of electric vehicles because it can truly achieve "zero emissions".Power battery as the only energy storage element of pure electric vehicle directly affects the performance of pure electric vehicle.The lithium-ion battery has the advantages of high specific energy, long cycle life, low self discharge rate, and so on,and it has become the preferred battery of pure electric vehicles. Along with the charge and discharge, lithium-ion battery pack will generate a lot of heat in the normal operation of the electric vehicle, the internal temperature of the battery pack will be rising and the distribution of temperature is not uniform if the heat can not be dissipated in time, which reduces the performance of the battery, even cycle life and safety.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0015
Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Michael Zisser, Paul Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt
The partial electrification of the drivetrain permits a multitude of new control strategies like brake energy recuperation, engine start-stop operation, shifting of the engine working point, as well as in some situations pure electric driving. Overall this typically allows a reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of carbon dioxide emissions. During the development process of the vehicle various drivetrain configurations have to be considered and compared. This includes decisions regarding the topology - like the position of the electrical machine in the drivetrain (e.g. at the gearbox input or output shaft), as well as the selection of the needed components based on their parameters (nominal power, energy content of the battery, efficiency, …). To compare the chosen variants, typically the calculated fuel consumption for a given driving cycle is used.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0018
Mrinmoy Kalita, M Muralidharan, M Sithananthan, M Subramanian, Yogesh Kumar Sharma, Bhuvenesh tyagi, Sarita Garg, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, S S V Ramakumar, R Suresh
Indian Two-Wheeler Industry is the largest in the world with the annual growth rate more than 10percent year after year. More than 60% of gasoline production in India is consumed by two wheeler segment. Ever rising fuel demand and global concern on climate change have focused to develop energy efficient and eco-friendly vehicles. Several techniques such as engine design, efficient transmission and use of better quality of fuels and lubricants are applied world over to improve the efficiency of the vehicles. Low viscosity engine lubricant is one of the approaches which can be easily applied for better fuel economy. The lubricant requirement of motorcycles differs from that of passenger cars. The motorcycle engine oil is subject to both engine as well as wet clutch transmission system which operate under severe conditions.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used, and two ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0016
Maryam Sadeghi Reineh, Faryar Jabbari
This papers aims at using Anti-windup augmentation to an existing high performance controller to increase the range of net-power that can be obtained from a solid oxide fuel cell. The power drawn by the fan/blower is kept limited by a software/controller enforced bound that acts similar to a saturation bound. Anti-windup augmentation is then used to ensure stability and recovery of performance. The behavior of the controller, particularly the effects of the anti-windup loops on the second actuator (cathode inlet temperature), is then investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0056
Qi-Jun Huang, Chia-Hong Chung, Yong-Fu Syu, Yuh-Yih Wu, CHAO-KAI LI
Butanol is deemed as a potential alternative fuel for motor vehicle, but there are few studies about applying butanol in engine combustion. This paper focuses on application of butanol-gasoline blend fuel on scooter engine. In this research, different volume percentage of butanol-gasoline blend fuel, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are applied on 125cc scooter engine to conduct engine experiment, and higher than B60 blended fuel is declared as high concentration of butanol blended fuel. The test conditions are set at 4000 and 6000rpm under partial load and full load. After executing engine experiment, the engine performance, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), emissions and combustion analysis are discussed. Furthermore, viscosity and fuel spray test are carried out with high concentration of butanol. The engine experimental result shows that B20 fuels can increase engine performance under engine 4000 and 6000rpm.
2016-10-24
Technical Paper
2016-01-9075
Martijn van Essen, Sander Gersen, Gerco van Dijk, Torsten Mundt, Howard Levinsky
Abstract The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at non-knocking conditions are compared with calculated pressure profiles using a model that predicts the time-dependent in-cylinder conditions (P, T) in the test engine (“combustion phasing”). This model was extended to include the effects of humidity. The results show that the extended model accurately computes the in-cylinder pressure history when varying the water fraction in air. Increasing the water vapor content in air decreases the peak pressure and temperature significantly, which increases the measured Knock Limited Spark Timing (KLST); at 4.3 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 19 °CA BTDC while at 11 g H2O/kg dry air the KLST is 21 °CA BTDC for the same fuel.
2016-10-24
Technical Paper
2016-01-9076
Ulas Yildirim, Renee Webster, David Evans, Paul Rawson
Abstract Aviation turbine fuel and diesel fuel were blended with synthetic paraffins produced via two pathways and the combustion properties measured. Both aviation and diesel fuel containing synthetics produced from the fermentation of sugars, had a linear response to blending with decreasing ignition delay times from 5.05 - 3.52 ms for F-34 and 3.84 - 3.52 ms for F-76. For the same fuels blended with synthetics produced from the fermentation of alcohols, ignition delay times were increased out to 18.66 ms. The derived cetane number of the blends followed an inversely similar trend. Additionally, simulated distillation using ASTM D2887 at high synthetic paraffinic kerosene blend ratios resulted in the recovery temperatures being incorrectly reported. In this case, higher recovery volumes were at lower temperatures than earlier recovery points i.e. T90< T50, for SIP-SPK.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2254
Karin Munch
Heavy alcohols have properties that are suitable for mixing with fossil diesel and for use as fuel in diesel engines. Alcohols can be produced from fossil resources, but can also be produced in more sustainable ways from renewable raw materials. The use of biofuels can contribute to a decrease of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study includes four alcohol/diesel blends each with one kind of heavy alcohol. The chosen alcohols are n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. The rather low cetane numbers (CN) of the alcohols have been compensated by adding a third component with high CN, here hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) have been used. The mixtures were prepared to have the same CN as diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2263
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
In this study, macroscopic spray characteristics of Waste cooking oil (WCO), Jatropha oil, Karanja oil based biodiesels and baseline diesel were compared under simulated engine operating condition in a constant volume spray chamber (CVSC). The high pressure and high temperature ambient conditions of a typical diesel engine were simulated in the CVSC by performing pre-ignition before the fuel injection. The spray imaging was conducted under absence of oxygen in order to prevent the fuels from igniting. The ambient pressure and temperature at fuel injection timing were 4.17 MPa and 804K, respectively. The fuels were injected by a common-rail injection system with injection pressure of 80 MPa. High speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the evaporating sprays. From these images, macroscopic spray parameters such as liquid tip penetration length, spray cone angle and spray area were determined.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2269
Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Michael Kocsis, Matt Gieselman, Ewan Delbridge
Chassis dynamometer tests are often used to determine vehicle fuel economy (FE). Since the entire vehicle is used, these methods are generally accepted to be more representative of ‘real-world’ conditions than engine dynamometer tests or small-scale bench tests. Unfortunately, evaluating vehicle fuel economy introduces higher levels of test-to-test variability than seen on engine dynamometer or bench tests. Recently, improvements to controls and procedures have led to drastically improved test precision in chassis dynamometer testing. Described herein are chassis dynamometer results from five fully-formulated engine oils (utilizing improved testing protocols on the FTP-75 and HwFET cycles) which not only show statistically significant FE changes across viscosity grades but also meaningful FE differentiation within a viscosity grade where additive systems have been modified.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2267
Maira Alves Fortunato, Laurie Starck
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of fuel injectors systems (FIS) as a result of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) which are related to fuel stability degradation and insolubles formation. Here, the impact of Diesel/biodiesel blends formulation and temperature on the fuel stability was studied based on total acid number (TAN), density, viscosity and surface tension. We have compared fuel ageing during storage with fuel ageing into the fuel injection system and determined the most important physical-chemical parameters that could be used to follow fuel degradation on-board. Based on the results biodiesel fuel tends to deteriorate during delivering and storage before refueling. Also, during engine running biodiesel autoxidation process starts showing a remarkable TAN increase on fuels remaining on return lines and injector tip.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2276
Toyoharu Kaneko, Kazuo Yamamori, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Ko Onodera, Satoshi Ogano
This paper describes our newly developed friction reduction technology for low viscosity engine oils formulated with molybdenum dithio-carbamate (MoDTC) and magnesium detergents. The surface chemistry of additive interactions will also be discussed. Low viscosity grade engine oils are being utilized in modern engines to achieve improved fuel economy. As a result, engine conditions increase in severity through a tendency to operate in a higher degree of boundary lubrication conditions. Therefore, MoDTC, a friction modifier known to reduce friction under these conditions, is becoming a key component. In addition to fuel economy, formulation chemistry to prevent Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) is also required. These chemistry advances are a necessity for downsized, turbocharged engines to maximize fuel economy improvement. To ensure sufficient engine oil performance, magnesium detergents are a key additive to prevent damaging LSPI events in the engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2273
Herve Marie, Sascha Rigol, Hans Peter Deeg, Harald Philipp
This paper describes the observed impact of aniline octane booster and more specifically N-Methyl Aniline (NMA) on lubricating oil, following field issues encountered in vehicles in certain areas of the world where aniline based octane booster was suspected to be used. The observed field issue was heavy sludge formation, leading to engine failures. The suspected impact of NMA on lubricating oil could be replicated using the Daimler oxidation bench test, with oil diluted with fuel and NMA at start of test, as a rapid and cost effective screener. Significant kinematic viscosity increase at the end of test was evidenced, especially as NMA content was increased in the oil to reach a critical level observed in the field. Some differences in performance could also be observed between different oil technologies, suggesting that lubricant formulation approach might mitigate the negative impact of NMA, while not completely alleviating it.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2248
Yuichiro Miura, Kensaku Miyahara, Shinya Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Kashio, Katsumi Yoshida
As the direct injection technology in gasoline engines has become increasingly sophisticated to seek better performance, even a small amount of deposit seems to have a bad effect on the functionality of injectors. Against such a background, gasoline with effective additives is expected to fix this issue, however, the clean-up and keep-clean processes are not fully understood. This study was employed to develop a direct injector fouling test in gasoline engines in order to take a more in-depth look at injector fouling phenomena. The test engine for this program was a 2012 downsized supercharged DISI engine equipped with the injector of the maximum 15MPa injection pressure. A various driving mode was applied to the test engine. Relationship between an injection duration and Fuel Trim (LTFT + STFT) was almost linear at the wide range from 0% to 20% of Fuel Trim and both of them were found to be effective to use in this test engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2252
Gregory Guinther, Scott Smith
Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines have a well-known propensity to form intake valve deposits (IVD), regardless of operator service, engine manufacturer, or cylinder configuration. Due to the lack of a fuel-washing process that is typical of Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines, the deposits steadily accumulate over time and can lead to deterioration in combustion, unstable operation, valve-sticking, or engine failure. Vehicles using these engines are often forced to undergo expensive maintenance to mechanically remove the deposits, which eventually re-form. The deposit formation process has not been well-characterized and there is no standardized engine test to study the impact of fuel or lubricant formulation variables. To meet this need, a vehicle-based GDI-IVD test that is both repeatable and responsive to chemistry has been developed.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2251
The Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the fuels, with good correlation agreement to PMI. In addition, the paper will cover a global assessment of a fuel’s sooting tendency based on the PMI number and the GM proposed method. Areas around the globe where market fuels are of concern will be highlighted, in coordination with the new emissions regulations. Vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2359
Khashayar Olia, Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola, Abdelwahed Sherif PhD
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent an energy efficient alternative to conventional and hybrid electric vehicle counterparts which are not capable of drawing energy from the grid. Although the cost-saving and good environmental impacts are the benefits which make PHEVs popular but these advantages are significantly influenced by the high cost and limited lifetime of battery. Frequent charging and discharging cycles result in energy and power degradation which adversely affects not only the life time of battery but also the performance and efficiency of the vehicle. A real-time power management system can be applied on-board to simultaneously optimize efficiency, battery cycling and other necessary cost functions. For this purpose, Model Predictive Control (MPC) as one of the dominant real-time control algorithms in Electrified Vehicle is used in this work.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2266
Roger Cracknell, Michael Bardon, David Gardiner, Greg Pucher, Heather Hamje, David Rickeard, Javier ariztegui, Leonardo Pellegrini
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been identified as a technology which could give both high efficiency and relatively low engine-out emissions. Use of gasoline in advanced CI engines offers a potential route to address an over-supply of gasoline and an under-supply of diesel and other distillate products. Such a situation exists currently in European refineries where the effort to maximise diesel output is detrimental to refinery efficiency and to CO2 emissions due to more intensive processing. The introduction of any new vehicle technology requires widespread availability of appropriate fuels. It would be ideal therefore if GCI vehicles were able to operate using the standard grade of gasoline that is available at the pump. However, in spite of recent progress, operation at idle and low loads still remains a formidable challenge, given the relatively low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2189
Bo WANG, Tawfik Badawy, Yanfei Li, Hongming Xu, Yizhou Jiang, Xinyu Zhang
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in control of combustion quality in direct-injection engines. In this present work, effect of injection pressure and flash boiling levels of Ethanol (ETH) on near nozzle spray patterns was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole piezo injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at injection pressures of 30 MPa, 40 MPa and 50 MPa at different back pressure and temperature. High-speed imaging was performed using a long-distance microscope coupled with an ultra-high speed camera (Shimadzu HPV-2). The results revealed a clear mushroom-like structure at the start of injection at 30 MPa injection pressure and ambient condition whereas at higher injection pressure or higher flash boiling level this mushroom shaped injection tip was not observed. Micro cone angle experienced a sudden increase during the start of spray and then dropped.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2358
Nobunori okui
In order to improve the fuel economy of the heavy duty trucks at a highway driving condition, the heavy duty hybrid trucks with new type of hybrid electric assist engine system were proposed at the previous report. The new system consists of a downsizing diesel engine with a two-stage charging structure, which has an electric supercharger with bypass circuit and a conventional turbocharger, the hybrid electric motor and the small-capacity battery. The electric power consumption of an electric supercharger is equivalent to the amount of the regeneration power produced during high-speed driving where the opportunity of the regeneration is small. In this report, an electric supercharger for the heavy duty hybrid truck was produced experimentally. First, the engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated using the 4 cylinder diesel engine equipped with an electric supercharger.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2250
Elana Chapman, Mark Winston-Galant, Pat Geng, Reuben Latigo, Andre Boehman
The Honda Particulate Matter Index ( PMI) is a very helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the fuels impact on sooting from engine hardware, in preparation for new global emissions regulations. The calculation of the index involves collecting a detailed hydrocarbon analysis and calculation with the exact list of compounds naming convention with specific tools. The method can be cumbersome, when the specific tools have to be adjusted for new compounds that are not in the method, or if the compounds are not matching the list for quantification. Also, the method itself is quite expensive, and not easily transferrable between labs. Therefore, alternative correlations and methods are being sought which can be easily calculated at various laboratories around the world.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2259
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Fanourios Zannikos
The fuel supply chain faces the challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms. Microbial growth is an issue usually known to be associated with middle distillate fuels and biodiesel, however, incidents where microbial populations have been isolated from unleaded gasoline storage tanks have also been recently reported. Alcohols are employed as gasoline components and the use of these oxygenates is growing esp. regarding ethanol, which can be a renewable alternative to gasoline as well. Despite their alleged disinfectant properties, a number of field observations suggests that biodeterioration could be a potential issue in fuel systems handling ethanol-blended gasoline. The impact of alcohol-fuel blends on fuel microbial susceptibility has been the subject of few studies and additional work could contribute to the understanding of this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohols on microbial proliferation in unleaded gasoline fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2361
Ali Solouk, Mohammad Shakiba-herfeh, Kaushik Kannan, Hamit Solmaz, Paul Dice, Mehran Bidarvatan, Naga Nithin Teja Kondipati, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engines are promising to improve the powertrain fuel economy and reduce NOx and soot emissions by improving the in-cylinder combustion process. However, the narrow operating range of the LTC engines limits the use of these engines in conventional powertrains. Extended range electric vehicles (EREVs), by decoupling the engine from the drivetrain, allows the engine to operate in a limited operating range; thus, they offer an ideal platform for realizing the advantages of LTC engines. In this study, the Pontryagin’s Minimum Principal (PMP) methodology is used in the energy management supervisory controller to investigate the global optimum fuel economy improvement of an experimentally developed multi-mode LTC engine in an EREV. The experimental data is collected from a 2-liter LTC engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2318
Wangkan Lin, Nancy Diggs, Catherine Frampton
As modern heavy-duty diesel engines produce more power while running at higher temperatures, increased levels of oxidation can introduce more acidic chemical species into the engine lubricants. In addition, higher compression ratios of the combustion chamber can lead to increased blow-by gases into the crankcase. These severe conditions can cause higher levels of corrosion on key engine parts, such as soft-metal-containing bearings. Protection against this type of corrosion in engine hardware has always been an important performance function of today’s HDD engine lubricants. All today’s lubricants contain various additives which neutralize the acids to prevent hardware corrosion through their base content, commonly measured as total base number (TBN). The majority of the TBN in lubricants comes from metal-containing over-based detergents, with different chemistries of the metals and soap molecules.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2182
Olivier Laget, Louis-Marie Malbec, Julian kashdan, Nicolas Dronniou, Romain boissard, Patrick Gastaldi
The accumulation of particulate matter in lubricant oil has become an issue in Diesel engines where large amounts of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) are used at medium to high load operating conditions. Indeed, the accumulation of particulate matter in the engine oil can alter its lubricant properties resulting in mechanical durability issues or TCO increase due to shortened servicing intervals. It is therefore important to gain an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for this accumulation of particulate matter in the lubricating oil, and ultimately provide design guidelines to help limit this phenomenon. The present study presents the development and validation of experimental and numerical tools used to investigate this phenomenon.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2287
Huifang Shao, William Lam, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos, Seungmok Choi, HeeJe Seong
Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on DIG engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L DIG engine at 1250rpm and 25% load. Engine oil injection rate was 2% of the fuel consumption rate. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of SAP level, ZDDP level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2277
Kristin Fletcher, Lisa dingwell, Kongsheng Yang, William Lam, Jeremy Styer
Low speed preignition (LSPI) is an undesirable combustion phenomenon that limits the fuel economy, drivability, emissions and durability performance of modern turbocharged engines. Because of the potential to catastrophically damage an engine after only a single event, the ability to reduce LSPI frequency has grown in importance over the last several years. This is evident in the significant increase in industry publications. It quickly became apparent that select engine oil components impact the frequency of LSPI events when evaluated in different engine tests, notably calcium detergent, molybdenum and phosphorus. However, a close examination of the impact of other formulation additives is lacking. A systematic evaluation of the impact of ashless as well as ash-containing additives has been undertaken using a GM 2.0L Ecotec engine installed on a conventional engine dynamometer test stand.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2298
Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Mani Sarathy, Kai Morganti, Khalid Al-Qurashi, Bengt Johansson
Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency, progression towards which is limited by antiknock quality of present fuels and energy economics in octane enhancement. A possible solution is Octane-on-Demand, that uses a combination of high and low octane fuels in separated tanks to create fuels of the required octane rating according to demand. Ethanol with a RON 108 was selected as the high RON fuel and three low octane fuels were used as base fuel. These were for the FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) study, more specifically FACE I, J and A but also primary reference fuels (iso-octane/n-heptane) were used. A CFR engine was used to conduct the experiments. For SI combustion the CFR was operated at RON conditions that correspond to engine speed of 600 rpm and air inlet temperature of 52 oC. The engine was also operated in HCCI mode to get the auto ignition properties at lean conditions.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17468