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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16794
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2081
Hossein Habibi, Graham Edwards, Liang Cheng, Haitao Zheng, Adam Marks, Vassilios Kappatos, Cem Selcuk, Tat-Hean Gan
Abstract Icing conditions in cold regions of the world may cause problems for wind turbine operations, since accreted ice can reduce the efficiency of power generation and create concerns regarding ice-shedding. This paper covers modelling studies and some experimental development for an ongoing ice protection system that provides both deicing and anti-icing actions for wind turbine blades. The modelling process contained two main sections. The first part involved simulation of vibrations with very short wavelength or ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) on the blade to determine optimal excitation frequency and transducer configuration. This excitation creates horizontal shear stress at the interface between ice and blade and focuses energy at the leading edge for de-bonding ice layers.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2259
Jan Zuleeg
Tribological contacts with plastic or polymers tend to show stick-slip and have the ability to generate noise. With the help of lubricants like bonded coatings, greases and fluids the tribological properties can be well-directed and affected. In this paper it is shown, how well known theories about polymer friction from the literature can be used for the friction of lubricants and how these findings can help in the development of new lubricants. With an adequate stick-slip test rig (Ziegler Stick-Slip test rig) it is demonstrated, how the theories can be confirmed. The introduced test methods are used in the development for lubricants for automotive applications e.g. in the interior of the car including invisible lubricants developed for Class "A" surfaces.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2173
Srikumar C Gopalakrishnan, Teik Lim
Modeling of elastohydrodynamic lubrication phenomena for the spiral bevel gears are performed in the present study. The damping and the friction coefficient generated from the lubricated contact area will have profound effects on the dynamics of spiral bevel gears. Thus the damping value generated from this friction model will be time varying. This makes the use of constant and empirical damping value in the dynamics of spiral bevel gears questionable. The input geometric and kinematic data required for the EHL simulations are obtained using Tooth Contact Analysis. A full numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication simulations are carried out using asymmetric integrated control volume (AICV) algorithm to compute the contact pressures. The fast Fourier transforms are used to calculate the elastic deformations on the gear surfaces due to contact load. The computed pressures and the effective viscosity are used to calculate the time varying damping for the spiral bevel gears.
2015-06-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9073
Peter Schihl, Eric Gingrich, Laura Decker
The U.S. Army currently uses JP-8 for global operations according to the ‘one fuel forward policy’ in order to reduce the logistics burden of supplying a variety of fuels for given Department of Defense ground vehicle applications. One particular challenge with using global JP-8 is the lack of or too broad a range of specified combustion affecting properties including ignition quality, high temperature viscosity, and density. In particular, the ignition quality of JP-8 has dramatically varied throughout the past decade on a global basis covering a range of 29 to 70 cetane index. This key combustion affecting parameter was explored in this study by evaluating a synthesized low ignition quality jet fuel blended in 25% volumetric proportions with JP-8 to effectively cover a cetane number range of 25 to 45 in a single cylinder diesel engine operated at various light, medium, and high load operating conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1083
Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin, Patrick P. Chen, Jasna Tomic, Richard Parish
Abstract Emissions, fuel economy, and performance are determined over a light and a heavy driving cycle designed to represent the vehicles in-use driving patterns. The vehicles are 2010 class 8 Freightliner tractor trucks equipped with Cummins engines with Selective Catalytic Reduction and Diesel Particulate Filter emission control systems. The hybrid has lower carbon dioxide emissions, better fuel economy, and nitrogen oxide emissions statistically the same as the conventional. The CO emissions are well below the standards for both vehicles, but they are higher from the hybrid. The higher CO emissions for the hybrid are primarily related to the cooling of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the standard 20 minute key-off soak between repeats of the driving cycles. With a 1 minute key-off soak the CO emissions from the hybrid are negative.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1176
Tushar Choudhary, Sanjay, Pilaka Murty
Abstract This paper focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC). In the present work the SOFC has been modeled to work with internal reforming of fuel which takes place at high temperature and direct energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy takes place. The fuel-cell effluent is high temperature steam which can be used for co-generation purposes. Syn-gas has been used here as fuel which is essentially produced by steam reforming of methane in the internal reformer of the SOFC. A thermodynamic model of SOFC has been developed for planar cell configuration to evaluate various losses in the energy conversion process within the fuel cell. Cycle parameters like fuel utilization ratio and air-recirculation ratio has been varied to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the fuel-cell. Output performance parameters like terminal voltage, cell-efficiency and power output have been evaluated for various values of current densities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1163
Gabriel Elias, Stephen Samuel, Alessandro Picarelli
Abstract This study details the investigation into the hybridization of engine ancillary systems for 2014+ Le Mans LMP1-H vehicles. This was conducted in order to counteract the new strict fuel-limiting requirements governing the powertrain system employed in this type of vehicle. Dymola 1D vehicle simulation software was used to construct a rectilinear vehicle model with a map based 3.8L V8 engine and its associated ancillary systems, including oil pumps, water pump and fuel pump as well as a full kinetic energy recovery system (ERS). Appropriate validation strategy was implemented to validate the model. A validated model was used to study the difference in fuel consumption for the conventional ancillary drive off of the internal combustion engine in various situational tests and a hybrid-electric drive for driving engine ancillaries.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1161
Lei Feng, Ming Cheng, Bo Chen
Abstract This paper studies model predictive control algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) energy management to improve HEV fuel economy. In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC), a predictive control method, is applied to improve the fuel economy of power-split HEV. A dedicated model predictive control method is developed to predict vehicle speed, battery state of charge (SOC), and engine fuel consumption. The power output from the engine, motor, and the mechanical brake will be adjusted to match driver's power request at the end of the prediction window while minimizing fuel consumption. The controller model is built on Matlab® MPC toolbox® and the simulations are based on MY04 Prius vehicle model using Autonomie®, a powertrain and fuel economy analysis software, developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The study compares the performance of MPC and conventional rule-base control methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0611
Aref M. A. Soliman, Mina M.S. Kaldas
Abstract This paper presents experimental and theoretical investigations for ride comfort performance of compressed natural gas fuelled car. A compressed natural gas and gasoline fuel are used to run the engine car and its effect on the vehicle ride comfort is evaluated. The ride comfort performance in terms of experimental Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the vertical acceleration at near driver's feet on the floor, on the front and back seat for the same passenger car fuelled by gasoline and natural gas is evaluated. Furthermore, seven degrees of freedom vehicle mathematical model is developed, and validated through laboratory tests. The validation process is performed by comparing the predicted RMS values of the vertical accelerations with the measured RMS values. Furthermore, the optimum values of vehicle suspension parameters are obtained through the validated vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1349
Sandip Phapale, Praveen Kommareddy, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav
Abstract In a heavy commercial vehicle, the engine cooling package is designed by considering peak heat load on the vehicle cooling system from an engine end. In cooling systems, the major unit that consumes most power from the engine is the engine cooling fan. It was seen from the vehicle measured duty cycle data, for most of the time engine operates at part load condition. Regardless of demand from the engine cooling system, engine fan was operating continuously at equivalent speed of the engine. This results in continuous consumption of productive engine power from the fan end ultimately affecting vehicle fuel economy. The present study shows that low idle speed viscous fan has the potential to meet stringent engine cooling performance requirements and consumes less engine power throughout an actual vehicle duty cycle. Experiments were conducted on test vehicle with different fan speeds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1256
Mori Ishii, Kiyohiro Shimokawa, Koichi Machida, Hiroshi Nakajima
Abstract The application of high-efficiency diesel engines, hybrid systems, waste heat recovery (WHR) systems, aftertreatment systems, and advanced drivetrains were all examined as possible approaches to improve the fuel consumption of heavy-duty, long-haul commercial trucks that mainly drive on highways. In this study, the strategies that were employed in an effort to improve the fuel consumption performance of the diesel engine itself and the results of evaluating and testing the actual engine are reported.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1285
Dingfeng Deng, Fanghui Shi, Louis Begin, Isaac Du
Abstract Instances have occurred where the outer surface of turbocharger fully floating journal bearing bushings have exhibited damage from oil debris resulting in constant tone noise and subsequent warranty claims. This paper studies the effect of oil debris in Turbocharger journal bearings on Subsynchronous NVH. A CFD model is built to study the behavior of oil debris particles with different sizes. It is found that the dominant centrifugal forces prevent larger particles from reaching the inner film while smaller particles travel more easily to the inner film. It is also found that the turbine side is more likely to become damaged from debris than the compressor side bearing due to higher temperatures. A tribology analysis shows that oil debris particles in the outer film will reduce the speed ratio, while oil debris particles in inner film will increase the speed ratio. The tribology analysis also predicts the effects of oil debris on bearing stiffness and damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Yahaya Alhassan, Amar Deep
Abstract Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus the need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks has risen. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with the production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (°C) were considered the significance factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
Abstract The depletion of resources, increased cost of fossil fuel and increased environmental awareness reaching the critical condition. Development of viable alternative fuels from renewable resources is gaining the international attention and acceptance. The vegetable oils have the potential of alternative fuel for compression ignition engines by converting it into biodiesel. The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1277
Hao Yan, Dengqiang Wang, Zhaoping Xu
Abstract In order to overcome the serious mechanical vibration in the existed single-cylinder four-stroke free-piston generator, a novel opposed-piston four-stroke free-piston generator is designed and simulated in this paper. The system structure and working principle of the system is discussed. Energy balance equations of free-piston reciprocating motion are derived. Energy flow characteristics of the four strokes are analyzed. A virtual prototype is designed, and the dynamic characteristics and performance of the system is researched by mathematical simulation. According to the research, the proposed opposed-piston four-stroke free-piston generator has advantages of low mechanical vibration and high power density. It is a better choice for hybrid electrical vehicles than the existed design using as power generating systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1215
George Dixon, Richard Stobart, Thomas Steffen
Abstract This paper presents the implementation of a vehicle and powertrain model of the parallel hybrid electric vehicle which can be used for several purposes: as a model for estimating fuel consumption, as a model for estimating performance, and as a control model for the hybrid powertrain optimisation. The model is specified as a multi-domain physical model in MATLAB Simscape, which captures the key electrical, mechanical and thermal energy flows in the vehicles. By applying hand crafted boundary conditions, this model can be simulated either in the forwards or backwards direction, and it can easily be simplified as required to address specific control problems. Modelling in the forwards direction, the driver inputs are specified, and the vehicle response is the model output. In the backwards direction, the vehicle velocity as a function of time is the specified input, and the engine torque, and fuel consumption are the model outputs.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1221
Jamie Knapp, Adam Chapman, Sagar Mody, Thomas Steffen
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1212
M. Sh. Asfoor, Steven W. Beyerlein, Rory Lilley, Michael Santora
Abstract Fuel economy and energy consumption in hybrid electric powertrain vehicles are highly dependent on managing power flow requirements. This opportunity has been minimally addressed in previous vehicles entered in the Formula Hybrid SAE competition. This paper outlines a method for determining an optimal rule-based energy management strategy for a post-transmission parallel hybrid electric vehicle developed at the University of Idaho. A supervisory controller determines the proper power split ratio between the available power sources (electrical and thermal). A GT-Suite model was used to simulate powertrain performance based on inputs of a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor characteristic curve, vehicle data, road load parameters derived from a roll-down test, and vehicle driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Abstract Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1682
Sangram D. Jadhav, Madhukar S Tandale
Abstract The mangifera indica oil is a nonedible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in mango cultivating countries including India. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production. In present study, the transesterification processes with heterogeneous catalyst. The various input parameters like methanol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), heterogeneous catalyst types (ZnO, MgO and CaO), catalyst concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) were studied by applying the orthogonal experimental array L9.ANOVA (F-test at P=0.05 contribution of each signal to noise factor) technique was used for optimization with the objective of maximizing the yield of high quality mangifera indica oil biodiesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1681
Girish Khairnar, Jagrit Shrivas, Sachin Pande, Rohit Londhe, Yaser Hussaini, Yogesh Ambekar
Abstract Last mile transportation is an important supply chain and transportation requirement for the movement of people and goods from a transport hub to a final destination in that area. In India this requirement is largely met by 3 wheelers and small 4 wheelers (below 1 ton payload). Greaves cotton Ltd. (GCL) has played an important role for last mile transportation solutions in India by developing suitable engines for the above category vehicles. GCL is already supplying single cylinder air cooled 400 cc diesel / CNG, 435 cc & 510 cc diesel and 510 cc water cooled CNG BSIII engines for 3 wheeler applications. Single cylinder water cooled 510 cc and 611 cc BSIII diesel engines are being supplied for small commercial 4 wheeler applications. In India, BSIV emission norms are in place since April 2010 in metro cities for 4 wheelers. CNG network is well established in most of these cities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1684
KV Shivaprasad, PR Chitragar, GN Kumar
Abstract This article experimentally characterizes the combustion and emission parameters of a single cylinder high speed SI engine operating with different concentrations of hydrogen with gasoline fuel. For this purpose, the conventional carbureted high speed SI engine was modified into an electronically controllable engine, wherein ECU was used to control the injection timings and durations of gasoline. The experiments have been conducted for different engine speeds at various throttle positions. The experimental results demonstrated that engine brake power and brake thermal efficiency increased to certain extent and then decreases with the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel blend. The experimental results revealed that heat release and cylinder pressure increased with addition of hydrogen fraction till 20%. It also showed the reduction in HC and CO emissions in comparison with pure gasoline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
Abstract The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested. These vehicles are powered by 4-strokes engines with a displacement ranging from 50 to 250 cm3 and a power ranging from 3.0 to 16.5 kW.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1637
SeungBum Kim, SeongMin Park, DongUk Han
Abstract This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1618
Ke Fang, Zongyan Li, Andrew Shenton, David Fuente, Bo Gao
Abstract New environmental legislation on emission and fuel efficiency targets increasingly requires good transient engine performance and this in turn means that the previously acceptable static engine calibration and control methodologies based on steady-state testing must be re-placed by dynamical optimization using dynamical models. Although many advances have been made in predictive models for internal combustion engines, the phenomena involved are so many, complex and nonlinear that dynamical black-box models typically employing neural network structures must be determined from system identification through experimental testing. Such identified dynamical models are required to provide high accuracy multiple step-ahead predictions of emissions but must accordingly also be compactly implementable for speed and memory to allow for the required large scale optimization involving possibly many thousands of iterations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1610
Xiaomeng Shen, Gangfeng Tan, Quan Zhou, Zhongjie Yang, Min Hua
Abstract The Organic Rankine Cycle System is an effective approach for recovering the engine exhaust thermal energy. The physical characteristic of the Rankine fluid is the key factor for the capacity and the stability of the expander power output. In the research, the influences of the evaporator organic medium state and flow rate on the expander power output are fully analyzed for the sufficient utilization of the waste thermal energy. Firstly, the exhaust characteristics of the diesel engine were processed by the data of the bench test. Then, the integral mathematical model of the Organic Rankine Cycle was built. Based on the comparison for the 2-zone and 3-zone evaporator, the influence for expander output are analyzed especially emphasis on the factors of engine working condition, the flow rate, temperature and state of Rankine fluid.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1608
Davide Di Battista, Marco Mauriello, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract A smart way to reduce CO2 emission in transportation sector is to recover energy usually wasted and re-use it for engine and vehicle needs. ORC plant on exhaust gas of ICE is really interesting, but it has a significant impact on the exhaust line and vehicle's weight. The backpressure realized in the exhaust and the weight gain, in fact, produce a specific fuel consumption increase as well as an increase in the propulsion power: both terms could vanish the energy recovered. The paper discusses the effects of the pressure losses produced by an ORC plant mounted on the exhaust line of an IVECO F1C test bench engine. The interactions produced on the turbocharged engine have been experimentally investigated: the presence of an IGV turbocharger makes the effect of the backpressure not straightforward to be predicted and needed a full experimental testing of the group in order to understand its reaction and the net effect in terms of specific fuel consumption.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1607
Chuen-Sen Lin, Vamshi Avadhanula, Vamsi Mokkapati, Daisy Huang, Brent Sheets
This paper presents test results of a 50 kW Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system and proposed guidelines for how to effectively apply this system to the rural Alaska power industry. In rural Alaska, approximately 180 villages rely on off-grid diesel generators for power. Most of the generators have capacities of about 1 MW or less. In general, the average operation efficiencies are noticeably less than 40%, with the rest of the fuel energy becoming heat. If the heat is not applied for useful application, it is called waste heat. Most of the wasted heat is contained in engine exhaust and jacket fluid and eventually dissipates into the environment. For rural Alaska, waste heat for heating is most effective; in many cases, waste heat for power may be needed due to a variety of reasons. Many rural Alaskan villages are reluctant to apply exhaust heat recovery due to concerns about corrosion and soot accumulation in the exhaust system and their effect on emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0958
Naveen Kumar, Sidharth Bansal, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract Concerns about long term availability of petroleum based fuels and stringent environmental norms have been a subject for deliberations around the globe. The vegetable oil based fuels and alcohols are very promising alternative fuels for substitution of diesel, reduce exhaust emissions and to improve combustion in diesel engines which is mainly possible due to oxygenated nature of these fuels. Jatropha oil is important non-edible oil in India which is either used in neat or modified form as diesel fuel. Furthermore n-butanol is renewable higher alcohol having properties quite similar to diesel fuel. In the present study, n-butanol was blended in Jatropha Oil (JO) and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JME) on volumetric basis (10 and 20%). The blends were homogeneous and stable and there was no phase separation. The different physicochemical properties of blends were evaluated as per relevant standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0955
Hejun Guo, Qining Xun, Shenghua Liu, Xuanjun Wang
Abstract In the present paper, a new biofuel ethylene glycol monomethyl ether soyate has been developed. The biofuel was synthesized with a refined soybean oil and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as reactants and sodium as catalyst under 90°C. The synthesized crude product was purified and structurally identified through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FT-IR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analyses. The physicochemical properties of the biofuel and its addition effects on properties of diesel fuel were measured according to China national standard test methods. A single cylinder diesel engine was employed to evaluate the influences of the biofuel on engine fuel economy and engine-out emissions of CO, HC, NOx and smoke.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16794