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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0058
Sukrut Thipse, Ajit Vinayak Kulkarni, Suresh J Vispute, S D Rairikar, Shailesh B Sonawane, Vinayak Shivalink Sagare, Kishor Kumar Kauathekar, Subhanker Dev
A duel fuel (Diesel-CNG) engine is diesel engine fitted with a dual fuel conversion kit to enable use of clean burning alternative fuel like compressed natural gas. Dual fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, lower emissions, higher compression ratio, better efficiency and less modifications on existing diesel engines. The base engine is a diesel engine where diesel and natural gas are burned simultaneously. Natural gas is fed into the cylinder; the amount of diesel injection is reduced accordingly. As dual fuel systems allow retrofitting of diesel engines, CO2 and other tail pipe emission s like PM, NOx, CO and HC reduces. At the same time by replacing diesel with natural gas helps to reduce imports bill. Normally natural gas is a cheaper fuel compared to diesel. Cost savings of dual fuel vehicles will depend on the share of gas added.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0053
Chandrakant Awate, Jayesh Zadokar, Sanjay Patel, Anay Malaviya, Vinti Arora cEng
With ever increasing population growth and increase in per capita income, put lots of demand on energy requirements. On the other side depletion in fossil fuel, rocketing fuel prices and as we move ever closer to the 2021 fuel economy targets and CO2 emissions standards, it is imperative to find solutions which are cost-effective and from sustainable energy sources. Being in the tropical region, India has high solar insolation, which can be used for energy generation. This paper describes best possible ways to use solar energy for automotive application. This paper explains various types of photovoltaic (PV) technologies – crystalline and thin film solar cells. A medium sized sedan vehicle with mild hybrid technology and roof mounted PV panel is used for all experiments. Authors describe the benefits and limitations of each PV technology with experimental measurement and payback period analysis.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0055
Chinmaya Mishra, Purna Mishra, Biswa Kar, Nitin Katiyar
Plant origin vegetable oils are long considered as a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine applications. However, higher viscosity and density compounded with poor cold flow properties of these oils lead to serious operational and durability problems in diesel engines like injector chocking, higher deposit formations, poor combustion characteristics etc. In this context, application of additives in neat vegetable oil to enable them for engine application seem to present a promising alternative for rural stationary diesel engines where the complex transesterification process for biodiesel production from vegetable oils is not feasible. In the present study, Calophyllum vegetable oil was blended with 10%, 20% and 30% by volume of Isopropyl alcohol and named as CI10, CI20 and CI30 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0056
Pedro M. Barroso, Xavier Ribas, Mario Pita Sr, Judith Dominguez, Edgard De Seia
This work is based on the development of heavy-duty diesel engines for alternative fuel use over the years. Three HD diesel engines for on-highway truck applications were studied: a 13L diesel engine was converted to a dedicated lean-burn NG engine and two diesel engines (14 and 4.25L) were converted to dual-fuel operation with diesel-NG and diesel-LPG respectively. The dedicated NG engine conversion was achieved by means of some relevant modifications, such as the reduction of the compression ratio, the design of a gas injection system, the design of a spark plug adapter, and the implementation of a complete EMS. In relation to the dual-fuel cases, some minor modifications were made to the diesel baseline engines such as the installation of the gas train components and the implementation of a gas ECU for the management of the diesel and gas injection using some selected CAN bus J1939 signals.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0050
Kunal Kumar Rana, Saravanan Natarajan, Srinivas Jilakara
The carbonless structure of Hydrogen is considered as a potential fuel for future automotive propulsion system to reduce reliance on energy imports and elimination of carbon containing emissions. There are a lot of research on fuel cells, which yields very promising results, yet at other side it has several drawbacks such as cost, bulkiness and low efficiency at high loads. Here the hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine appears on the scene. The working principle of an internal combustion engine fuelled with hydrogen is same as any spark ignition engine. This paper reviews optimistic features and current boundaries that are associated with the use of hydrogen as SI engine fuel, along with the recent advancements in hydrogen (H2) powered engine. An overview of highly favourable engine specific properties of hydrogen with regards to its combustion characteristics and challenges that must be surmounted in order to establish a "Hydrogen Economy" are described.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0051
Srinivas Jilakara, Jaikumar V Vaithianathan, Saravanan Natarajan, Venkateswara R Ramakrishnan, GP Subash, Mathew Abraham, Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Lalit Mohan Das
Hydrogen is considered as one of the potential alternate fuel compared to other alternate fuels like CNG,LPG, Ethanol etc.due to its unique properties and absence of carbon. In the current work, Hydrogen engine of 2.5 L,four cylinder, spark ignited Turbocharged-Intercooled engine is developed for Mini Bus application.Multi-point fuel injection system is used for injecting the hydrogen in the intake manifold.Initially boost simulation is performed to select the optimum compression ratio and turbocharger. The literature review is conducted to find the optimum equivalence ratio with minimal NOx emissions and it has been shown in the literature that in-order to get the minimal NOx emissions Hydrogen engines must be operated between equivalence ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. In the present study full throttle performance is conducted mainly with the above equivalence ratio range with minimum advance for Maximum Brake Torque (MBT).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0052
Ashish Jashvantlal Modi, Dhiren Patel
As concerned with the IC engine now a day’s energy conservation and higher thermal efficiency are the main issues. As there is a big amount of heat loss in atmosphere due to which the efficiency is lower for the standard engine. There is one possible solution to reduce such problem by converting the conventional CI engine in to the LHR engine. For the current work the performance and emission characteristics are evaluated for the twin cylinder ceramic coated water cooled CI engine using blends of diesel and neem bio diesel. For the present work the bio-diesel was prepared in laboratory from non-edible vegetable oil (neem oil) by transesterification process with methanol, where potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used in as a catalyst. Inside Cylinder of combustion chamber, Piston top surface (crown) and valve faces were coated with the Magnesium Zirconate (MgZrO3).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0046
Sukrut S Thipse, Shailesh B Sonawane, Ashwin F D' Souza, Kishor Kumar Kauathekar, S D Rairikar
CNG has long since been established as a front runner amongst other available alternative fuels. In India, its infrastructure and penetration far exceeds others. While other, more efficient alternatives are been researched, CNG has established itself in the market are the alternative fuel of choice for majority of Indians. CNG technology has evolved itself from the basic venturi system to the more efficient sequential injection system nowadays. While the efficiency of an engine using sequential injection CNG has increased, the inherent problem with respect to lower volumetric efficiency and hence less power still persists. Direct injection CNG technology is seen as the solution to this age old problem. In the older days, the lack of technological expertise in SI direct fuel injection provided a stumbling block for development of direct gas injection.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Title: Diesel CNG – The Potential of a Dual Fuel Combustion Concept for lower CO2 and Emissions – Authors: Juergen Manns, Dr. Maximilian Brauer, N.N. Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in exhaust gas emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however – the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for different operating points on a research single cylinder engine.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0047
Darshan Jain, Saravanan Kumarasamy, K. C. Vora
Abstract:- Jatropha curcus.L, which is often referred to as “Jatropha” is a plant that produces seeds with high oil content. The plant can be grown on low fertile land with no intensive water supply. The seeds are toxic and are non-edible which make it an important source for producing bio-diesel in developing countries. The Jatropha seeds consist of kernels enclosed by shells. The maximum oil content of the seed is present in white kernels.There are different types of expelling methods such as Mechanical extraction, Solvent extraction and Enzymatic extraction.The study was conducted with hand driven mechanical expeller which is most conventional way of extracting oil from seeds and with mechanical efficiency of 60-80% for single pass. The study includes various combinations of parameters like seed treatment, sun drying, pre-heating, soaking at different temperatures and different de-hulling compositions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0059
Rahul R Kartha, Mohammad Jamadar, S. S Ramdasi, S.S Thipse, N. V Marathe
The paper deals with the simulation of a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) using vehicle performance algorithms. This method speeds up the product development process. Also by using these kind of methodology in vehicle simulation there is much noticeable reduction in cost of testing. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle and also to attain objectives such as to optimize transmission ratio, full load acceleration, maximum tractive force, gradient performance, fuel consumption and the exhaust emission . In this case study, simulation model of a CNG LCV is used to analyse the performances similar to that done in a chassis dynamometer. The simulation leads to the prediction and evaluation of various parameters such as fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, full load acceleration, gradient performance & maximum tractive effort for Indian Driving Cycle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0057
K. R. Patil, S. S. Thipse, Arundhati Warke
Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel for diesel engines owing to its high ignition quality. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effect of blends of DEE with diesel as an oxygenate and cetane improver on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. In this study, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% diethyl ether (by volume) were blended into diesel. The engine tests were carried out for 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% of full load and 100% load. The laboratory fuel tests also carried out to measure the basic properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane index, flash point, distillation profile and miscibility. Laboratory fuel tests showed that the DEE can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel as it is completely miscible with diesel fuel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0060
Giovanni Vichi, Luca Romani, Giovanni Ferrara, Luca Carmignani, Francesco Maiani
Abstract In the last years, the engineering in the automotive industry is revolutionized by the continuous research of solutions for the reduction of consumptions and pollutant emissions. On this topic maximum attention is paid by both the legislative bodies and the costumers. The more and more severe limitations in pollutant and CO2 emissions imposed by international standards and the increasing price of the fuel force the automotive research to more efficient and ecological engines. Commonly the standard approach for the definition of the engine parameters at the beginning of the design process is based on the wide-open throttle condition although, both in homologation cycles and in the daily usage of the scooters, the engines work mainly at partial load where the efficiency dramatically decreases. This aspect has recently become strongly relevant also for two wheeled vehicles especially for urban purpose.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0063
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Danilo D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta Panza
Abstract In the present work, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, for knock detection purposes. To the aim of tuning such procedures, the same analysis has been carried out by using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index and an Inverse Kinetic Model (IKM), both applied on the in-cylinder pressure signals. Vibrational and in-cylinder pressure signals have been collected on a four cylinder, four stroke engine, for different engine speeds, load conditions and spark advances. The results of the two vibrational based methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0064
Koorosh Khanjani, Jiamei Deng, Andrzej Ordys
Abstract Increasing the efficiency and durability of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of engineers in the development of modern road vehicles. Emission legislations are becoming intensively strict each year, forcing manufacturers to deploy sophisticated engine control strategies. The engine coolant temperature is conventionally controlled with mechanical elements such as wax-thermostat and belt-driven mechanical water-pump, which result in engine temperature fluctuations and delayed response to variable inputs. Variable coolant temperature is beneficial; it can decrease the hydrodynamic frictional losses of lubricated engine parts in light duty conditions. Moreover it improves performance and protects engine parts from thermal stresses and sealing failure in heavy duty conditions. In this paper the feasibility of controlling coolant temperature is examined in different driver demand conditions using electric flow-control valve replacing conventional thermostat.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0037
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Abstract Many two stroke engine for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight, dimensions and temperature. One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0032
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Abstract Motorcycle sales have increased consistently during the last decade mostly in developing countries, especially in the BRICS. Low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars associated to the economic growth are the main reason for such trend. Emission limits have become stricter and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Flex fuel motorcycles have now become available, but effects of the combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends on the emissions are still an open issue that requires further understanding. This paper presents the most recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends: E22, E61, E85 and 100% ethanol. Both regulated (CO, THC, NOx) and unregulated emissions (Aldehydes, NMHC, NH3, N2O) were studied.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0093
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Marcello Fiaccavento, Francesco Giari, Antonio Marchetti
Abstract This paper investigates abnormal combustion during the cranking phase of spark-ignition small engines, specifically the occurrence of backfire at the release of the starter motor during kickback. The research focusses on the influence of fuel composition, mainly in terms of ethanol percentage, on backfire occurrence. Interest in this abnormal combustion is growing due to the increased use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline. Moreover, this issue will become even more topical due to the implementation of simple control and fuel supply systems on low cost-engines, which are widely used in developing countries. Experimentation was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel vehicles.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0086
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Abstract This paper describes the influence of different kinds of FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) on the smoke emissions of a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and the soot formation characteristics in suspended single droplet combustion. The study used eight kinds of commercial FAME and diesel fuel blends. The tested FAMEs are saturated fatty acids with 8 to 18 carbon molecule chains, and with three different double bonds with C18. The results show that with all the FAME mixtures here, the brake thermal efficiencies with the FAME-diesel fuel blends were similar to neat diesel fuel operation while the smoke emissions with all of the tested FAME-diesel fuel blends were lower. To examine the differences in the soot formation characteristics, measurements of the formed soot mass were also performed with a basic experimental technique with suspended single droplet combustion.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0085
Takeshi Otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Abstract In order to reduce the smoke emission of PME/1-butanol blend by increasing the 1-butanol content, PME/1-butanol blend is tested using a DI diesel engine with jerk-type fuel injection pump. With PME/1-butanol blend, there is no problem on the start-ability and stability of the engine operation up to 60 mass% of 1-butanol. On the other hand, with gas oil/1-butanol blend, there is no problem on those up to 40 mass% of 1-butanol. The PME/1-butanol blend has longer ignition delay compared with PME due to the low cetane number of 1-butanol. With increasing 1-butanol content, the smoke emissions of PME/1-butanol blend decrease although the HC and CO emissions increase due to the longer ignition delay.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0083
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
Abstract The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of FAME mixed with diesel oil. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the KL factor were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The FAMEs examined in this study are PME, RME and CME, and compared with the combustion characteristics of diesel oil. From the systematic experiments, it is confirmed that the ignition delay and combustion period of bio diesel fuels are almost equivalent with those of diesel oil. The flame temperature decreased slightly with the bio fuel. Furthermore the total KL factor, a measure of the amount of soot in flame, decreased drastically by using the bio diesel fuel in the order of the mass fraction of oxygen in the molecule.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0084
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Abstract In order to improve the cold flow properties of coconut oil biodiesel and to reduce the lifecycle CO2 emission by using bio-alcohol at biodiesel manufacturing, varying the types of alcohol used at transesterification was examined. The pour point of coconut oil ester decreases as the carbon number of alcohol increases. Among 5 ester fuels, the pour point of coconut oil isobutyl ester (CiBE) made from isobutanol is lowest, −12.5 °C, compared to that of coconut oil methyl ester (CME), highest, −5 °C. The pour point of coconut oil 1-butyl ester (CBE) is −10 °C, second lowest. Furthermore, CBE, CiBE, CME and JIS No.2 diesel fuel (gas oil) were tested using a DI diesel engine. CBE and CiBE have shorter ignition delay compared to the gas oil although slightly longer than CME. CBE and CiBE have the same thermal efficiency and NOx emissions compared to the gas oil. HC, CO and Smoke emissions of coconut oil ester fuels slightly increase when the ester molecule carbon number increases.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0082
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Abstract Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to its opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia, Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0135
Silvana Di Iorio, Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Luigi Arnone, Lorenzo Dal Bello
Abstract The present paper describes the results of an experimental activity performed on a small diesel engine for quadricycles, a category of vehicles that is spreading in Europe and is recently spreading over Indian countries. The engine is a prototype three-cylinder with 1000 cc of displacement and it is equipped with a direct common-rail injection system that reaches a maximum pressure of 1400 bar. The engine was designed to comply with Euro 4 emission standard that is a future regulation for quadricycles. It is worth underlining that the engine can meet emission limits just with EGR system and a DOC, without DPF. Various diesel/RME blends were tested; pure diesel and biodiesel fuels were also used. The investigation was carried out at the engine speeds of 1400, 2000 and 3400 rpm and full load. Combustion characteristics of both blended and pure RME were analyzed by means of in-cylinder pressure and heat released histories.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0115
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract Present two stroke engines used for hand held power tools must confirm to prevailing emission legislation. A fact is that today the engines have to be run at leaner air fuel setting resulting in less amount of lubrication oil passing through the engine. This lean mixture combined with high mixture trapping efficiency also affects the combustion, raising the overall working temperature of the engine. So to gain more robustness out of these air-cooled power heads one viable route is to use different coatings to take control of tribology and heat management within the two stroke power head. In this paper a first discussion and description of the different coatings and their merits to the air cooled two stroke engine is conducted. Furthermore engine data for the test engine, in this case a 70cc professional chainsaw are presented. The outcome of engine dyno testing of the different coatings are presented and analyzed for further discussion.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0117
Matthew Smeeth
Abstract Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0127
Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Yuhei Noguchi, Mutsumi Numata
Abstract Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0002
Yudai Yamasaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
Abstract To determine the auto-ignition and combustion mechanisms and the components of syngas that are applicable to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the combustion characteristics and the chemical reaction process in an HCCI engine were studied numerically and experimentally using mock syngas with various mixtures of the fuel components. The mock syngas consisted of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) as the main combustible components, nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as incombustible components and a small amount of methane (CH4), assuming the composition of the gas was produced from wood by thermochemical conversion processes. The oxidation reaction process was analyzed numerically using CHEMKIN-PRO. Further experiments were conducted to investigate the validity of the calculated results. Primarily, the effects of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on auto-ignition and combustion were investigated.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0004
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
Abstract One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16521