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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16401
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Ioan Campean, Tim Beattie, David Richardson
In addition to the pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, the expected introduction of new emission legislation focused on particulate number emissions (Pn) adds considerable challenge to the Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine calibration task, in order to avoid an increase in complexity and cost of the aftertreatment system. The research presented in this paper focuses on the development of a calibration optimisation methodology aiming to deliver an enhanced trade-off between high level attributes such as the CO2 and Pn emissions and drive-ability, for a GDI engine with multiple injection ECU capability. The work is based on steady state engine test experiments conducted in the Powertrain Research Centre at the University of Bradford. The paper describes the engine mapping experiments which were based on an innovative sequential space-filling DoE test plan. This is underpinned by a space filling screening experiment aimed to explore efficiently the variable space and study the effect of the calibration variables on Pn and CO2, followed by mapping experiments consisting of iterative model building – model validation DoEs based on optimal space filling criteria.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohammed Reza Kianifar, Ioan Campean, David Richardson
The development of engines to achieve improved performance, fuel consumption, emissions and drivability, in response to the demands of the market and the requirements of legislation, and within reduced development times, is an increasing challenge. To meet this challenge an increasing number of control devices, such as variable valve timing, are being introduced all of which require additional calibration requirements for the engine electronic control unit (ECU). These technologies ease the task of achieving targets for emissions and fuel economy. However, they increase the complexity in the powertrain development process due to increasing development time and the cost of testing the engine at different settings of input variables. This paper presents the development of a multidisciplinary design optimisation framework to study the camshaft control strategies for a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine equipped with Variable Camshaft Timing (VCT). The aim of this research is to investigate the advantages of camshaft control strategies for the GDI engine considering the trade-off between technology improvement and cost effectiveness.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Krisada Wannatong, Sompach Kongviwattanakul, Thanadech Priroon, Thananchai Tepimonrat, Orawan Wattanapanichaporn
End of line test (EOL) of engine control units (ECU) is the process of ECU functions validation before releasing ECUs to the car assembly process. Examples of ECU function that need to be validated are idle control, air path control and faults manager function. To perform EOL, a vehicle and a chassis dynamometer are used to enable control functions validation inside the ECU. However, this poses high operating cost and long setup time. This paper presents the development of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) system, which imitates real vehicle behavior on a chassis dynamometer. The engine model was developed using AVL Boost RT software, an engine cycle simulation modeling approach. The vehicle model is developed using AVL CRUISE software. In order to interface the engine and vehicle models with the ECU, HiL system is implemented. In the new EOL process, the vehicle is operated following the extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) including short engine idling time. During the test, the control and safety functions check are performed.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Le-zhong Fu, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Xiao Yu
Internal combustion rankine cycle engine could have high fuel efficiency and ultra-low emission performance. In an ideal ICRC engine, high temperature liquid water is injected into the cylinder near top dead center to control the combustion temperature and cylinder pressure rise rate, and then enhances the thermo efficiency and work. The reason is the extra work fluid into the cylinder in the form of water vapor which can make use of the combustion heat more effectively. Moreover, the high temperature water can be heated up through heat exchanger by exhaust gas and engine cooling system, and the waste heat carried away by engine cooling system and exhaust gas can be recovered and utilized. In this paper, a retrofitted, single-cylinder, air-cooled SI engine with propane fuel is adopted in the test. To simplify the experiments preparation, water is heated up in an electric heater in a high-pressure rail and injected into the cylinder with a solenoid diesel injector. The water injection pressure is obtained from a N2 tank and amplified through the pressure amplifier up to 15~25MPa.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Guillaume Pilla, Loic Francqueville
Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. Downsizing is one of the most promising strategy to achieve this reduction, though it facilitates knock phenomena. Therefore downsizing has to be associated with knock limiting technologies such as increased aerodynamics, dilution and thermal measures. High dilution levels allow to push back the knocking limit thus enhancing engine efficiency. The maximum gain of efficiency is therefore closely dependent on the dilution limit. State of the art shows that combustion initiation can be critical for highly diluted mixture combustion. If spark ignition systems are commonly used in GDI engines, they have known few evolutions since their invention. By optimizing key parameters such as spark duration, energy or size, it can be expected significant gain in dilution acceptance on GDI engines. This paper presents the results of innovative ignition systems tests on the dilution acceptance of a 400cc optical GDI engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Tapio Pohjalainen, Martti Larmi
This study presents a novel crank mechanism which enables easy and fast compression ratio adjustment. The novel crank mechanism and piston travel is explained and highlighted. The basic idea is to have an eccentric crank pin. The eccentricity is easily adjustable. The first full scale engine demonstration test runs were made in Oulu University engine laboratory. The first test are explained. The first demonstration version is modified from an existing commercial SI engine. A GT-Power simulation model of the engine is made. The benefits of the new crank mechanism are demonstrated by the help of the simulation model. The new mechanism offers great possibilities for ex. to increase the part load performance in SI engines or make the engine adjustable for different fuels with best possible efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, Ronghua Huang
Ethanol is a widely used alternative fuel to address the issue of sustainability. However, making the use of renewable fuel effective and efficient is still challenging. Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) has been in development due to its great potential in taking the advantages of ethanol fuel to increase the compression ratio and thermal efficiency. The work reported in this paper contributes to understanding the fuel and gas behaviours which are crucial in the development of EDI+GPI engine. A set of engine models have been developed using ANSYS FLUENT. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of cylinder pressure in an engine and spray shapes in a constant volume chamber. The verified model was used to investigate the fuel vaporization and mixture formation of the EDI+GPI research engine. The effect of the ethanol/gasoline ratio on charge cooling has been studied. Compared with GPI only, EDI+GPI demonstrated stronger effect on charge cooling by decreased in-cylinder temperature and increased volumetric efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Run Chen PhD, Ryoma Okazumi, Keiya Nishida, Youichi Ogata, Baolu Shi
To reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and the amount of using fossil fuel, ethanol-gasoline blend fuel is regarded as the promising alternative fuel for gasoline to meet the strict low emission standard in automobile industry. However the mixture formation and combustion of ethanol-gasoline blend fuel is very different from those of gasoline and has not been investigated yet. Ethanol-gasoline fuels used in this work, demonstrated the effects of different blending ratio on the spray mixture formation by means of the dual-wavelength laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique. The experiments were conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure quasi-state constant volume vessel simulating the typical thermodynamic conditions near the top dead center (TDC) in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. With the aid of traced fuels (toluene to represent the gasoline, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) to represent the ethanol), the liquid and vapor phase quantitative distributions were capable of being detected simultaneously.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Abhishek Sharma, Murugan Sivalingam
In this study, the effects of nozzle opening pressure on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection (DI) diesel engine have been investigated and compared with diesel operation. The engine was fueled with Jatropha methyl ester (JME)-Tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blend (JME 80%+TPO 20% on a volume basis), when running the engine at five different nozzle opening pressures viz., 210, 220, 230, 240, and 250 bar in addition to original nozzle opening pressure of 200 bar. The results confirmed that the injection pressure up to 220 bar gave better results for the JMETPO20 blend in terms of performance and emission characteristics compared to that of original injection pressure , and also 230, 240 and 250 bar. At 220 bar nozzle opening pressure, for the JMETPO20 blend the brake thermal efficiency was higher by about 5.12%, and the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were lower by about 1.75% and 6.2% respectively compared to original nozzle opening pressure at full load.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
XiaoDan Cui, Beini ZHOU, Hiroki Nakamura, Kusaka Jin, Yasuhiro Daisho
The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on spray and soot formation. We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated bio-fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. The numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). We conducted a 3-D numerical study using the KIVA-3V code with modified chemical and physical models. The large-eddy simulation (LES) model and KH-RT model were used to simulate spray characteristics. To predict soot formation processes, a model for predicting a gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) precursor formation was coupled with a detailed phenomenological particle formation model, including soot nucleation from the precursors, surface growth/oxidation and particle coagulation. In this numerical study, the ambience temperature and density were set at 900 K and 12 g/cm3, respectively to reproduce the in-cylinder conditions almost similar to a low load and speed condition in the ordinary light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohsen Salem Radwan
Jojoba bio-diesel is one of the most promising bio-fuels to substitute gas oil in diesel engines. Therefore, since the ignition delay is an important parameter in combustion, emissions and engine noise , the present work was dedicated to measure and correlate the pressure rise ignition delay of jojoba bio-diesel and its blends with gas oil behind incident shock waves. For this purpose, a shock tube test set up was designed and manufactured. It was fully instrumented for delay measurement with two piezo-electric pressure transducers, dual mode charge amplifier, data acquisition card and a computer with suitable LabVIEW software. The test variables included the type of fuel (percentage of Jojoba bio-diesel in the blend with gas oil), equivalence ratio, ignition temperature and ignition pressure. It was found that jojoba bio-diesel exhibited a lower ignition delay in comparison with that of gas oil. Rich or lean mixtures produce long delays, whilst the minimum delay occurred near the stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Andreas Schmid, Beat Von Rotz, German Weisser, Kai Herrmann
During their lifetime, marine diesel engines are operated with a broad variety of fuels and fuel qualities. For their commissioning, the engines run on marine diesel oil whereas the rest of their rather long service life the engines mostly experience a variety of heavy fuel oils with a broad spectra of qualities. Especially viscosity, density, aromatic content and cetane number vary significantly depending on origin and batch number of the bunkered fuel. To ensure reliable engine operation irrespective of fuel quality, manufacturers have to make sure that injection systems and in-cylinder conditions allow the application of these fuels throughout the operating range. To do so, the optimization of combustion systems of large 2-stroke marine diesel engines still relies largely on extensive testing. However, experiments are more and more supported by CFD simulations, in spite of limitations regarding the applicability of the available spray, evaporation, combustion and emissions formation models to those systems.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Michal Geca, Grzegorz Baranski, Grzegorz Litak
The addition of hydrogen to an Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine seems to be particularly suitable to arrive at a near-zero emission Otto engine. In this way it would be able to meet easily the most stringent regulations. The fluctuations in the combustion process of gasoline with hydrogen addition in an spark ignition engine were investigated. The cyclic combustion pressure was measured and its cyclic oscillations were expressed by indicated mean effective pressure per cycle. The statistical and multifractal analyses applied to the corresponding time series showed considerable changes in the engine dynamics for hydrogen percentages ranging from 5% to 20%. The tests were carried out for four-cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition engine C20LE Holden for 7 various operating points for speeds from 1500 to 3900 rpm. The load expressed as the pressure in the intake manifold has been changed within a range of pd = 37 – 85 kPa. The research has been conducted on the original fuel – petrol and the original fuel with added a hydrogen fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Marek Flekiewicz, Grzegorz Kubica PhD, Bartosz Flekiewicz
THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IN SI ENGINES FOR SELECTED GASEOUS FUELS Abstract The analysis of overall performance of the engine powered by selected gaseous fuels has been presented in this paper. Primary objective of the research was to determine the influence of fuel type on efficiency of energy conversion in the tested engine. The scope of the research featured: • the application low-carbon fuels, • the use of DME as a renewable fuel in blends with LPG. The use of low-carbon gaseous fuels gives the opportunity to reduce exhaust emissions. Changes in global economy including energy sources, are currently oriented onto the gradual replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources. World widely present activities include promotion of alternative fuel systems both in the vehicles as well as in stationary engines. The basic assumption in the presented research was the use of gaseous fuels, which main component is methane. The main problem taken into consideration was excessive duration of the combustion process, which is one of the causes of the engine overall efficiency reduction when running on gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed methane-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed resulting in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The effect of lambda, start of injection and diesel substitution ratios on nozzle tip temperature was determined using an instrumented DI injector with a thermocouple inserted in the nozzle tip. From this study a baseline case was selected with a nozzle tip temperature of 325 °C. From the baseline case, λ, SOI and diesel substitution was changed individually creating 3 high temperature cases and 3 low temperature cases with the nozzle tip temperature 350 °C and 305 °C respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
ARIJ BEN AMARA, Bertrand Lecointe, Nicolas Jeuland, Takuya Takahashi, Yutaka IIda, Hiromichi Hashimoto, Julien Bouilly
The stability of Diesel/Biodiesel blends can play an important role in deposits formation inside the fuel injection system (FIS). The impact of the stability of FAME/Diesel fuel blends on lacquer deposits formation and on the behavior and reliability of the FIS was investigated using blends of Rapeseed and Soybean methyl esters (RME, SME) and conventional Diesel fuel (volume fractions of RME and SME range from 0 to 20%v/v). Fuels were aged under accelerated conditions and tested on an injection test rig according to an operating cycle developed to provoke injector needle blocking. The soaking duration was found to affect injector fouling. A relationship between the injector fouling tendency and the fuel stability was established. Under current test condition, injectors fouling increased with fuel oxidation measured with Total-Acid-Number. Needle fouling occurred at a TAN level of 0.25mg KOH/g and needle blocking occurred at a TAN level of 0.5 and 1 mg KOH/g for B20-SME and B20-RME, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Vincent Chen, Carlos Espinoza, Tyler Berte, Thomas Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Alexander Bergmann
Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the U.S. has increased approximately 6-fold over the last decade from 2 to 13 billion gallons per year. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol at a concentration of 10% by volume (E10). Ethanol is also available as E85, which after a recent change in specifications, is allowed to contain as much as 83% v/v as little as 51% v/v ethanol. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promotes the use of alternative fuels, with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandating the use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels in the transportation fuel pool by 2022. Although ethanol is expected to make up the majority of this requirement, other alcohol formulations can be considered as promising alternatives to gasoline. Butanol is an attractive biofuel for use in spark-ignited (SI) engines, and combines the advantages of gasoline in terms of energy density with the oxygen content and renewability of ethanol without being hydrophilic.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method. Many papers which show the result which the fuel produced by transesterification method can apply as diesel fuel are announced. It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with crude oil. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PES) which is a promoter of cancer. It is necessary to measure PEs contained in Jatropha crude oil and PM in exhaust gas for safe use. Measurement of un-vaporized fuel sprays which was injected into pressurized vessel by high speed video camera and ignition characteristics by ignitability evaluation equipment of fuel (FIA-100) of Jatropha blended fuel were performed. The conventional jerk type fuel injection system which is used for industrial diesel engine and the high pressure common rail type fuel injection systems which is used for modern automobile diesel engine were examined. The engine performance and exhaust emission including Particulate Matter (PM) was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Annika Talus, Lisen Johansson, Francesco Regali, Ali Saramat
Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Ageing of biodiesel increases the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water in the fuel, degradation products that are known to increase the corrosion of metals in the system and thereby cause internal injector deposits (IID) and fuel filter blocking (FFB) which damage the fuel system. When performing accelerated corrosion tests in laboratory, biodiesel continues to degrade further, resulting in too aggressive system. In order to avoid exaggeration of degradation products in aged biodiesel, a stable test fuel that resembles biodiesel but otherwise is resistant to additional ageing during testing is needed. In this study a stable test fuel has been prepared and doped with impurity (methanol) and degradation products such as SCFA and water. The prepared test fuel was evaluated with regards to its structure using GC-MS, water content using Karl Fisher volumetric titration, SCFA using extraction ion chromatography and methanol using GC-FID, respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Stamatios Spyridon Kalligeros, Fanourios Zannikos, Evripidis Lois, George Anastopoulos
Problems with the low-temperature operability performance of biodiesel in blends with petroleum diesel are infrequent, but continue to limit the use of biodiesel in winter months. A troubling aspect of this problem is that in some cases precipitates above the blend cloud point (CP) have been detected and have led to plugging of fuel filters and subsequent vehicle stalling, as well as plugging of fuel dispenser filters. Many researchers found that saturaded monoglyceride content were a main component of the material that was found on plugged fuel filters. It was also discovered that saturated diglycerides, were also present on the plugged fuel filters. This is the reason which forced the organization of standardization to suggest procedure in order to predict the content of the saturated monoglycerides even with uncertainty which can vary from -50% to +50%. The model which was used will be the same as it introduced in the Annex C of EN 14214+A1:2013. The model is based on the assumption that saturated fatty esters, saturated fatty acids and saturated monoglycerides are present in the same proportions in the FAME.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Juhani K. Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Paivi Aakko-Saksa, Sari Mannonen, Ville Vauhkonen, Pirita Roslund
UPM BioVerno, a high quality “drop-in” renewable diesel fuel from tall oil, was studied as a component in regular mineral-oil based fossil diesel fuel. For this work, UPM teamed up with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland for field testing. The aim was to evaluate the functionality and performance of four (4) passenger cars by taking into account e.g. fuel consumption and exhaust emissions when compared to fossil reference fuel. The field test included 20.000 km on-road driving with each car by experienced drivers from VTT with variable trip lenghts, traffic and climate conditions. Initial, mid-term and final in-laboratory tests were run for perfor¬man¬¬ce and emissions. Four other make/model cars were subjected to similar tests with UPM BioVerno test blend and reference diesel. Apart from regulated exhaust emissions, a list of non-regulated species were also measured. The main parts of these field and in–laboratory tests are discussed in this article. UPM BioVerno proved to be a high quality blending component that did not change the functionality nor the emission characteristics of the tested diesel passenger cars.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Ekarong Sukjit, Jose M. Herreros, Karl Dearn, Athanasios Tsolakis
The interest in ethanol as a fuel blend component in compression ignition engines is increasing especially in non-petroleum producing countries, due predominantly to the potential emissions benefits of the oxygen in the ethanol molecules. However, the use of fuel blends with high percentages of ethanol can lead to poor fuel quality, affecting for example fuel miscibility, cetane number, viscosity and lubricity. An approach which can be used to improve these properties is the addition of biodiesel forming ternary blends (ethanol-biodiesel-diesel). To avoid the use of first generation of biodiesel derived from edible sources (bypassing potential foodstock supply issues), the addition of castor oil-derived biodiesel (COME) with methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH) as a principal constituent provides an attractive alternative. The addition of C18:1 OH into ethanol-diesel blends provides high viscosity and improved lubricity. This study reports the findings of an investigation of the physical properties of ethanol-diesel blends with the addition of hydroxylated biodiesel derived from castor oil.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Amar Deep, Dhruv Gupta
Diesel engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. As these engines, are the backbone of contemporary global transportation and accounts a 30% of world’s energy consumption, which is second highest after the industrial sector. Therefore, the fossil fuel consumption becomes the prime concern. Following the global energy crisis and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. Currently, biodiesel has been identified as the most attractive and practical choice to replace fossil fuel as the main source of energy, due to the similarity with conventional diesel in terms of chemical structure and energy content. However, its development and application have been hindered by the high cost of required feedstock. Therefore, in recent years, researchers have been seeking alternative sources of oil which are economical. The orange peel oil emerges as a good competitor in the field of alternate oil for biodiesel production, due to its low viscosity and low cold flow plugging temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sunthorn predapitakkun
Development of an API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil for Tropical Climate using a new Novel Viscosity Modifier and verification of its performance via a field trial in Thailand Sunthorn Predapitakkun PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Lim Jing Jing, Infineum Singapore Amporn Sudsanguan , Arunratt Wuttimongkolchai, PTT Research & Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited Engine lubrication in the global automotive industry has many challenges in the world today. One of them is the pursuit of fuel economy. As a result, the use of lower viscosity engine oils is becoming increasingly popular. However, engine wear protection of low viscosity oils is not as robust as higher viscosity grade oils. Due to this, even though low viscosity grades engine oils like SAE 0W-20 could provide the added benefit of fuel economy, they are not common in tropical climates. To address this two seemingly discordant performance characteristics, PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed new API SN, SAE 0W-20 engine oil with a novel viscosity modifier and conducted a field trial with extended oil drain intervals to verify its performance.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Junya Iwasaki PhD, Yasunori Shimizu, Hiroshi fujita PhD, Moritsugu Kasai PhD
It has been recently reported that sulfated ash derived from engine oil deteriorates DPF performance due to accumulation on the filter surface. In addition, it has been commonly understood that phosphorus from engine oil adsorbs onto catalytic metal surface and degrades the performance. From this background, sulfated ash and phosphorus in engine oil have been reduced. From this point of view, the authors have developed the novel engine oil (NPNA) which includes no phosphorus and no sulfated ash from metal detergent and ZnDTP and also introduced its competent performance by several engine tests and a fleet test. However, the impact of NPNA on after-treatment devices has not been investigated. This paper describes the influence of sulfated ash content on DPF performance and phosphorus content on catalyst. Several engine tests were carried out using commercially available engine oils and NPNA engine oil. In DPF performance study, a newly developed diesel engine test for the evaluation was used, and weight increase in DPF before and after the test was measured.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Oliver M. Smith, Alexander Michlberger, Doug Jayne, Alex Sammut, Mike Sutton
It has long been understood that the piston assembly of the internal combustion engine accounts for a significant proportion of total engine friction. Modern engines are required to have better fuel economy without sacrificing durability. The pursuit of better fuel economy drives trends like downsizing, turbocharging and direct injection fuelling systems that increase cylinder pressures and create a more arduous operating environment for the piston ring / cylinder bore tribocouple. The power-cylinder lubricant is therefore put under increased stress. Conventional tribological techniques have proved adequate in the past at allowing development of the lubricated tribocouple system. In the past, basic approximations to the tribological conditions in the power-cylinder have been used to guide engineering systems design and lubricant formulating on a macro scale. Compromise and informed assumption allowed simple simulations to be conducted on a bench-top scale. By employing this approach much knowledge has been generated that increases our understanding of the tribology of piston assemblies beyond what would have been possible from engine testing alone.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Wolfgang Ruck
Increasing the proportion of renewable energy in the transport sector and therefore the reduction of the dependence on fossil oil is a prime political and economic goal in Europe and also in many other parts of the world. On the diesel sector, especially vegetable oil methyl ester is introduced. The blending of commercial diesel fuel with up to 7 % of biodiesel leads to a lot of problems in the range of engine oil in cars. Because of the regeneration of the particle filter there is an increase of the fuel entry of unburnt fuel in the engine oil. The first effect of this fuel entry is the engine oil dilution which can be observed for all diesel fuels. Unlike biodiesel, commercial diesel fuel can mostly evaporate out of the engine oil because of its lower boiling point. Biodiesel has a boiling point of about 360 °C which is the reason for its accumulation in the engine oil. High temperatures and atmospheric oxygen have a big influence on the oil and thus also on the fuel in engines. The underlying effect is an autoxidation reaction which is known as oil aging.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Sakthinathan Ganapathy Pandian
Nanolubricants are suspensions of nanoparticles in base fluids, a new challenge for thermal sciences provided by nanotechnology.The objective of this work is to analyze the thermal, tribological properties of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nano lubricants. Nanosized YSZ particles were prepared by milling YSZ (10µm) in a planetary ball mill equipped with vials using tungsten carbide balls. After 40 hrs, milled YSZ nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 70-90nm were obtained . The nanoparticles were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis(EDXA), Scanning Electron microscope(SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope, Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter and non contact 3D surface profilometer and the images of the same were obtained. The heat transfer properties of automotive engine lubricants were determined by utilization of measured thermal conductivity, viscosity index, density, flash point, fire point and pour point revealed that lubricants with additive constituents have a significant effect on the resultant heat transfer characteristics of the lubricants.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim Van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation. Formulation adjustments were necessary to deal with the impacts of lower sulfur diesel fuel, increased engine operating temperatures leading to more oxidation, increased levels of soot contamination as a result of EGR, and reductions in maximum allowable sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus for the benefit of exhaust gas after-treatment devices that were necessary to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter emissions. It seems that the industry has reached the point of diminishing returns where it comes to reducing emissions. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as API 10W-30 and even 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16401