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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16752
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1744
Jonathan M. S. Mattson, Chenaniah Langness, Christopher Depcik
The growth of hydraulic fracking has resulted in a dramatic cost reduction of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), a low carbon fuel. CNG cannot be used as singular fuel in conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines because of its high auto-ignition characteristics. However, CNG-assisted diesel combustion represents a means to shift the energy consumption of CI engines away from liquid fossil fuels. Calculation of the rate of heat release is vital for understanding and optimizing this mode of engine operation. A previously constructed three-zone equilibrium heat release model that is calibrated to engine exhaust hydrocarbon measurements was augmented in order to allow for the addition of CNG in the engine intake. The model was also adapted to permit reuse of unburned CNG gas with other exhaust species via exhaust gas recirculation. This is because experiments demonstrated a potentially dramatic increase in methane emissions under high CNG flow rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0442
Sudhi Uppuluri, Ajay Naiknaware
Abstract: With increasing pressure to meet CAFE standards, various strategies are being developed to actively manage the vehicle drag and engine thermal performance to squeeze out additional fuel economy performance from existing vehicle. This paper develops on the previous work presented at this conference and discusses the sensitivity of key vehicle parameters that affect the engine thermal performance and fuel economy of the vehicle. The sensitivity analysis is based on a vehicle level system model that captures the entire engine thermal model and transient behavior of various key components such as the thermostat, the active grill shutter and accessory loads. Results discussed in this paper provides guidance on which variables have the most affect on fuel economy and which variables must be tightly controlled to improve the robustness and stability of the design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0803
Marko Jeftić, Jimi Tjong, Graham Reader, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Experimental testing was done with a modern compression ignition engine to study the effect of the engine load and the effect of different fuels on the post injection characteristics. Two different fuels were utilized; ultra-low sulphur diesel and n-butanol. The results showed that a post injection can be an effective method for increasing the operating range of the engine load. Engine operation at high load can be limited by the peak cylinder pressure but the test results showed that an early post injection can increase the engine load without increasing the peak in-cylinder pressure. Neat butanol combustion may have a very high peak in-cylinder pressure and a very high peak pressure rise rate even at low load conditions. The test results showed that a butanol post injection can contribute to engine power without significantly affecting the peak pressure rise rate and the peak in-cylinder pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0833
Buyu Wang, Zhi Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai, Jian-Xin Wang
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with mixtures of gasoline and diesel is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the same fueling rate for different gasoline and diesel mixtures. By keeping the same intake pressure and EGR ratio, the influence of different blending ratios in gasoline and diesel mixtures are investigated. Commercial diesel is also tested as a reference. Combustion and emissions characteristics are compared by sweeping the first (-95 ~ --35 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (-1 ~ 9 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 82/18 and an injection pressure of 80MPa. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the gasoline and diesel mixtures can reduce NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency, but the HC and CO emissions are higher for the mixtures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1745
Cemil Bekdemir, Rik Baert, Frank Willems, Bart Somers
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a promising combustion concept in terms of controllability and load range compared to other high efficiency low pollutant emission concepts, such as Homogeneous and Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI/PCCI). Up to now, these RCCI strategies mainly rely on the combination of two liquid fuels: a diesel like and gasoline like fuel. Recently, this concept also became interesting from an operational cost perspective since one of the fuels can be natural gas (CNG). This is especially interesting for the partial substitution of diesel fuel in the heavy-duty market, as it bears the potential of decreasing CO2 and soot emissions on top of RCCI’s general potential of high thermal efficiency and low engine-out NOx emission. Engine control development requires fast models that capture the main features and trends of the processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0845
Prasad Divekar, Zhenyi Yang, David Ting, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Experimental investigation of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) cycles is conducted with diesel and ethanol fuels on a high compression ratio (18.2:1), common-rail diesel engine. Two LTC modes are studied; near-TDC injection of diesel with high intake charge dilution, and port injected ethanol ignited by direct injection of diesel with moderate exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Indicated mean effective pressure up to 10 bar in the diesel LTC mode and 17.6 bar in the dual-fuel LTC mode has been realized. While the NOx and smoke emissions are significantly reduced, a thermal efficiency penalty is observed from the test results. In this work, the efficiency penalty is attributed to increased HC and CO emissions and a non-conventional heat release pattern. The influence of heat release phasing, duration, and shape, on the indicated performance is explained with the help of parametric engine cycle simulations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0848
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a cost-effective option for improving the efficiency and performance of gasoline engines. Nevertheless, particulate emission are larger than conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Ethanol is very effective in particle emissions reduction. On the other hand, the low vapor pressure of ethanol makes cold start very difficult, and the low lower heating value (LHV) results in lower energy density and then larger fuel consumption. The dual-fuel injection system can be used to improve the engine performance and reduce the fossil fuel consumption performing simultaneously a direct-injection (DI) and a port-fuel-injection (PFI) of different fuels. The aim of the paper is the investigation of the particle emissions from ethanol-gasoline dual fuel combustion. The engine was operated also in gasoline-gasoline dual fuel mode to distinguish the effect of injection strategy from the effect of fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1242
Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
Ethanol has demonstrated strong, anti-knock performance in spark ignition (SI) engines, and this is one important reason for its increasing use around the world. Ethanol’s high octane rating is attributed to both its low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling capability. Further, whilst detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms have been developed for gasoline surrogates and ethanol, little work has been done to investigate whether autoignition in modern, SI engines with ethanol/gasoline blends can be reproduced by these mechanisms, in particular for cases with direct fuel injection. This paper therefore presents a numerical study of the trace knocking of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results of these numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained in a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0299
Saurav Talukdar
Control of vehicular platoons has been a problem of interest in the controls domain for the past 40 years. This problem gained a lot of popularity when the California PATH program was operational. String stability is an important design criterion in this problem and it has been shown that lead vehicle information is essential to achieve it. This work builds upon the existing framework and presents a controller form for each follower in the string where the lead vehicle information is used explicitly to analytically demonstrate string stability. The discussion is focused on using information from immediate neighbors to achieve string stability. Recent developments in distributed control are an attractive framework for control design where each agent has access to states of the neighbors and not all agents in the network. In this work, the aim is to design sparse H2 controllers and then perform a check on string stability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0246
Hisashi Higashi
In Japan,low fuel consumption internal combustion engines :Fuel-efficient ICE (fuel-efficient internal combustion engine), HV,PHV,EV,FCV and other types of eco-friendly vehicles have been researched and developed as solutions to the energy and environmental problems, but none of these vehicles have been fully satisfactory in all respects, such as environmental performance, vehicle performance, and infrastructure. Hino Motors developed the small electric bus, based on the concept of short travel distance and high frequency of charging. Since 2012 two buses have operated in two areas as community bus and from 2013 one more. The capacity of lithium ion battery (LIB) was able to be fixed at minimum by development of the energy management in consideration of service. This paper describes the energy management for the small electric bus, and the design of the vehicle and the evaluation results of actual operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1171
Hyun Suk Choo, Dae Kuen Chun, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hwan Soo Shin, Sung Kuen Lee, Yong Sun Park, Byung Ki Ahn
This paper proposes the several methods for recovering the performacne of fuel cell stack for FCEV, which is focused on the reduction of platinum surface oxide layer formed on cathode side during the vehicle operation. As a result of application of recovering methods, it is possible to partially rehabilitate the performance of degraded fuel cell stack by about 25-30% and to increase the durability of fuel cell stack ultimately.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0867
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine’s clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
As a cheap, clean alternative, neat methanol and methanol gasoline are widely used as vehicle fuel in many provinces in China. Though burning methanol is able to curb carbonaceous pollutants from engine, NOx and carbonyls, in particular formaldehyde, remain concerns over atmospheric environment and public health. In this paper, regulated, carbonyl emissions together with particulate matter from a neat methanol/gasoline dual-fuel passenger car were examined over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results yielded that, CO, HC and NOx from different fuel regimes were very similar. 14 kinds of carbonyl compounds in the exhaust samples were analyzed. In comparison with gasoline baseline, approximately 41.9% more carbonyls, majority of which were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propyl aldehyde and benzaldehyde, were discharged by methanol fuelling. Regarding particulate matter, a remarkable decrease of 63% in mass was obtained by fuelling with methanol.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1732
Marie-Josee Poitras, Deborah Rosenblatt, Jeffery Goodman
The focus of this study was the characterization and comparison of power-specific exhaust emission rates from a closed-loop small spark-ignited engine fuelled with ethanol and isobutanol gasoline blends. A 4-cycle Kohler ECH-630 engine certified to the Phase 3 emissions standards was operated over the G2 test cycle in its original configuration. This engine was equipped with electronic ignition, electronic fuel injection and an oxygen sensor. Certification gasoline fuel was splash-blended by percent volume with ethanol and isobutanol to result in the test blend levels of E10, E15, iB16 and iB8-E10 – a blend of ethanol, isobutanol and gasoline. Reductions in emission rates of carbon monoxide (up to 12.0% with the ethanol blends and up to 11.4% with the isobutanol blends) were achieved along with a reduction in total hydrocarbons (up to 11.2% with the ethanol blends and up to 8.1% with the isobutanol blends).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0767
Richard Stradling, David Rickeard, Heather Hamje, John Williams, Peter Zemroch
Gasoline combustion has traditionally been measured using Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance, while also helping refiners in the production of gasoline. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. It has also been suggested that there could be fuel efficiency benefits (on a tank to wheels basis) for specially adapted engines, for example, operating at higher compression ratio, on very high RON (100+). Other workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of octane quality.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1733
Michele De Gennaro, Elena Paffumi, Giorgio Martini, Urbano Manfredi, Roberto Rossi, Paolo Massari, Roberto Roasio
The increasing urbanization level of many countries around the globe has led to a rapid increase of mobility demand in cities. Although public transport may play an important role, there are still many people relying on private vehicles, and, especially in urban areas, motorcycles and scooters can combine handling and flexibility with lower cost of operation compared to passenger cars. However, in spite of their lower fuel demand, they might significantly contribute to air pollution, lagging behind cars in terms of emission performances. The aim of this paper is to provide the scientific community with the results of an exploratory test campaign on four different motorcycles, converted from gasoline to CNG by means of an after-market conversion kit, designed and developed by a joint collaboration between the Professional School “Leon Battista Alberti” (Rimini, Italy) and local specialized companies. A fifth motorcycle, similarly converted from gasoline to LPG, was also tested.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0776
Gerben Doornbos, Stina Hemdal, Daniel Dahl
This paper investigates how the rate of dilution applied can be extended while maintaining normal engine operation. Adding combustion residuals or additional air to a stoichiometric air fuel mixture creates advantages for an otto engine. The lower combustion temperature and higher theoretical efficiency results in reduced fuel consumption and decreased NOx formation. However dilution negatively affects the ignite-ability of the mixture and decreases the flame speed, possibly resulting in misfires and partial burns. Therefore a Volvo four-cylinder was equipped with a dual coil ignition system. This system made it possible to extend the ignition duration and vary the ignition current. Furthermore a sweep was performed in valve timing and type of dilution, air or combustion residuals. While maintaining a CoV < 5% the dual coil ignition system was able to extend the maximum lambda value by 10 to 15% depending on the load point.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0434
Jin Woo Lee, Efstratios Nikolaidis, Vijay Devabhaktuni
This paper proposes a multilevel decoupled method for optimizing the structural design of a wind turbine blade. The proposed method reduces the design space by employing a two-level optimization process. At the high level, the structural properties of each section are approximated by an exponential function of the distance of that section from the blade root. High level design variables (DVs) are the coefficients of this approximating function. Target values for the structural properties of the blade are determined at the high level. At the low level, sections are divided into small decoupled groups. For each section, the low level optimizer finds thickness of laminate layers with minimum mass, whose structural properties meet the targets determined by the high level optimization. Using the proposed method, each low level optimizer only considers a small number of DVs for a particular section, while traditional, single-level methods consider all DVs simultaneously.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0853
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Arulselvan Subramanian
A comparative study was made on the effect of methanol addition (by blending) and induction (by carburetion) on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a vegetable oil (Madhuca Indica called as Mahua oil) based diesel engine. A single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rev/min. was used. Initially methanol was blended with Mahua oil in different proportions such as 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume and tested for engine performance and emissions. In the second phase a carburetor was fitted at the intake manifold and methanol was inducted by fumigation technique. Tests were conducted at the engine loads of 100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of the maximum power output with varying amount of methanol. Results of 100% and 40% loads were compared and analyzed. Neat Mahua oil resulted in inferior performance and increased emissions at both power outputs as compared to neat diesel operation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0955
Hejun Guo, Qining Xun, Shenghua Liu, Xuanjun Wang
Utilization of clean energy resources for modern automotive engines has been attached great importance in recent years. Biofuel has been well known as one of the alternative fuels for diesel engine, which is able to burn completely during engine operation and thereby can give rise to a significant smoke reduction. In the present paper, a new biofuel ethylene glycol monomethyl ether soyate has been developed. The biofuel was synthesized with a refined soybean oil and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as reactants and sodium as catalyst under 90℃. The synthesized crude product was purified and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR and GPC analyses. The physicochemical properties of the biofuel and its addition effects on properties of diesel fuel were investigated according to China national standard test methods.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Yahaya Alhassan, Amar Deep
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks is required. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (oC) were considered as the factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated. The results of the experimental matrix were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1298
Sangram Jadhav
In this study, the optimization of experimental parameters, such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (1:08, 1:12 and 1:16), homogeneous catalyst loading (0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt %), homogeneous catalyst types (NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3) and reaction temperature (59, 64 and 69°C) on the transesterification for the production of Mangifera oil methyl ester (Biodiesel) was performed. Homogenous alkali catalyzed method has been used for biodiesel production by using homogenous catalyst such as NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3. The taguchi method was adopted as the experimental conditions from a limited number of experiments (Columns of L9 (3**4) Array) and contribution of each signal to noise factor calculated by ANOVA. The optimum experimental condition obtained from this study are; 1:16 methanol to oil molar ratio, KOH as the catalyst type, at a loading 1.5 wt% and a reaction temperature of 64°C played the most important role in the yield of Mangifera methyl ester.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1681
Girish Khairnar, Jagrit Shrivas, Sachin Pande, Rohit Londhe, Yaser Hussaini, Yogesh Ambekar
Last mile transportation is an important supply chain & transportation requirement for the movement of people and goods from a transport hub to a final destination in the area. In India this requirement is largely met by 3 wheelers & small 4 wheelers (below 1 ton payload). Greaves cotton Ltd. (GCL) has played an important role for last mile transportation solutions in India by developing suitable engines for the above category vehicles. GCL is already supplying single cylinder air cooled 400 cc diesel / CNG, 435 cc & 510 cc diesel BSIII engines for 3 wheeler applications and single cylinder water cooled 510 cc & 611 cc BSIII diesel engines for small commercial 4 wheeler applications. In India, BSIV emission norms are in place since April 2010 in metro cities for 4 wheelers. Also CNG network is well established in most of these cities. Hence to serve this market, the CNG engine variant development of the 611 cc diesel BSIII engine was initiated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1170
Yoshinobu Hasuka, Hiroyuki Sekine, Koji Katano, Yasuhiro Nonobe
In order to popularize Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), components size, weight and cost reduction are necessary. In the new FCV of Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC), by achieving the size reduction of Fuel Cell and common use of Hybrid Vehicle PCU (Power Control Unit), traction motor and high voltage battery, TMC has developed the new FC DC-DC converter (FDC) that boosts up Fuel Cell output voltage. For FC high power supply to the traction motor, the size of the components is an issue for FDC. By using multi-phase converter and the new cooling structure, the reduction of the size has been achieved. This paper introduces the technologies of FDC in the new FCV.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0804
Jinli Wang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Experimental research were carried out on a compression ignition engine with compression ratio of 17.5 with direct-run Naphtha. Exhaust recirculation ratio sweeps were carried out with three injection strategies. Premixed charge compression ignition, partially premixed combustion and low temperature combustion modes were realized and compared with each other. The first injection strategy is single injection. The injection timing is scanned to form partially premixed combustion and low temperature combustion. The second injection strategy features a large early first injection with fixed timing to form premixed charge and a small second injection near top dead center, which was scanned. The third injection strategy is similar to the traditional diesel injection strategy, which has a small pilot injection with fixed interval before the main injection. Results show that all injection strategies could realize both low NOx and low particulate matter emissions simultaneously.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0805
Omar Ramadan, Gary Webster, Luc Menard, Aaron Wilcox, Charlie Webster, Jim Larocque
This paper presents the results of a mini Inter-Laboratory Study (mILS) that is a continuation of earlier work, published in SAE paper number 2014-01-0179. This work aimed to improve the capability, precision, and durability of the Advanced Engine Technology’s (AET) Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) and ASTM Standard Test Method D6890. The mILS was performed to determine into how much the Totally Automated Lab Model (TALM) IQT™ Precision Package would improve the precision of four IQT™s, relative to a larger number of IQT™s participating in two separate fuel exchange programs. Two of the IQT™s were located at AET and the other two were located at two different external laboratories. All four IQT™s were equipped with the TALM IQT™ Precision Package. Nine fuel samples from the two fuel exchange programs, with reference DCN values from 33 to 82, were selected for testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0863
Hideyuki Ogawa, Peilong Zhao, Taiki Kato, Gen Shibata
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas from an intake manifold as the main fuel and a small quantity of directly injected diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, super-charged, direct injection diesel engine with common rail fuel injection and low pressure loop cooled EGR. This type of combustion poses problems including large unburned emissions at low engine load conditions and limitations on the maximum load due to excessively rapid combustion. In this report the influence of compression ratios, the equivalence ratio of the natural gas, and the intake oxygen concentrations changed with cooled EGR on the combustion and emissions in the dual fuel operation was systematically investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0807
Khanh Cung, Jaclyn Johnson, Seong-Young Lee
Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard’s mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition and growth of small PAH, assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) up to coronene.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1679
Lynn C. McLean, Mohamed El-Sayed
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a byproduct of both natural gas processing and crude oil refining. As a chemical, propane (C3H8) is a nontoxic, colorless, and virtually odorless hydrocarbon. In it liquefied form propane is highly compactable and therefore extremely economical to store and transport. Due its availability and adoptability as engine fuel, propane is quickly becoming one of the most viable alternative fuel in the world known as Propane Autogas. While thousands of LPG fueled vehicles such as buses, taxis, delivery and other fleet vehicles are on the road few comprehensive studies on LPG as alternative fuel in mass transportation are documented. In this paper, a comprehensive commercial study for LPG as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel is conducted. The study includes the required infrastructure for fueling, the fuel supply, the fueling station, and the conversion of the fleet vehicles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16752