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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16268
Technical Paper
2014-09-15
Kai Chen
The synthetic paraffinic kerosine (SPK) produced via HEFAs is of great interest for civil aviation industry as it exhibits an excellent thermal oxidative stability with significantly lower particulate matter emission. However, due to its aromatic free characteristics, the widespread use of SPK is limited by its compatibility with non-metal materials such as fuel tank elastomers. In this research the compatibility of SPK and its blends with widely used aircraft fuel tank elastomers were systematically studied. Experimental results demonstrated the volume swellability of all selected materials showed a linear relationship with volume percentage of No.3 jet fuel in SPK blend. The increase of volume percentage of No.3 jet fuel in the SPK blend increased volume swellability for all materials except fluorosilicone gasket. The alkyl benzenes and naphthalenes in the blend acted as the hydrogen donors, which facilitated the formation of polymer matrix and led to the increase of the distance between polymer chains.
Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Francisco Soriano, Jesus Alvarez-Florez, Manuel Moreno-Eguilaz
This paper presents a novel methodology to develop and validate fuel consumption models of Refuse Collecting Vehicles (RCVs). The model development is based on the improvement of the classic approach. The validation methodology is based on recording vehicle drive cycles by the use of a low cost data acquisition system and post processing them by the use of GPS and map data. The corrected data are used to feed the mathematical energy models and the fuel consumption is estimated. In order to validate the proposed system, the fuel consumption estimated from these models is compared with real filling station refueling records. This comparison shows that these models are accurate to within 5%.
Technical Paper
2014-04-15
Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are attracting attention as next-generation internal combustion engines mainly because of very low NOx and PM emission potential and excellent thermal efficiency. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible however recent studies suggest that PM number emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected. This study is therefore conducted on a modified four cylinder diesel engine to investigate this aspect of HCCI technology. One cylinder of the engine is modified to operate in HCCI mode for the experiments and port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogenous charge in this cylinder. Experiments are conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm engine speeds using gasoline, ethanol, methanol and butanol fuels. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the particulates emitted on a pre-conditioned filter paper. The collected particulate matter (PM) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals (marker of toxicity) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES).
Technical Paper
2014-04-15
Amit Shrestha, Ziliang Zheng, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein, Peter Schihl
This paper presents a new approach for the development of six different JP-8 surrogates for application in diesel cycle simulation. The approach involves a step-wise formulation of 2-, 3-, and 4-component surrogates from a list of pure compounds which are selected based on several criteria. A MATLAB code is developed and is used in conjunction with the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and HYSYS software in order to formulate optimal surrogates. The first part of the results shows a comparison between the calculated and the measured DCNs for six surrogates. The differences in the properties such as the density, volatility, lower heating value, H/C ratio, molecular weight, and threshold sooting index of the surrogates and the JP-8 are also highlighted. This is followed by the evaluation of the surrogates with respect to the target JP-8 fuel. The evaluation is made in terms of ignition delays and the rate of heat release at three different IQT test temperatures. Finally, the test results are examined to evaluate the validity of the development approach and the potential use of the IQT in the development and validation of the JP-8 surrogates for application in diesel engines.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tingting Zhang, Xiaomin Xie, Zhen Huang
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). Mass and energy balance was used through the whole LCA calculation for each process. Two types of biodiesel (100% biodiesel: BD100, and 20% blends of biodiesel: BD20) were assumed to be combusted in the suitable diesel engine. Displacement method was adopted to measure the co-products credits. The results showed that the land requirement of producing 1 kg biodiesel from microalgae was about 1/31 of that from Jatropha curcas seeds. The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively. The feedstock growing stage of microalgae and Jatropha curcas was found to be the most fossil energy-intensive stage.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Eric W. Chow, John B. Heywood, Raymond L. Speth
Abstract This paper explores the benefits that would be achieved if gasoline marketers produced and offered a higher-octane gasoline to the U.S. consumer market as the standard grade. By raising octane, engine knock constraints are reduced, so that new spark-ignition engines can be designed with higher compression ratios and boost levels. Consequently, engine and vehicle efficiencies are improved thus reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet over time. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the reduction in fuel consumption and GHG emissions that would result for a given increase in octane number if new vehicles designed to use this higher-octane gasoline are deployed. GT-Power simulations and a literature review are used to determine the relative brake efficiency gain that is possible as compression ratio is increased. Engine-in-vehicle drive-cycle simulations are then performed in Autonomie to determine an effective, on-the-road vehicle efficiency gain.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rounak Mehta, Preet Shah, Harsh Gupta, Prathamesh Bhat, Vaibhav Gandhi, Kimaya Kale, Madan Taldevkar, Akash Singh, Chinmay Ghoroi, Atul Bhargav, Amey Karnik
Abstract Three wheeler taxis, commonly known as auto rickshaw are a popular means of transport in developing countries. However, low efficiencies and poor maintenance are common (especially in India). This results in high fossil fuel consumption, and very high urban air pollution due to these vehicles. Electrification of auto-rickshaw, therefore, is a potential solution to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce environmental pollution. However, this conversion is not straightforward. In this work, we investigate some of the challenges of converting an existing combustion engine powered auto-rickshaw to an electric auto rickshaw (electric vehicle (EV)). The cost of conversion to EV and sufficient charge storage capacity for driving range are important factors in the viability of such a conversion. The solution developed here is a design for low total ownership cost for short-range transport. The factors that affect the total cost of ownership are local availability of components, performance efficiency, actual cost of conversion, and skills available with local technicians.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
John R. Bucknell
Abstract Of all current proposals for sustainable transportation, the assumption is energy scarcity when there are economically favorable alternatives using existing technology. This paper explores the economics of a sustainable transportation energy pathway that provides carbon-neutral and carbon-negative synthetic fuel derived from seawater as the feedstock and power via Ocean Thermal Energy Cycle (OTEC). Seawater-based synthetic fuel is naturally carbon-neutral - different synthesis processes can yield hydrogen, methane, methanol and ethanol as well as gasoline, diesel or jet fuel - and is carbon-negative when combined with aquaculture. Methanol is favored as a fuel as it requires relatively lower capital investment; can be easily transported and stored; can be used as a feedstock to many chemical processes that currently rely on petrochemicals; and can be coproduced with or converted to dimethyl ether. This paper proposes a new process that for the first time marries OTEC-power and seawater-based-methanol synthetic fuel generation.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Pragadish Nandakumar
The fuel prices are increasing every day and so are the pollution caused by vehicles using fossil fuels. Moreover, in a car with an internal combustion engine, we get on average 25% efficiency, the other 75% is wasted, mostly through friction and heat. One important loss is the dissipation of vibration energy by shock absorbers in the vehicle suspension under the excitation of road irregularity and vehicle acceleration or deceleration. In this paper we design, manufacture and test a regenerative coil-over strut that is compact, simple in design and more economical. Since our strut is a modification of an existing strut design, it would be much more feasible to implement. We tested our prototype strut using a TATA Indica car under city road conditions. The damping characteristics and output voltage of the strut were recorded and compared with a normal coil over strut. Based on the test data, it was found that the strut was able to recover about 8-10 watts of electricity at 20kmph.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
S.M. Ashrafur Rahman, Hassan Masjuki, Md. Kalam, M.J. Abedin, A. Sanjid, S. Imtenan, M.I. Arbab
Abstract Palm is an edible feedstock which is immensely popular in Malaysia as an alternative fuel which can substitute diesel fuel. However, use of Palm biodiesel in diesel engine have a negative effect on food security, thus, in this study authors used Mustard biodiesel, which has poor fuel properties, with Palm biodiesel to produce an optimum blend. This blend will have better fuel properties compared to Mustard biodiesel and will help eliminate dependency of Palm biodiesel. To ensure that optimized blend achieves better fuel properties MATLAB optimization tool was used to find out the optimum blend ratio. Linear relationship among the fuel properties was considered for MATLAB coding. The resultant optimum blend is represented by PM. Optimum blend revealed improved fuel properties compared to mustard biodiesel. Fuel consumption and exhaust emission of diesel engine operated by the produced optimized blend blends at high idling conditions with and without a turbocharger installed, were evaluated.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
John P. Utley, David K. Irick
Abstract For the EcoCAR 2 collegiate engineering competition, The University of Tennessee is modifying a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco from a mild hybrid into a series-parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. For this design, the team is exchanging the engine for one that is E85 compatible, slightly separating the engine and transmission, and coupling an electric generator to the engine. In the rear of the vehicle, a modified all-wheel drive subframe will be implemented. This subframe will house a traction motor and a single gear electric drive transmission. A custom fuel tank and fuel system will be constructed for the vehicle, in order to use E85 fuel. Furthermore, an energy storage system will be placed in the rear of the vehicle, in the trunk and spare tire space. Modifications for the packaging must be made and analysis must be performed to validate the structural integrity of all modifications. Tennessee's engineering team is made up of five specific groups: mechanical, thermal, electrical, controls, and center stack teams.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aleksandar Hrnjak
Abstract Today, some vehicles include a regenerative-braking system such as the electrical motor-generator that converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into electrical energy to recharge one or more vehicle batteries. The idea is to use air flow to produce additional electrical energy in response to deceleration of the vehicle. With the Wind Power Generator System (WPGS) as a green system, a vehicle can produce extra energy, reduce gasoline usage, and reduce air pollution.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Leonardo Pellegrini, Renata Patrini, Mario Marchionna
Abstract Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (POMDME) is a synthetic fuel from alternative energy sources, which can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuel. The regulated and non-regulated emissions, especially polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and particle number size distribution (PNSD), from an old Euro-3 diesel engine fueled with a 7,5% blend of POMDME in commercial diesel fuel were measured and compared to the base diesel fuel, after adjusting exhaust gas ratio (EGR) in order to match the level of NOx emission. The experimental results show a significant reduction in soot and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The number of particles smaller than 30 nm is slightly increased at low speed and low load operating conditions, while at high speed the number concentration of particles larger than 30 nm is reduced. The PAH emissions were found higher for the oxygenated fuel blend than for the base fuel. This result is consistent with the exhaust gas temperature profiles during the PAH sampling which suggest that the oxidation catalyst might have a slightly lower catalytic activity when using this oxygenated fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Chinmaya Mishra
Abstract Biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils is of paramount significance in India due to insufficient edible oil production. The present work deals with relatively underutilized non-edible oil “Schleichera oleosa” or “Kusum”. The Kusum biodiesel (KB) was produced using a two stage esterification cum transesterification process as the free fatty acid content of the oil was high. Important physico-chemical properties were evaluated and they were found to conform with corresponding ASTM/EN standards. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trial by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of KB in diesel by volume and were named as KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40 respectively. The results showed that full load brake thermal efficiency was dropped by 3.8% to 17% with increase in KB composition in the test fuel. Diesel (D100) showed the maximum full load brake specific energy consumption followed by KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40. Hydrocarbons and Carbon monoxide emissions along with smoke opacity at full load were reduced by 7-42 %.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xuan Wang, Ge-Qun Shu, Hua Tian, Youcai Liang, Xiangxiang Wang
Abstract Currently, the thermal efficiency of vessel diesels only reaches 48∼51%, and the rest energy is rejected to the environment in forms of exhaust, cooling water, engine oil and so on. Meanwhile, energy is required when generating electricity and fresh water that are necessary for vessels. A system that combines the ORC thermal electric generation system with the single-effect evaporating desalination system simultaneously driven by waste heat of charge air is proposed. The research object was 12S90ME-C9.2 diesel engine produced by MAN corp., and a calculation model of the system is built by MATLAB. The variation of the output power, the thermal efficiency and the freshwater production with some operational parameters of the combined system are calculated and analyzed. On the other hand, under the condition of an assumed freshwater production 110.3t/d, the variation of the charge air temperature at the outlet of the desalination evaporator with some operational parameters of the system is studied in the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Maddali Krishna, R. Chowdary
Abstract Vegetable oils are a promising substitute for diesel fuel because their properties are similar to those of diesel. They are renewable and can be easily produced. Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of the diesel engine that bears his name, experimented with fuels ranging from powdered coal to peanut oil. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a conventional diesel engine with different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] of waste fried vegetable oil in crude form and biodiesel form with varied injection timing and injector opening pressure. Raw oil, containing higher amount of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) (greater than 10 wt%) collected from local restaurants of Hyderabad was converted to biodiesel in two-stage method so as to reduce FFA to 0.52% wt%. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and coolant load), exhaust emissions (particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)) were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure of the engine, while combustion characteristics (peak pressure (PP), time of occurrence of peak pressure (TOPP) and maximum rate of pressure (MRPR)) were determined at full load operation of the engine fuelled with diesel, crude vegetable oil and biodiesel.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rashad Mustafa, Mirko Schulze, Peter Eilts, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) are facing increasing challenges in optimizing the energy flow through a vehicle system, in order to improve both fuel economy and vehicle emissions. Energy management of HEV's is a difficult task due to the complexity of the total system in terms of electrical, mechanical and thermal behavior. In this paper, an advanced control strategy for a parallel hybrid vehicle is developed. Four main steps are presented, particularly to achieve a reduction in fuel consumption. The first step is the development of a highly complex HEV model, including dynamic and thermal behavior. Second, a heuristical control strategy is developed to determine the HEV modes and third, a State of Charge (SoC) leveling is developed with the interaction of a fuzzy logic controller. It is proposed to calculate the load point shifting of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the desired battery SoC. Fourth, novel multi-objective optimization techniques, such as a genetic algorithm, are used for the optimization of the fuzzy logic controller and the heuristical control strategy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
David Ord, Eli White, P. Christopher Manning, Abhijit Khare, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is excited about the opportunity to apply for participation in the next Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition. EcoCAR 3 is a new four year competition sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors with the intention of promoting sustainable energy in the automotive sector. The goal of the competition is to guide students from universities in North America to create new and innovative technologies to reduce the environmental impact of modern day transportation. EcoCAR 3, like its predecessors, will give students hands-on experience in designing and implementing advanced technologies in a setting similar to that of current production vehicles. The primary goals of the competition are to improve upon a conventional internal combustion engine production vehicle by designing and constructing a powertrain that accomplishes the following: Reduce Energy Consumption Reduce Well-to-Wheel (WTW) GHG Emissions Reduce Criteria Tailpipe Emissions Maintain Consumer Acceptability in the area of Performance, Utility, and Safety Meet Energy and Environmental Goals, while considering Cost and Innovation This paper presents results from several modeling problems and conceptual vehicle designs.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sandeep Karande, Michael Olson, Bipul Saha
Abstract Computer simulation is commonly used to determine the impact of hybrid vehicle technology on fuel economy and performance. One input required for this approach is a drive cycle that represents the desired vehicle speed at each time step in the simulation. Due to computational hardware limitations, simulated drive cycle durations are required to be shorter than those actually driven by real vehicles. Hence there is a need to develop a representative drive cycle of smaller time duration. For example, it is desirable to develop a one hour drive cycle that can give the same fuel economy and performance results as a drive cycle spanning many weeks. Specifically for the design of hybrid systems, it is desired that certain characteristics of micro-trips within the full length cycle are well replicated in the representative cycle. Taking these requirements into account, a new methodology was developed and tested. This paper explains this methodology and the final results obtained.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yashodhan V. Joshi, Jordan E. Kelleher
In recent years, the focus on engine parasitic losses has increased as a result of the efforts to increase engine efficiency and reduce greenhouse gasses. The engine gear train, used to time the valve system and drive auxiliary loads, contributes to the overall engine parasitic losses. Anti-backlash gears are often used in engine gear trains to reduce gear rattle noise resulting from the torsional excitation of the gear train by the engine output torque. Friction between sliding surfaces at the gear tooth is a major source of power loss in gear trains. The effect of using anti-backlash gears on the gear friction power loss is not well known. As a part of the effort to reduce parasitic losses, the increase in friction power loss in the Cummins ISX 15 gear train due to the anti-backlash gear was quantitatively determined by modifying the methods given in ISO 14179-2 to fit the anti-backlash gear sub-assembly. A test case with a two gear mesh arrangement was designed for the purpose of validating the analysis by rig testing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Harald Scholz, Hannes Lacher, Helmut Kuehnelt, Dragan Simic
Abstract Energy efficiency of electric vehicles (EVs) and the representativeness of different driving cycles are important aspects to address EVs performance in real-world driving conditions. This paper presents the results of an explorative tests campaign carried out at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to investigate the impact of different driving cycles on the energy consumption of an electric vehicle available on the market. The vehicle is a battery electric city-car which has been tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the current version of the World-wide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) and the World-wide Motorcycle emission Test Cycle (WMTC). The tests are performed at different ambient temperatures (namely +23 °C and −7 °C) with and without the use of the Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system (in cooling and heating mode, respectively). The NEDC test was chosen being the driving cycle prescribed by the legislative type-approval procedure, while the WMTC and WLTC were chosen to investigate the energy demand of substantially different driving cycles, characterized by higher accelerations and a longer high speed phase duration.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Feng-Chi Hsieh, Ta-Wei Chou, Yuan-Chun Chen, Yin-Dar Huang, Yu-Wei Lin, Yu-Wen Peng
Abstract An optimized power management strategy for Belt-Starter Generator (BSG) mild hybrid system is proposed and used to study its benefit of fuel economy on a 2.2L turbo engine. First, a cost function is defined as fuel and battery power consumptions. In order to obtain an optimal fuel economy of BSG, Dynamic Programming (DP) optimization approach is employed to minimize the defined cost function over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). A nonlinear vehicle dynamics simulation model is established using Matlab®/Simulink. Experimental data are utilized to verify the nonlinear model. Since the detailed simulation model is not suitable for the DP due to its large number of states, a simplified dynamic model is developed in this paper. An optimized power management strategy is extracted by analyzing the results of DP and is evaluated using NEDC. Preliminary simulation results show that the proposed strategy presents lower fuel consumption than that of the conventional strategy by about 11.4%.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jake Bucher, Thomas Bradley, Henning Lohse-Busch, Eric Rask
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption. This paper will present the observed energy consumption variation as measured from the variation in the battery net energy change (NEC), and the variation observed during thermal dynamometer testing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bashar Alzuwayer, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Pierluigi Pisu, Pietro Giovenco, Paul Venhovens
Predicting fuel economy during early stages of concept development or feasibility study for a new type of powertrain configuration is an important key factor that might affect the powertrain configuration decision to meet CAFE standards. In this paper an efficient model has been built in order to evaluate the fuel economy for a new type of charge sustaining series hybrid vehicle that uses a Genset assembly (small 2 cylinders CNG fueled engine coupled with a generator). A first order mathematical model for a Li-Ion polymer battery is presented based on actual charging /discharging datasheet. Since the Genset performance data is not available, normalized engine variables method is used to create powertrain performance maps. An Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) has been implemented to determine how much power is supplied to the electric motor from the battery and the Genset. Finally the simulator has been tested for different driving cycles and the results which include fuel consumption, battery state of charge and the vehicle drivability performance are shown.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Chien- Hsing Li, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ko Wei Lin
Abstract Due to the energy safety and environment protection, increase the percentage of biodiesel blend has become one of world wide strategies. In the past research, using biodiesel would affect the engine performance and increase the exhaust emission. Fortunately, these problems can be solved through the rapidly development of engine control technologies and lightweight structure design. However, the consideration of light/downsizing engine design with the same power has brought out much combustion noise. According to the higher and higher proportion has been widely used over the world. There was less researches focus on the different blending biodiesel impact on combustion noise. The combustion noise correspond to different blending biodiesel (D100,B5,B8,B20,B40,B100) which made form waste cooking oil has been discussion in this study. The experimental by using engine which meet EURO-4 was designed to caught spectrum of the combustion noise via transient window which under the constant engine speed of 1500rpm, 2000rpm, 2500rpm, with different torque at 30%, 50% and 70% of each speed, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xingyu Liang, Yin Liu, Ge-Qun Shu, Zhengnan Yuhan, Yuesen Wang
Abstract In the present paper, a three-dimensional numerical analysis model based on elastic deformation was applied to analyze the compression top piston ring-liner friction of heavy duty diesel engine, considering the rheological lubrication, the newton fluid model was applied to the numerical analysis. The result illuminates that the turning point of friction transforms from rigid hydrodynamic lubrication to elastohydrodynamic lubrication is around 4°∼8°CRA BTDC (crank angle before top dead center) on the compression stroke in this calculation model. In comparison, the surface elastic deformation was started near 10°CRA BTDC on the compression stroke which is significantly clearer than the lubricant elastic deformation. A friction tester was applied to verify the calculation results. The experiment proved that the model based on elastic deformation is closer to the actual situation and the calculation result at a lower temperature is more precise than that of higher temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vasu Kumar, Jayati Takkar, Manas Chitransh, Naveen Kumar, Utsav Banka, Unish Gupta
Abstract The transportation sector faces great and urgent challenges, including climate impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, local health impacts of criteria pollutants, and political & economic impacts of petroleum dependence. While several revolutionary solutions are being developed to reduce the impact of motor vehicles, such as increased fuel economy standards and accelerated adoption of hybrid vehicles, revolutionary new approaches must also be evaluated. One such opportunity is found in Compressed Air Engine (CA Engine), which is powered solely by compressed air stored in a vehicle on-board pressurized tank. Proponents of this technology claim CA Engines are greener and cheaper to operate, since they do not consume fossil fuels and produce zero tail-pipe emissions, while offering the power and performance needed for light-duty vehicle use. Because CA Engines works in a two-stroke mechanism (expansion & exhaust stoke), in an endeavor to harness the energy in compressed air, here is an attempt to run an existing two-stroke gasoline engine on air with least possible modifications and determine if the idea of running existing motor vehicles on air is indeed a feasible alternative to over dependence on fossil derived fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shigenori Ichinose, Kiyoshi Iwade, Yoshiharu Hata
Abstract The oil flow in the oil ring groove was observed in order to improve the oil ejection efficiency in the oil ring groove. The oil flow was visualized with a clear head piston using fluorescing agent and particles under motoring condition. The influences of oil ring specification on the direction and the velocity of the oil flow were evaluated. The velocity of the oil ring with oil vent holes was faster than that of the oil ring without oil vent holes. In the case of the oil ring with vent holes, the reverse flow of the oil toward the front side was observed in the back clearance. Therefore, oil vent holes can change the oil flow and improve the oil ejection efficiency in the oil ring groove.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hu Li, Ahmad Khalfan, Gordon Andrews
A SI probe car, defined here as a normal commercial car equipped with GPS, in-vehicle FTIR tailpipe emission measurement and real time fuel consumption measurement systems, and temperature measurements, was used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions including CO2, N2O and CH4 under real world urban driving conditions. The vehicle used was a EURO4 emission compliant SI car. Two real world driving cycles/routes were designed and employed for the tests, which were located in a densely populated area and a busy major road representing a typical urban road network. Eight trips were conducted at morning rush hours, day time non-peak traffic periods and evening off peak time respectively. The aim is to investigate the impacts of traffic conditions such as road congestion, grade and turnings on fuel consumption, engine thermal efficiency and emissions. The time aligned vehicle moving parameters with fuel consumption and emission data enabled the micro-analysis of the correlations between these parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Benjamin Reuter, Daniel Gleyzes, Markus Lienkamp
Abstract In this analysis we assess the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of four types of vehicles which might play a role in achieving future emission reductions: vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), mild hybrid CNG vehicles and range extended BEVs. Our analysis covers the manufacturing processes of these vehicles and their use as a city taxi in Singapore. We also consider upstream emissions from fuel and electricity production. All necessary parameters are derived from an intensive literature review and the model for calculating the life cycle emissions is presented. The influence of data uncertainties is analyzed by parameter variations within different scenarios. The calculation results are found to be quite robust: The BEV and the mild hybrid CNG vehicle similarly show very low GHG emissions within all scenarios whereas the pure CNG vehicle always ranks the worst. In an additional scenario we also assessed the influence of an improved electricity generation with lower emissions in the future.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16268