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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17419
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2190
Qi Shi, Tie Li, Xiaoqing Zhang, Bin Wang, Ming Zheng
Taking advantage of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as selection of the two wavelength lights, the role of bandpass filters, and available measuring range, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has potentials in application in diesel engines, the characteristics of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2279
Xiuhua Sui, Wanying Li
The pursuit of fuel economy brought by proper engine oil is one of the important focuses of the development of engine oil specifications in the global automobile and lubricating oil industry. The lower frictional oil is gaining more and more popularity in the world. In this paper series of passenger car motor oils of low viscosity were designed and engine friction torque tests were conducted on three engines to investigate the effects of viscosity grade, viscosity index (viscosity modifier) and friction modifier on the fuel economy of the gasoline engine of passenger cars. Results from these tests showed that lower viscosity grade and higher VI and addition of FMs all could improve fuel economy of gasoline engines. While working patterns or effects of these factors differ with engine configuration or working conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2289
Ho Teng
In order to improve the low speed torques, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines often employ scavenging with a help of variable valve timing (VVT) controlled by the cam phasers. Scavenging improves the compressor performance at low flow rates and boosts the low-speed-end torques of the engine. This paper reports an experimental investigation on the engine combustion characteristics in the scavenging zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly-boosted 1.5L TGDI engine. It was found in this investigation that the scavenging zone was associated with the highest blowby rates on the engine map. The blowby recirculation was with heavy oil loading, causing considerable hydrocarbon fouling on the intake ports and on the stem as well as the back of the intake valves after the engine was operated in this zone for certain period of time. The low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) events associated with super knocks observed in the engine tests fell mainly in the scavenging zone.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2316
sanjeev singh
Global Fuel Economy Initiative with a goal to make automobiles worldwide 50 percent more efficient by the year 2050, enhanced interest in improvements of fuel economy and emission reduction from vehicles through engine technologies, lubricants and after treatment devices. Low viscosity grade engine oils can improve the fuel economy by reducing the friction and lower the greenhouse gases. In this study, low viscosity grade oils - 0W-20, 5W-30 and 20W-40 were selected for assessing fuel economy of diesel engines. Effects of viscosity on engine performance with respect to power, fuel economy and emissions were assessed by conducting fuel economy tests on single cylinder Petter AV1 diesel engine. Higher fuel economy and reduced CO, HC, CO2 and NOx emissions were observed with lower viscosity engine oils compared to higher viscosity engine oils.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2318
Wangkan Lin, Nancy Diggs, Catherine Frampton
As modern heavy-duty diesel engines produce more power while running at higher temperatures, increased levels of oxidation can introduce more acidic chemical species into the engine lubricants. In addition, higher compression ratios of the combustion chamber can lead to increased blow-by gases into the crankcase. These severe conditions can cause higher levels of corrosion on key engine parts, such as soft-metal-containing bearings. Protection against this type of corrosion in engine hardware has always been an important performance function of today’s HDD engine lubricants. All today’s lubricants contain various additives which neutralize the acids to prevent hardware corrosion through their base content, commonly measured as total base number (TBN). The majority of the TBN in lubricants comes from metal-containing over-based detergents, with different chemistries of the metals and soap molecules.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2360
Rickard Arvidsson, Tomas McKelvey
A method to identify battery parameters for a Li-ION hybrid battery model based on current and voltage measurements performed in a vehicle during 12 months of in use operation is investigated. This is different from previous work where a common approach is to use current pulse de-rating tests, HPPC, hybrid pulse-power capability, which uses predetermined amplitudes and frequencies of current pulses. Equivalent linear circuit models of different complexity were tested and evaluated in order to identify parameter dependencies at different state of charge levels and temperatures. The average accuracy of modelling the DC bus voltage provides a model goodness average higher than 75% for all analyzed individual log files. The models are used in order to estimate energy output from the battery and compared with how the estimated voltage error propagates throughout a drive cycle.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2362
Mitsunori Ishii
A look at the differences in the composition of natural gas fuels on the market, meanwhile, shows that methane, the major component, ranges greatly in concentration from a maximum of 100% to a minimum of around 60%. It is known that this variation in fuel composition has a relatively large effect on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of automotive engines. To shed more light on this question, a survey was made of the differences in the composition of natural gas fuels sold by major suppliers in Japan. The effects of that variation on the air-fuel ratio and on thermal properties such as the heating value, which are important factors in the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, were examined. Moreover, a theoretical analysis was conducted to examine the intrinsic combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of natural gas as an automotive fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2361
Ali Solouk, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Mohammad Shakiba-herfeh
Low temperature combustion (LTC) engines are promising to improve the powertrain fuel economy and reduce NOx and soot emissions by improving the in-cylinder combustion process. However, the narrow operating range of the LTC engines limits the use of these engines in conventional powertrains. Extended range electric vehicles (EREVs), by decoupling the engine from the drivetrain, allows the engine to operate in a limited operating range; thus, they offer an ideal platform for realizing the advantages of LTC engines. In this study, the Pontryagin’s Minimum Principal (PMP) methodology is used in the energy management supervisory controller to investigate the global optimum fuel economy improvement of an experimentally developed multi-mode LTC engine in an EREV. The experimental data is collected from a 2-liter LTC engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2364
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has recently increased due to its domestic availability and reduced price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the initial flame process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single cylinder research engine with geometry representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2363
Jonathan Hall, Benjamin Hibberd, Mike Bassett, Simon Streng
The complexity of modern powertrain development is demonstrated by the combination of requirements for future emission regulations such as RDE, reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions as well as customer expectations for good driving performance. Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a proven technology to reduce automotive fleet CO2 emissions. Additionally, alternative fuels such as natural gas, offer the potential to significantly reduce both CO2 and exhaust gas emissions without having to accept limitations on driving performance and driving range. This paper will present results showing how the positive fuel properties of natural gas can be fully utilised in a heavily downsized, 1.2 litre, 3-cylinder engine. The engine has been modified to enable the engine to cope with the considerable challenges to the mechanical and thermal load capacity of the engine when operating at high specific outputs on CNG.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2204
Takafumi Mori, Masanori Suemitsu, Nobuharu Umamori, Takehisa Sato, Satoshi Ogano, Kenji Ueno, Oji Kuno, Kotaro Hiraga, Kazuhiko Yuasa, Shinichiro Shibata, Shinichiro Ishikawa
One effective and easy way to improve fuel economy for automobiles is to decrease viscosity of lubricants, as it brings less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thinner oil film, which could damage the mechanical parts. This paper describes a new low-viscosity gear oil technology which was successfully developed to improve wear at tapered-roller bearings in differential gear units, whereas achieving higher fuel economy performance. As for tapered-roller bearings in differential gear units protected by gear oils, one major damage is supposed to cause wear at large end face of rollers and the counterpart, so-called bearing bottom wear. In order to understand the wear mechanism, wear at rolling contact surface of rollers and the counterparts, so-called bearing side wear was additionally observed to confirm the wear impact on tapered-roller bearing.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2205
Chris McFadden, Lydia Raser PhD, Kevin Hughes PhD
Hybrid drivetrain hardware combines an electric motor and a transmission, gear box, or hydraulic unit. With many hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) hardware designs the transmission fluid is in contact with the electric motor, and so some OEMs and tier suppliers have concerns about the electrical properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs). Lubrizol has conducted a fundamental research project to better understand the electrical conductivity of ATFs. In this paper we will present conductivity data as a function of temperature for a range of commercially available lubricants, including engine oils and gear oils, in addition to ATFs. All fluids, regardless of type, had conductivities in the range of 1E-8 to 1E-10 S/cm at 100oC and as such are good insulators with the ability to dissipate static charge. Next we will deconstruct one ATF to show the relative impact of the various classes of lubricant additives.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2206
Darryl Williams, Jeffrey Guevremont, John Perry
Good shift quality in automatic transmissions is important for fuel efficiency, driver comfort, and performance. Maintaining this performance over the life of the vehicle is also important. Typical lubricant development focuses on reducing viscosity and friction in order to reduce parasitic losses. In an automatic transmission, other factors are also important for good performance, primarily due to the shifting and torque converter clutches. A high level of friction is desirable for torque capacity and a steady decrease in friction as sliding speed (rpm) decreases is necessary for both good shift feel and good friction system durability over the lifetime of the vehicle. Friction system changes over time that result in a lowering of the friction level at high sliding speed compromise the performance of both types of clutches.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2207
Elizabeth Schiferl, Timothy N. Hunt, Robert Slocum
With government mandates, OEMs are increasingly focusing on fuel economy and finding efficiency gains throughout the vehicle. Lubricant companies have been asked to design fluids (engine oil, transmission fluid, and gear oil) that can deliver efficiency improvements. Demonstrating real gains becomes quite complex given the intricacies of these systems, and methods range from bench top screen tests to component test stands to full vehicle testing. This paper addresses the variation that can occur when testing automatic transmission fluid efficiency within a full vehicle test. Lubrizol has tested at several independent laboratories and found that ignoring the magnitude of the impact of variation in average operating conditions between tests can mislead as to which fluid is delivering greater efficiency benefit.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2208
Zifeng Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Hao Cai, Pingping Sun, David Dieffenthaler, Victor Gordillo, Jean-Christophe Monfort, Xin He, Steven przesmitzki
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2209
Uisung Lee, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Jacob Ward, Elliot Hicks, Dan Goodwin, Rebecca Boudreaux, Per Hanarp, Henrik Salsing, Parthav Desai, Emmanuel varenne, Patrik Klintbom, Werner Willems, Sandra L. Winkler, Heiko Maas, Robb de Kleine, John Hansen, Tine Shim, Erik Furusjö
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel for use in specially designed compression ignition diesel engines. A key advantage of using DME is the potential for reaching ultralow levels of regulated emissions using simple exhaust aftertreatment technologies and the absence of soot. DME can be produced from natural gas or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas or renewable natural gas from waste streams. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of several DME pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model that is developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The DME pathways include small scale DME production from landfill gas, manure-based biogas and methanol from fossil natural gas (NG), and large scale DME production directly from fossil NG.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2210
Mark Walls, Shinhyuk Joo, Michael Ross
Autogas is not a new fuel for internal combustion engines, but as engine technology evolves, the properties of autogas can be utilized to improve engine and vehicle efficiency. With support from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed testing to quantify efficiency differences with liquid autogas direct injection in a modern downsized and boosted direct-injected engine using only stock gasoline fuel injection hardware. Engine dynamometer testing demonstrated that autogas produced similar performance characteristics to gasoline at part load, but could be used to improve brake thermal efficiency at loads above 12 bar BMEP due to the favorable octane rating and latent heat of vaporization of autogas. At higher loads where the engine was knock limited on gasoline, autogas allowed operation at or near MBT ignition timing, reducing the need for fuel enrichment to control exhaust temperature.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture to be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro donated by General Motors to the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. The process used to implement the hybrid electric vehicle architecture from the stock Camaro will be the primary focus of the research. Beginning with baseline testing, our team will develop a reference for the performance of the vehicle before the architecture has been implemented using the US06 and HWFET drive cycles. Furthermore, the implementation methods and safety considerations are going to be a large focus of integration as we validate the functional operating modes of the architecture. A charge depleting driving mode is tested for energy consumption using three different electric motor control strategies.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2254
Karin Munch
Heavy alcohols have properties that are suitable for mixing with fossil diesel and for use as fuel in diesel engines. Alcohols can be produced from fossil resources, but can also be produced in more sustainable ways from renewable raw materials. The use of biofuels can contribute to a decrease of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study includes four alcohol/diesel blends each with one kind of heavy alcohol. The chosen alcohols are n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. The rather low cetane numbers (CN) of the alcohols have been compensated by adding a third component with high CN, here hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) have been used. The mixtures were prepared to have the same CN as diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2259
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Fanourios Zannikos
The fuel supply chain faces the challenges associated with microbial contamination symptoms. Microbial growth is an issue usually known to be associated with middle distillate fuels and biodiesel, however, incidents where microbial populations have been isolated from unleaded gasoline storage tanks have also been recently reported. Alcohols are employed as gasoline components and the use of these oxygenates is growing esp. regarding ethanol, which can be a renewable alternative to gasoline as well. Despite their alleged disinfectant properties, a number of field observations suggests that biodeterioration could be a potential issue in fuel systems handling ethanol-blended gasoline. The impact of alcohol-fuel blends on fuel microbial susceptibility has been the subject of few studies and additional work could contribute to the understanding of this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohols on microbial proliferation in unleaded gasoline fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2258
Yoshihiro Okoshi, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Yuta Mitsugi, Kotaro Tanaka, Masaaki Kato, Tomoya Tsuji, Mitsuru Konno
Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel for CI engines. DME features good auto ignition characteristics and soot-free combustion. In order to develop an injection system suitable for DME, it is necessary to understand the fuel properties. Sound speed is one of the important fuel properties that affects the injection characteristics. However, the measurement data under high-pressure corresponding to that in fuel injection system are lacking. Critical temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel fuel, and is close to the injection condition. Sound speed at critical point is theoretically 0 m/s. It is important to understand the behavior of the sound speed around the critical point. In this study, we measured sound speed in a wide pressure and temperature range of 1-80 MPa, 298-413 K, including the critical point. Sound speed in DME increases with pressure rises or temperature falls. It is approximately 400 m/s slower than that in diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2257
Hua LI, Liang Yu, Linqi Ouyang, Shuzhou Sun
The ignition delay time of toluene reference fuels composed of isooctane, n-heptane and toluene was studied in a shock tube under the conditions of medium to high temperature ranges, different pressures (10-20 bar), and various equivalence ratios (0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2) by reflected waves.Three different ternary blends, TRF2 (42.8% isooctane/13.7% n-heptane/43.5% toluene), TRF3 (65% isooctane/10% n-heptane/25% toluene) and TRF4 (87.2% isooctane/6.3% n-heptane/6.5% toluene), with the same Research Octane Number of 95 (RON=95) were constructed. The experimental results showed that there was an obvious negative correlation between the ignition delay time of the toluene reference fuels and the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio; and, a minimal discrepancy of TRF2, TRF3, and TRF4 was measured at pressures of 10 and 20 bar in a stoichiometric ratio. Based on Curran’s detailed kinetic model for PRF (primary reference fuel) (Combust.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2256
Kristin Götz, Barbara Fey, Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Jürgen Bünger, Markus Knorr, Olaf Schröder
The climate target of the European Union (EU) is the reduction of 40 % greenhouse gas reduction from the 1990s level by 2030 [1]. Currently the transport sector is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emission producer in the EU [2]. Drop-in biofuels can contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector and so as well the total GHG emissions. Diesel R33, a new developed biofuel enables sustainable mobility fulfilling the European diesel fuel specification and can reduce the GHG emissions of about 17 % versus fossil diesel fuel. Diesel R33 is made from seven percent used cooking oil methyl ester, 26 percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and 67 percent high quality diesel fuel. HVO was produced from rapeseed and palm oil. This new biofuel was tested in a fleet of 280 vehicles (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, off-road vehicles and urban buses) covering all emission classes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2263
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
In this study, macroscopic spray characteristics of Waste cooking oil (WCO), Jatropha oil, Karanja oil based biodiesels and baseline diesel were compared under simulated engine operating condition in a constant volume spray chamber (CVSC). The high pressure and high temperature ambient conditions of a typical diesel engine were simulated in the CVSC by performing pre-ignition before the fuel injection. The spray imaging was conducted under absence of oxygen in order to prevent the fuels from igniting. The ambient pressure and temperature at fuel injection timing were 4.17 MPa and 804K, respectively. The fuels were injected by a common-rail injection system with injection pressure of 80 MPa. High speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the evaporating sprays. From these images, macroscopic spray parameters such as liquid tip penetration length, spray cone angle and spray area were determined.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2262
Atsushi Shimada, Yuzo shirakawa, Takao Ishikawa
The internal combustion engine wastes large amount of heat energy. The heat energy accounts for about 60% of the fuel energy supplied to an engine. If the heat energy could be converted the output power of an engine, the thermal efficiency of an engine could be improved. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency of an engine has peaked because of the each combustion properties, such as knocking, narrow combustible range in spark ignition (SI) engine. The thermal efficiency of SI engine increases as the compression ratio and the ratio of the specific heat increase. If high octane number fuel is used for the fuel of the engine, the thermal efficiency could be improved. Moreover, if fuel can burn in dilute condition, the thermal efficiency could be improved further. Therefore, an exhaust heat recovery, a high compression combustion, a lean combustion are important methods for the thermal efficiency improvement. These three methods could be combined by using hydrous ethanol as fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2261
Maira Alves Fortunato, Aurelie Mouret, Chrsitine Dalmazzone PhD, Laurie Starck
The use of biodiesel has risen worldwide in the last decade. In Europe the authorized biodiesel content into diesel blends is 7%v/v (8%v/v in France). In Asia and in some countries in South America this percentage can go up to 15%v/v with prospects to achieve 30%v/v in some regions by 2020. In addition, different countries will use different biodiesel feedstocks to supply their needs which will depend on the resources available locally. In parallel with this feature, some problems due to biodiesel content and feedstock quality are largely pointed out in the literature, which includes cold flow properties issues of methyl esters, especially Palm Methyl esters PME. The present work was carried out on diesel-biodiesel blends from 0 to 30%PME in order to evaluate the impact of crystals formation on fuel filter plugging using a rig test. The fuel was maintained at 5°C and 20°C during soaking.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2260
Mitsuharu Oguma, Mayumi Matsuno, Masayoshi Kaitsuka, Kazuaki Higurashi
Improvement of thermal efficiency is an important problem for internal combustion engines. However, it’s not easy because of trade-off between increasing thermal efficiency and emission reduction. In SI engines, there are some measures to increase thermal efficiency such as high compression combustion, lean combustion, heat recovery, etc. If wasted heat energy from engine system can be reused in the engine system itself, the thermal efficiency can increase totally. Fuel reforming with dehydrogenation reaction by exhaust heat is one of the measures to increase thermal efficiency using hydrogen mixed SI combustion. For this kind engine system, hydrous ethanol has a good potential. Furthermore, when the hydrous ethanol inject to combustion chamber directory, high compression combustion can be achieved by its large amount of latent heat. Therefore, fuel lubricity is an important check point for the hydrous ethanol reforming engine systems.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2269
Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Michael Kocsis, Matt Gieselman, Ewan Delbridge
Chassis dynamometer tests are often used to determine vehicle fuel economy (FE). Since the entire vehicle is used, these methods are generally accepted to be more representative of ‘real-world’ conditions than engine dynamometer tests or small-scale bench tests. Unfortunately, evaluating vehicle fuel economy introduces higher levels of test-to-test variability than seen on engine dynamometer or bench tests. Recently, improvements to controls and procedures have led to drastically improved test precision in chassis dynamometer testing. Described herein are chassis dynamometer results from five fully-formulated engine oils (utilizing improved testing protocols on the FTP-75 and HwFET cycles) which not only show statistically significant FE changes across viscosity grades but also meaningful FE differentiation within a viscosity grade where additive systems have been modified.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2268
Anthony Khoraych, Michael Stuparyk
There are five problems associated with aerated oil that can be deadly to lubrication components. By aerated oil, we mean entrained air, foam or both. Problems include: oxidative oil degradation, thermal degradation, impaired heat transfer, retarded oil supply and cavitation. Depending on the design, application and aeration severity, it is possible that all of these conditions could be happening at the same time. We study the symptoms and effects of each of these phenomena. OEMs, component and lubricant suppliers have an interest in preventing aeration. Research constantly yields advancements, such as silicone antifoam or acrylate copolymer additives to reduce aeration. It is important to be able to accurately measure the aeration within a given fluid to evaluate the effectiveness of such advancements. With proper measurements one can quantify the susceptibility of a design to the effects of aeration, as well as the performance of an additive and any potential side effects.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2270
Ho Teng
For turbo-charged gasoline direction injection (TGDI) engines, an abnormal combustion phenomenon is often encountered at low speeds and high torques, known as the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI), which leads to a severe knock combustion with the level of the cylinder pressure fluctuations reaching that of the peak cylinder pressure in a normal combustion cycle. The LSPI events are widely believed to be triggered by the particles of the engine oil entering the cylinder. This paper reports an experimental investigation on the influence of the crankcase oil properties on the engine combustion in the LSPI zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly boosted 1.5L TGDI engine operated at the low-speed-end maximum torque, at which LSPI events were observed most frequently. Six different engine oils were tested, covering SAE-0W20, 0W30, 0W40, 5W20, 5W30 and 5W40 from three different oil suppliers.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 17419