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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16488
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0082
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0083
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0085
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0012
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0013
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo Bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0084
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Abstract In order to improve the cold flow properties of coconut oil biodiesel and to reduce the lifecycle CO2 emission by using bio-alcohol at biodiesel manufacturing, varying the types of alcohol used at transesterification was examined. The pour point of coconut oil ester decreases as the carbon number of alcohol increases. Among 5 ester fuels, the pour point of coconut oil isobutyl ester (CiBE) made from isobutanol is lowest, −12.5 °C, compared to that of coconut oil methyl ester (CME), highest, −5 °C. The pour point of coconut oil 1-butyl ester (CBE) is −10 °C, second lowest. Furthermore, CBE, CiBE, CME and JIS No.2 diesel fuel (gas oil) were tested using a DI diesel engine. CBE and CiBE have shorter ignition delay compared to the gas oil although slightly longer than CME. CBE and CiBE have the same thermal efficiency and NOx emissions compared to the gas oil. HC, CO and Smoke emissions of coconut oil ester fuels slightly increase when the ester molecule carbon number increases. However, these exhaust emissions are lower than that of the gas oil.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0086
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Abstract This paper describes the influence of different kinds of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) on the smoke emissions of a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and the soot formation characteristics in suspended single droplet combustion. The study used eight kinds of commercial FAME and diesel fuel blends. The tested FAMEs are saturated fatty acids with 8 to 18 carbon molecule chains, and with three different double bonds with C18. The results show that with all the FAME mixtures here, the brake thermal efficiencies with the FAME-diesel fuel blends were similar to neat diesel fuel operation while the smoke emissions with all of the tested FAME-diesel fuel blends were lower. To examine the differences in the soot formation characteristics, measurements of the formed soot mass were also performed with a basic experimental technique with suspended single droplet combustion. The soot was trapped on a glass fiber filter, and the mass of the filter was measured with an electronic microbalance.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that cool flame reactions were induced by increasing boost pressure when gasoline with a Research Octane Number of approximately 91 was used as the test fuel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0093
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Marcello Fiaccavento, Francesco Giari, Antonio Marchetti
Abstract This paper investigates abnormal combustion during the cranking phase of spark-ignition small engines, specifically the occurrence of backfire at the release of the starter motor during kickback. The research focusses on the influence of fuel composition, mainly in terms of ethanol percentage, on backfire occurrence. Interest in this abnormal combustion is growing due to the increased use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline. Moreover, this issue will become even more topical due to the implementation of simple control and fuel supply systems on low cost-engines, which are widely used in developing countries. Experimentation was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel vehicles. The test bench was instrumented and adapted in order to simulate the engine conditions that lead to anomalous ignition in the intake duct (backfire) during the reverse rotation of the engine (kickback).
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0005
Keisuke Mochizuki, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion. In addition, the purpose of using blended gaseous fuels were find out effective use of gaseous fuels.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0002
Yudai Yamasaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
Abstract To determine the auto-ignition and combustion mechanisms and the components of syngas that are applicable to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the combustion characteristics and the chemical reaction process in an HCCI engine were studied numerically and experimentally using mock syngas with various mixtures of the fuel components. The mock syngas consisted of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) as the main combustible components, nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as incombustible components and a small amount of methane (CH4), assuming the composition of the gas was produced from wood by thermochemical conversion processes. The oxidation reaction process was analyzed numerically using CHEMKIN-PRO. Further experiments were conducted to investigate the validity of the calculated results. Primarily, the effects of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on auto-ignition and combustion were investigated. Auto-ignition timing mainly depends on the in-cylinder gas temperature and the auto-ignition temperature is approximately 1100 K, which is the same as that of hydrocarbon fuels.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0064
Koorosh Khanjani, Jiamei Deng, Andrzej Ordys
Abstract Increasing the efficiency and durability of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of engineers in the development of modern road vehicles. Emission legislations are becoming intensively strict each year, forcing manufacturers to deploy sophisticated engine control strategies. The engine coolant temperature is conventionally controlled with mechanical elements such as wax-thermostat and belt-driven mechanical water-pump, which result in engine temperature fluctuations and delayed response to variable inputs. Variable coolant temperature is beneficial; it can decrease the hydrodynamic frictional losses of lubricated engine parts in light duty conditions. Moreover it improves performance and protects engine parts from thermal stresses and sealing failure in heavy duty conditions. In this paper the feasibility of controlling coolant temperature is examined in different driver demand conditions using electric flow-control valve replacing conventional thermostat. Urban, extra urban and highway cycles are tested on Honda insight 2003 (without the electric motor) from Advisor software vehicle simulator.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0096
Norikuni Hayakawa, Kenta Miura, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Abstract Spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition, strong knock and other abnormal combustion events that occur in supercharged direct-injection engines are viewed as serious issues. The effects of the engine oil and the components of engine oil additives have been pointed out as one cause of such abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated, and it is unclear how the individual components of engine oil additives influence autoignition. This study investigated the effect on autoignition of boundary lubricant additives that are mixed into the engine oil for the purpose of forming a lubricant film on metal surfaces. A high-speed camera was used to photograph and visualize combustion through an optical access window provided in the combustion chamber of the four-stroke naturally aspirated side-valve test engine. Spectroscopic measurements were also made simultaneously to investigate the characteristics of abnormal combustion in detail. We mixed Zinc additive into primary reference fuel (PRF50) at zinc concentration of 115 ppm, 570 ppm and 800 ppm.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0103
Yoshitane Takashima, Hiroki Tanaka, Takahiro Sako, Masahiro Furutani
Abstract Engines using natural gas as their main fuel are attracting attention for their environmental protection and energy-saving potential. There is demand for improvement in the thermal efficiency of engines as an energy-saving measure, and research in this area is being actively pursued on spark ignition engines and HCCI engines. In spark ignition gas engines, improving combustion under lean condition and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) condition is an issue, and many large gas engines use a pre-chamber. The use of the pre-chamber approach allows stable combustion of lean gas mixtures at high charging pressure, and the reduction of NOx emissions. In small gas engines, engine structure prevents the installation of pre-chambers with adequate volume, and it is therefore unlikely that the full benefits of the pre-chamber approach will be derived. However, recent research on pre-chamber plugs suggests that the pre-chamber combustion approach extends the lean limit even when fuel is not supplied to the pre-chamber, and that this limit is not particularly dependent on the large volume of the pre-chamber.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0087
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0091
Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Although metallic compounds are widely known to affect combustion in internal combustion engines, the potential of metallic additives in engine oils to initiate abnormal combustion has been unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of combustion chamber deposits derived from engine oil additives on combustion in a spark-ignited engine. We used a single-cylinder four-stroke engine, and measured several combustion characteristics (e.g., cylinder pressure, in-cylinder ultraviolet absorbance in the end-gas region, and visualized flame propagation) to evaluate combustion anomalies. To clarify the effects of individual additive components, we formed combustion products of individual additives in a combustion chamber prior to measuring combustion characteristics. We tested three types of metallic additives: a calcium-based detergent, a zinc-based antiwear agent, and a molybdenum-based friction modifier. Measurements of combustion characteristics after deposit formation revealed that the deposits derived from the calcium and zinc compounds facilitated auto-ignition and increased knock intensity.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0092
Tomomi Miyasaka, Kenta Miura, Norikuni Hayakawa, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Abstract Supercharged direct-injection engines are known to have a tendency toward abnormal combustion such as spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition and strong knock because they operate under low-speed, high-load conditions conducive to the occurrence of irregular combustion. It has been hypothesized that one cause of such abnormal combustion is the intrusion of engine oil droplets into the combustion chamber where they become a source of ignition. It has also been reported that varying the composition of engine oil additives can change susceptibility to abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood, and it is not clear how the individual components of engine oil additives affect autoignition. In this study, abnormal combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the effect on autoignition of a calcium-based additive that is typically mixed into engine oil to act as a detergent. The experiments were performed with a single-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF 50) into which the calcium salicylate (CaSa)-based detergent was mixed at various ratios.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0108
Sejun Lee, Kyohei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0. To study the effect of D-EGR ratio, the number of engine cylinders was considered from 3 to 6, same meaning with D-EGR ratio 0.5-0.2.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0115
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0117
Matthew Smeeth
Abstract Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9079
Yongming Bao, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Evatt Hawkes
Abstract The spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane has been studied in an optically accessible, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup. It is observed that at 4 MPa injection pressure, the tip penetration length of ethanol sprays is shorter than that of gasoline sprays, likely due to lower injection velocity and increased nozzle loss associated with higher density and increased viscosity of ethanol, respectively.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9080
James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington, Robert A. Stein, William M. Studzinski
Abstract Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws. For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled. Hence the use of three points on the curve (T10, T50, and T90, defined as the 10%v, 50%v, and 90%v evaporated temperatures) has been sufficient to define their volatility-related behavior in engines.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9081
Giuseppe Genchi, Emiliano Pipitone
In the last years new and stricter pollutant emission regulations together with raised cost of conventional fuels resulted in an increased use of gaseous fuels, such as Natural Gas (NG) or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), for passenger vehicles. Bi-fuel engines represent a transition phase product, allowing to run either with gasoline or with gas, and for this reason are equipped with two separate injection systems. When operating at high loads with gasoline, however, these engines require rich mixtures and retarded combustions in order to prevent from dangerous knocking phenomena: this causes high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions together with high fuel consumption. With the aim to exploit the high knock resistance of NG maintaining the good performances of gasoline, the authors experienced, in a previous work [1], the simultaneous combustion of NG-gasoline mixtures on a series production Spark Ignition (SI) engine, obtaining, with respect to pure gasoline operation, strong reduction in pollutant emissions, noticeable efficiency increase and no significant power losses.
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9129
Filip Nielsen, Åsa Uddheim, Jan-Olof Dalenbäck
Abstract Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation. It was found that a separation of the sources and sink was possible and increased the understanding of the energy usage.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2565
Harun Mohamed Ismail, Hoon Kiat Ng, Suyin Gan, Tommaso Lucchini
Abstract Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions. Simulation results are compared against data from the Chalmers High-Pressure-High-Temperature Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber (HPHT-CVCC) experimental test-bed studies in terms of liquid-droplet penetration length, vapour penetration length and spray temporal distribution.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2549
Mohd Farid Muhamad Said, Azhar Bin Abdul Aziz, Zulkanain Abdul Latiff, Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, Shahril Nizam Mohamed Soid
Abstract Many efforts have been invested to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles mainly for the local consumers. One of the main techniques to have better fuel efficiency is cylinder deactivation system. In this paper, the main research area is focus on the investigation of cylinder deactivation (CDA) technology on common engine part load conditions within common Malaysian driving condition. CDA mostly being applied on multi cylinders engines. It has the advantage in improving fuel consumption by reducing pumping losses at part load engine conditions. Here, the application of CDA on 1.6 liter four cylinders gasoline engine is studied. One-dimensional (1-D) engine modeling is performed to investigate the effect of intake and exhaust valve strategy on engine performance with CDA. The 1-D engine model is constructed starts from the air-box cleaner up to exhaust system according to the 1.6 liter actual engine geometries. The model is simulated at various engine speeds with full load condition.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2548
Pawel Magryta, Miroslaw Wendeker, Adam Majczak, Michal Bialy, Ksenia Siadkowska
Abstract The paper presents the simulation of engine model that was made in AVL Boost Software. The model assumption was the indirect additive supplying hydrogen to the SI engine. The simulation test model of a spark ignition engine, have been developed in the AVL Boost software. The model is based on a real four-cylinder engine, codenamed A14XER that meets the Euro 5 emission standard. This engine is used in passenger vehicles Opel Corsa. In order to most accurate reflection of real engine, the model was developed based on data provided by the engine manufacturer. In the simulation studies two-zone combustion model Vibe (Vibe 2 zone) was used. A General Species Transportation model was also defined, which allowed to use the fuel as a blend of gasoline and hydrogen to supply the engine. Calculations were performed for a full load for different values of rotational speed of the engine crankshaft (from 1000 rpm to 6400 rpm). Simulation studies were performed for the original fuel (gasoline) and hydrogen additives 5, 10, 15 and 20%.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2555
Lyes Tarabet, Mohand Said Lounici, Khaled Loubar, Mohand Tazerout
Abstract Numerical simulation is a useful and a cost-effective tool for engine cycle prediction. In the present study, a dual Wiebe function is used to approximate the heat release rate in a DI, naturally aspirated diesel engine fuelled with eucalyptus biodiesel/diesel fuel blends and operated at various engine loads. This correlation is fitted to the experimental heat release rate at various operating conditions (fuel nature and engine load) using a least squares regression to find the unknown parameters. The main objective of this study is to propose a model to predict the Wiebe function parameters for more general operating conditions, not only those experimentally tested. For this purpose, an artificial neural network (ANN) is developed on the basis of the experimental data. Engine load and eucalyptus biodiesel/diesel fuel blend are the input layer, while the six parameters of the dual Wiebe function are the output layer. Levenberge-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithm is found to be the best learning algorithm with a minimum number of neurons in the hidden layer.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2554
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Siano
Abstract Control of knock phenomenon is becoming more and more important in modern SI engine, due to the tendency to develop high boosted turbocharged engines (downsizing). To this aim, improved modeling and experimental techniques are required to precisely define the maximum allowable spark advance. On the experimental side, the knock limit is identified based on some indices derived by the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure traces or of the cylinder block vibrations. The threshold levels of the knock indices are usually defined following an heuristic approach. On the modeling side, in the 1D codes, the knock is usually described by simple correlation of the auto-ignition time of the unburned gas zone within the cylinders. In addition, the latter methodology commonly refers to ensemble-averaged pressure cycles and, for this reason, does not take into account the cycle-by-cycle variations. In this work, an experimental activity is carried out to characterize the effects of cyclic dispersion on knock phenomena for different engine speeds, at full load operations and referring to a spark advance of borderline knock.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2575
Michal Bialy, Miroslaw Wendeker, Pawel Magryta, Zbigniew Czyz, Rafal Sochaczewski
Abstract The article presents results of the 3D-CFD modeling of mixture creation process in the cylinder of diesel engine. The simulation was performed using the AVL Fire software. Based on the geometry of the ADCR engine, produced by Andoria-Mot Company, a 3D-CFD model of combustion chamber, channels in the engine head and CNG injector nozzle were created. This model prevented the simulation of the filling, compression and mixture creation process. Specially prepared CNG injector has been placed in the socket of the glow plug, to minimize interference with the structure of the engine. With this solution full functionality of the original fuel supply system was retained with the ability to work with one or two fuels. During studies the location of the gas injector nozzle was changed. The results of simulation are presented for three variants of CNG injector locations. Simulation studies prevented the determination of the degree of stratification and the distribution of fuel in the cylinder of the engine.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16488