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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16430
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo Bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
XiaoDan Cui, Beini Zhou, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on spray and soot formation. We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated bio-fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. The numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). We conducted a 3-D numerical study using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting a gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model, including soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. In this numerical study, the ambience temperature and density were set at 900 K and 12 g/cm3, respectively to reproduce the in-cylinder conditions almost similar to a low load and speed condition in the ordinary light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amrit Singh, David Anderson, Mark Hoffman, Zoran Filipi, Robert Prucka
The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with the addition of intake fumigated natural gas. Fumigated dual-fuel systems replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated. A heavy duty diesel engine with the capability of running both natural gas and diesel is operated at points where knock occurs and the cylinder pressure traces are recorded.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Marek Flekiewicz, Grzegorz Kubica, Bartosz Flekiewicz
THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IN SI ENGINES FOR SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS Abstract The analysis of overall performance of the engine powered by selected gaseous fuels has been presented in this paper. Primary objective of the research was to determine the influence of fuel type on efficiency of energy conversion in the tested engine. The scope of the research featured: • the application low-carbon fuels, • the use of DME as a renewable fuel in blends with LPG. The use of low-carbon gaseous fuels gives the opportunity to reduce exhaust emissions. Changes in global economy including energy sources, are currently oriented onto the gradual replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources. World widely present activities include promotion of alternative fuel systems both in the vehicles as well as in stationary engines. The basic assumption in the presented research was the use of gaseous fuels, which main component is methane. The main problem taken into consideration was excessive duration of the combustion process, which is one of the causes of the engine overall efficiency reduction when running on gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Jay Anderson, Scott Miers, Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
In recent years, increasing difficulty of crude oil production combined with rising oil prices and the popularization of green motoring have fostered greater research interest in alternative combustion fuels. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a fuel that provides beneficial combustion properties, low tailpipe emissions and benefits from significant domestic production resources in the United States. Mainly because of these factors, CNG has begun see utilization in passenger vehicles. This work seeks to provide a practical evaluation of CNG as compared to gasoline as a fuel for use in passenger vehicle engines. To this end, two similar compact sedans were selected. The first is equipped with a gasoline combustion engine, while the second is powered by a modified version of this engine fueled with CNG. Both vehicles are factory configurations available for purchase. The vehicles were subjected to a number of chassis dynamometer tests including the UDDS, HWFET and US06 driving schedules as well as selected steady state testing.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Paul Schaberg, Mark Wattrus
In many countries fuel standards permit the limited addition of FAME to diesel fuel. For example, in Europe, diesel fuel complying with the EN590:2009 regulation may contain up to 7% FAME, and the low carbon fuel standards being considered in many regions encourage the consideration of even higher levels of FAME addition. Standards organisations such as CEN, ASTM, and CARB are also contemplating standards for paraffinic diesel fuels such as GTL (Gas-to-Liquids) diesel and HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil), an example being CEN Technical Standard 15940:2012. Since these standards may also allow the addition of FAME, it was decided to perform an extensive evaluation of the properties and performance of blends of GTL diesel and FAME, including emissions performance which is reported on in this paper. Fuels that were variously considered in the study were blends of GTL and EN590 diesel containing 0, 7, and 20 vol% of SME and RME (Soy and Rapeseed Methyl Ester). Part of the study focussed on European engine technology, and tests were performed on a Euro 4 passenger vehicle and engine, and a Euro V heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method. Many papers which show the result which the fuel produced by transesterification method can apply as diesel fuel are announced. It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with crude oil. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PES) which is a promoter of cancer. It is necessary to measure PEs contained in Jatropha crude oil and PM in exhaust gas for safe use. Measurement of un-vaporized fuel sprays which was injected into pressurized vessel by high speed video camera and ignition characteristics by ignitability evaluation equipment of fuel (FIA-100) of Jatropha blended fuel were performed. The conventional jerk type fuel injection system which is used for industrial diesel engine and the high pressure common rail type fuel injection systems which is used for modern automobile diesel engine were examined. The engine performance and exhaust emission including Particulate Matter (PM) was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vasu Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Vishvendra Tomar, Gagneet Kalsi
The world today is facing the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the rate of consumption of Fossil derived fuels is alarming. The use of non-conventional energy sources is to be increased so as to tackle the global climatic changes, environmental pollution and also to lower down the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. The urgent need to replace the petroleum products having harmful emissions has leaded us to the Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a well-known alternative for diesel with an advantage over the later because of its biodegradable, less toxic nature, superior lubricity,better emission characteristics and in a way environment friendly. The present study focuses on the comparative study and analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a light duty diesel engine on blends of Fish oil Biodiesel in Diesel and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Biodiesel in Diesel. The blends taken for the study are 5% (V/V), 10% (V/V), 15% (V/V) of fish oil methyl ester in diesel as FOMED05, FOMED10, FOMED15 and 5% (v/v), 10% (v/v), 15% (v/v) of calophyllum inophyllum oil methyl ester in diesel as COMED05, COMED10, COMED15 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sunthorn Predapitakkun, Padol Sukajit
Development of an API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil for Tropical Climate using a new Novel Viscosity Modifier and verification of its performance via a field trial in Thailand Sunthorn Predapitakkun PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Lim Jing Jing, Infineum Singapore Amporn Sudsanguan , Arunratt Wuttimongkolchai, PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Engine lubrication in the global automotive industry has many challenges in the world today. One of them is the pursuit of fuel economy. As a result, the use of lower viscosity engine oils is becoming increasingly popular. However, engine wear protection of low viscosity oils is not as robust as higher viscosity grade oils. Due to this, even though low viscosity grades engine oils like SAE 0W-20 could provide the added benefit of fuel economy, they are not common in tropical climates. To address this two seemingly discordant performance characteristics, PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed new API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil with a novel viscosity modifier and conducted a field trial with extended oil drain intervals to verify its performance.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ben Leach, Richard Pearson
Rising fuel prices and changes to CO2 and fuel economy legislation have prompted an interest in the electrification of vehicles since this can significantly improve vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions over homologation test cycles. To this end plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and range extended electric vehicles (REEVs) have been introduced to the market. The operation of the engines in these vehicles differs from conventional vehicles in several key ways .This study was conducted to better understand how the engine design and control strategy of these vehicles affects the temperature and operating regimes experienced by engine crankcase lubricants. A Toyota Prius PHEV and Chevrolet VOLT REEV were tested on a chassis dynamometer over several legislated and pseudo ‘real world’ drive cycles to determine the operating strategy and behaviour of the powertrain. The lubricant and coolant temperatures were monitored, together with other key control parameters. Tests were completed with both hot and cold engine starts at 25˚C and -7˚C test cell temperatures in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operating modes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ekenechukwu C. Okafor, Yosuke Fukuda, Yukihide Nagano, Toshiaki Kitagawa
Synthesis gas, which consists of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and smaller quantities of hydrocarbons among other gaseous diluents, has found increasing application as a primary fuel in spark ignition engines. In addition, on-board reformation of primary fuels such as gasoline, ethanol or natural gas into hydrogen and carbon monoxide before combustion in spark ignition engines is gaining increasing attention and has been reported to result in improved thermal efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide emission. However, the concentration of the constituents of synthesis gas varies widely depending on the feedstock used in its production. Hence, an understanding of effects of the variation in the fuel composition on the fundamental combustion characteristics is necessary for engine design and optimization. There have been several fundamental combustion studies on synthesis gas mixtures. However, much attention has not been given to the effects of a wide range of hydrogen concentration and the effects of pressure on the turbulent flames.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Moritz Schumacher, Michael Wensing
Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells for future energy scenarios based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC). This scenario incorporates LOHCs to store hydrogen from fluctuating renewable energy sources and deliver it to decentralised power generation units. Hydrogen engines were deeply investigated in the past decade and the results show efficiencies similar to CI engines. Due to the low energy density and tendency towards pre-ignition of hydrogen, the key element to reach high efficiency and a safe operation is a direct injection of the hydrogen. Because high injection pressure is not available in practical applications or would reduce the possible driving range, a low injection pressure is favourable. The low density leads to large flow cross sections inside the injector, similar to CNG direct injectors. So far, some research CNG and hydrogen low pressure direct injectors were investigated, but no commercial injector is available. The objective of this work is the development of a low pressure hydrogen direct injector, with the ability to run unlubricated in neat hydrogen and meeting the necessary flow rate for a stationary engine generating 7.5 kW per cylinder at 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pramod S. Mehta, Thangaraja Jeyaseelan
Biodiesel are mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from edible/non-edible oils and serve as an alternate fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. Biodiesel composition differs from petroleum diesel due to its oxygen content and presence of high degree of unsaturation in its molecule. While a neat saturated or edible biodiesel is not recommended as a sole fuel due to food versus fuel concerns, a neat unsaturated or non-edible biodiesel result in storage problem and NO emission penalty. It is known that saturated biodiesel such as palm oil has certain favorable characteristics in respect of NO reduction, better storage stability. Whereas, the unsaturated biodiesel such as karanja possesses better lubricity and cold flow properties. The change in injection timing due to the bulk modulus effect is reported to be the dominant factor affecting the biodiesel-NO emission. Many investigations on biodiesel report that the degree of unsaturation in biodiesel composition is one of the causes of increase in NO emission.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Gian Marques, Lian Izquierdo, Camila Coutinho
Bioethanol and plant oil-derived biodiesel are generally considered first generation biofuels. More sustainable and cost effective new biofuels are being designed and produced using modern tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. These new microbial fuels have great potential to become viable alternatives and supplements for petroleum-derived liquid transportation fuels. MAN Latin America has worked in cooperation with REG Life Sciences, a North American industrial biotechnological company, to help in the development of high quality fuels for automotive purposes. The aim of this paper is to present the test engine results of a novel microbially produced fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), under the banner of UltraCleanTM Diesel, in a Proconve P7 (Euro V) MAN D0834, diesel engine. Described are a comprehensive performance and emissions evaluation as well as an interpretation of the primary fuel properties. The test engine was operated with standard Brazilian diesel (S50), a blend of 20% and 100% UltraCleanTM Diesel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Somnuek Jaroonjitsathian, Peerawat Saisirirat, Komkrit Sivara, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop
Formerly, the Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO) blended fuels has been studied by running the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and found that the higher HVO blended fuel can suppress NOX, lowering the particulate matter (PM) while improving the vehicle fuel economy. The result also shown that the 20% HVO + 5%FAME blended with diesel fuel has been proven to compatible with the advance diesel engine technology via the severe engine durability tests and fuel injection system tests. Therefore, the effects of two paraffinic diesel fuels, which are Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) and Hydro-treated Vegetable Oil (HVO), on a common-rail DI diesel engine have been mainly focused in this work. The main objective of this work was to study the relationships between fuel properties and theirs combustion characteristics by analyzing cylinder pressure data and exhaust emissions intensively. Subsequently, the research team needs to quantify the effectiveness of using GTL and HVO as a blending component for superior diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed methane-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed resulting in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The effect of lambda, start of injection and diesel substitution ratios on nozzle tip temperature was determined using an instrumented DI injector with a thermocouple inserted in the nozzle tip. From this study a baseline case was selected with a nozzle tip temperature of 325 °C. From the baseline case, λ, SOI and diesel substitution was changed individually creating 3 high temperature cases and 3 low temperature cases with the nozzle tip temperature 350 °C and 305 °C respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Pradip Lingfa, Pranab Das, Lalit Das, Satya Naik
Abstract In the present experimental investigations the influence of injector opening pressures and injection timings on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated single diesel engine has been investigated. The tests were conducted with four different fuels, namely diesel and Tung biodiesel blends (TB10, TB15, TB20 and TB50) at three different injector opening pressures (150 bar, 200 bar and 250 bar) respectively. Fuel injection opening pressures were varied by changing the spring tension of the needle valve of injector nozzle. The three different injection timings (standard timing at 23° BTDC, retarded timing of 21° BTDC and advanced timing of 25° BTDC) were used. The injection timings were varied by changing the thickness of the shim. The entire tests were conducted at the constant engine speed of 1500 rpm under various load conditions. The experimental results showed that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of Tung biodiesel improved at higher injector opening pressure.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Markku Aaro Kuronen, Tuukka Hartikka, Ulla Kiiski
The objective of this paper is to study more in detail the oxidation stability behavior of petroleum fuels and biofuel blends. Reasons for improved oxidation stability, after exposing the fuel to high temperature and pressure, are being proposed. Oxidation stability test ENISO 12205 has been developed decades ago to estimate the long term storage stability of diesel fuels. Nowadays new biocomponents, especially FAME, has increased the demand to create faster and more reliable test method to estimate the long term storage stability. Development in engine technology has also increased the demand to create a new method for estimation of the fuel's thermal stability. These new methods should have at least some correlation to field problems or a correlation to methods which are known to be reliable. As an example, it has been shown that Rancimat (EN 15751) and PetroOxy EN16091 have a correlation when fuel is containing more than 2% FAME. Rancimat is not suitable for FAME free fuels so correlation or limit for PetroOxy EN590 (B0) should be evaluated carefully.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Alex Harrison, Roger Cracknell, Jens Krueger-Venus, Lev Sarkisov
Carbonaceous deposits can accumulate on various surfaces of the internal combustion engine and affect its performance. The porous nature of these deposits means that they act like a "sponge", adsorbing fuel components and changing both the composition and the amount of fuel in the combustion chamber. Here we use a previously developed and validated model of engine deposits to predict adsorption of normal heptane, isooctane, toluene and their mixtures in deposits of different origin (Combustion Chamber Deposits, or CCDs, and Intake Valve Deposits, or IVDs) and under different conditions. We explore the influence of molecular structure of adsorbing species, composition of the bulk mixture and temperature on the uptake and selectivity behaviour of the deposits. While deposits generally show high capacity toward all three components, we observe that selectivity behaviour is a more subtle and complex function of the pore size distribution in the microporous region.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16430