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Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takeshi otaka, Kazuyo Fushimi, Eiji Kinoshita, Yasufumi Yoshimoto
Biofuel, such as biodiesel and bio-alcohol, is a renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel with the potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats is utilized as an alternative diesel fuel. On the other hand, bio-ethanol produced by fermentation from various organic substances, such as agricultural crops and garbage, is utilized as an alternative fuel for SI engine. Bio-butanol also can be made by fermentation, but it is different fermentation, Acetone-Ethanol-Butanol (ABE) fermentation. It is possible to use alcohol for diesel engines with higher thermal efficiency if alcohol is blended with high cetane number fuels, such as conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel. Butanol has higher net calorific value and cetane number compared with ethanol. Therefore, butanol may be better alternative diesel fuel or diesel fuel additive than ethanol. Also, biodiesel has higher kinematic viscosity and boiling point compared with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Nadeem Yamin, Abhishake goyal
Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmentally-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90 0C), hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, it is believed that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it. Presence of platinum in PEM fuel cells is one of the reasons why fuel cells are excluded from commercialization. Therefore, reducing the amount of platinum used in fuel cells is very important for their commercialization.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Gianluca Pasini, Silvia Marelli, Giovanni Lutzemberger, Massimo Capobianco, Paolo bolognesi, Roberto Gentili, Massimo Ceraolo
As a result of growing environmental concerns, in the last years more stringent regulations for vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been developed. Car manufacturers have focused their attention on developments of hybrid configurations of their conventional vehicles. To this aim, advanced powertrains for efficient utilization of energy are adopted in order to recover energy release during braking and, as well, to enable the ICE to operate within its highest efficiency region. Additionally, depending on the hybrid powertrain architecture (i.e., series hybrid, parallel hybrid, range extended, etc.), the ICE can also be significantly downsized thus reducing fuel consumption. The application of a turbocharging system allows to further downsize the ICE, still keeping a reasonable power level. Besides, the possibility to couple an electric drive to the turbocharger (electric turbo compound) to recover the residual energy of the exhaust gases is becoming more and more attractive, as demonstrated by several studies in the open literature and by the current application in the F1 Championship.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Frigo, Roberto Gentili, Franco De Angelis
Storing hydrogen is one of the major issues concerning its utilization on board vehicles. A promising solution is storing hydrogen in the form of ammonia that contains almost 18% hydrogen by mass and is liquid at roughly 9 bar at environmental temperature. As a matter of fact, liquid ammonia contains 1.7 times as much hydrogen as liquid hydrogen itself, thus involving relatively small volumes and light and low-cost tanks. It is well known that ammonia can be burned directly in I.C. engines, however a combustion promoter is necessary to support and speed up combustion especially in the case of high-speed S.I. engines. The best promoter is hydrogen, due to is opposed and complementary characteristics to those of ammonia. Hydrogen has high combustion velocity, low ignition energy and wide flammability range, whereas ammonia has low flame speed, narrow flammability range, high ignition energy and high self-ignition temperature. Another important point is the possibility to obtain hydrogen on board from ammonia, by means of a catalytic reactor.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for the electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
n the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 Celsius. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 oC. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion. In this paper a study is presented where a second injector is installed in a Scania D13 cylinder head for urea injection purposes.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Lei Zhu, Wugao zhang, Zhen Huang, Junhua Fang
Because of its cleanness and renewability, biodiesel has a great potential as the alternative of diesel fuel to confront with the increasing energy crisis and environment pollution. In this study, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was used to reduce the typical regulated emission and particulate emission. The combined method of fuel design concept with diesel oxidation catalyst was applied in this study in order to improve the reduction efficiency of DOC and to explore the new generation after-treatment technology roadmap with low cost. DOC with Pt catalyst was equipped in the engine test bench in this study. The effects of DOC on diesel engine regulated emission, unregulated emission and particulate emission fueled with Euro V diesel fuel, biodiesel and ethanol-biodiesel blends were investigated in this study. It was found that DOC could reduce HC and CO effectively. Moreover, with the increase of ethanol percentage, the reduction ratio increased. DOC seemed have no effects on NOx emission, while it could improve the oxidation reaction from NO to NO2.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
José Galindo, José Ramón Serrano, Pedro Piqueras, Javier Gómez
Nowadays calibration of internal combustion engines at different altitudes, above or below sea level, has become a key point to improve engine performance and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions in very different applications. In this work, a flow test rig that reproduces altitude pressure variation is presented. The system stands out by its altitude range, compactness, portability and easy control. It is based on the use of turbomachinery to provide the target pressure to engine intake and exhaust lines. The core of the system is composed of a variable geometry turbine (VGT) with a waste-gate and a mechanical compressor. The VGT is placed at the intake of the system and its power is dissipated in an independent turbocompressor. The VGT and WG outlet is placed next to a junction where the flow can be aspirated by the engine intake or derived as dilution flow to the tailpipe. The derivation discharges just downstream of the engine tailpipe connection to the test rig. This connection ensures engine operation with equal intake and exhaust pressure.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Leonardo Ramirez Roa, Javier de Diego
This paper describes the results of a comparison test where the effect of the use of Low Viscosity Oils on fuel consumption was assessed. The aim was to verify and quantify the theoretical benefits in terms of fuel consumption claimed by several studies. The study was performed using 39 urban buses which include diesel and CNG models of the city of Valencia over an 8 month period where every bus reached and average distance close to 30000 km. This group was divided in a control and a test group, using regular oils and Low Viscosity Oils respectively. The fuel consumption of buses was calculated with distance and refueling. Distance measurements were controlled by GPS and fuel consumption was measured by means of the buses refueling both of them in a daily basis. In the same way, 10 oil samples per bus, taken every 3000 km, were taken to control kinematic viscosity and HTHS viscosity, of reference and candidate oils, in order to control and report possible correlations between the viscosity changes and fuel consumption improvement changes over the test.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Vicente Macian, Bernardo Tormos, Santiago Ruiz, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Due to the increasingly stringent emissions standards in the world and, on the other hand, the foreseen shortage of fossil fuels, the application of low viscosity engine lubricants (LVO) is considered one of the most interesting option for counter these threats. Parallel to a fuel consumption fleet test, the aim of this study was to verify the performance of low viscosity lubricants regarding to engine wear, since the use of LVO could imply an increase in wear rate. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the internal combustion engines, a non-desired effect. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of LVO in a real service fleet. On this test 40 buses were monitored using a deep and extensive oil analysis program, comprising two engine technologies (Diesel and CNG) and four different lubricants, two of them LVO and other two as a reference baseline, during an oil life cycle of 30000 km, sampling each 3000 km. For every sample, a broad list of thermo-physical and chemical properties were measured, and specially wear engine was quantified using ICP-OES, in order to detect abnormal wear patterns in the engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Guillaume Pilla, Loic Francqueville
Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. Downsizing is one of the most promising strategy to achieve this reduction, though it facilitates knock phenomena. Therefore downsizing has to be associated with knock limiting technologies such as increased aerodynamics, dilution and thermal measures. High dilution levels allow to push back the knocking limit thus enhancing engine efficiency. The maximum gain of efficiency is therefore closely dependent on the dilution limit. State of the art shows that combustion initiation can be critical for highly diluted mixture combustion. If spark ignition systems are commonly used in GDI engines, they have known few evolutions since their invention. By optimizing key parameters such as spark duration, energy or size, it can be expected significant gain in dilution acceptance on GDI engines. This paper presents the results of innovative ignition systems tests on the dilution acceptance of a 400cc optical GDI engine.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Heju Zhu, Wanying Li, Hanguo Tao, Jun Li, Xiuhua Sui
In order to study and evaluate the effect of sulfated ash in different diesel engine lubricants on the performance and durability of diesel particulate filters (DPF), lubricants CI-4 and CJ-4 are used respectively in the durability test of DPF system. Moreover, the pressure drop, ash loading and filtration efficiency of DPF as well as intake flow rate and fuel consumption rate of engine are measured and compared. The test results show that: Compared to lubricant CI-4 which has more ash in the formulation than lubricant CJ-4, lubricant CJ-4 shows a markedly excellent performance on the lower ash loading and longer service interval and life for DPF, as well as lower fuel consumption rate for diesel engine .
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Michael Bunce, Hugh Blaxill
With an increasing global awareness of the need to conserve fuel resources and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the automotive sector has been seeking gains in engine efficiency. One such method for achieving these gains on a spark ignition (SI) engine platform is through lean burn operation. Lean burn operation has demonstrated the ability to increase thermal efficiency, but this increase is often accompanied by increases in criteria pollutants, namely nitrogen oxides (NOx). By contrast, ultra-lean operation (λ>2) has demonstrated the ability to increase thermal efficiency and significantly reduce NOx due primarily to lower mean gas temperatures. Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI), a pre-chamber-based combustion system, is a technology that enables ultra-lean operation through an effective de-coupling of the λ values in the pre-chamber and the main combustion chamber. TJI is also an effective knock mitigation system due to the distributed nature of main chamber ignition, resulting in rapid burn rates.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Simona Silvia Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Luca Marchitto, Gerardo Valentino, Adrian Irimescu
Liquids with stable suspensions of nanoscale (typically 1−100 nm) materials are defined nanofluids. The nanomaterials can be metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or carbon-based nanostructures. These represent a tool if used as additives for traditional liquid fuels to enhance ignition and combustion. Because of their unique structures and unusual mechanical and electric properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied for applications in material, electrical, and biomedical sciences. They also have unique thermal properties; e.g., CNTs are reported to have unusually high thermal conductivity compared to the bulk material−graphene monolayer. Intensive investigation has been conducted into the thermal conductivity of nanofluids with CNTs. However, the optical and radiative properties of nanofluids with carbon-based nanostructures, as well as their impact on droplet evaporation and combustion, have not been deeply studied. The present paper examines the radiative properties of nanofluid fuels with suspensions of carbon nanotubes CNTs.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Simon David Evans
ABSTRACT The fuel economy of vehicles today is in everyone’s focus, governments, original equipment manufacturers, and consumers alike for different reasons are demanding improvements. Historically, reducing the oil viscosity has resulted in improved fuel economy—but lower viscosities mean reduced or “weakened” lubricant films which may fail to hold up under higher temperatures and heavier loading associated with axle operations. The fluid development challenge is to bridge the gap between fuel economy and operating temperature control. Achieving both fuel economy and durability are not always mutually compatible objectives. The real challenge is to build in the high torque protection historically associated with SAE 75W-90 viscosity grades while delivering the axle efficiency of a lighter SAE 75W-85 grade. This is achieved through the careful selection of base fluid, viscosity modifier, and additive chemistry. Axle oils are subjected to different modes of energy dissipation: losses related to loading and losses which are independent of loading—i.e., churning or spin losses.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. In order to reduce NOx emissions, CO2, N2 and Ar were respectively introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture. In this study, a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged natural gas engine was tested. The effects of dilution gas on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO, THC emissions and so on. During the study, the engine speed being kept at 1450 r/min and the torque being kept at 350 Nm, the excess air ratio was fixed at 1.0, and the ignition advance angle was fixed at 20 ° CA BTDC. The results showed that dilution gas type had a large effect on engine fuel economy. For the purpose of improving engine fuel economy, Ar was the best choice. With increasing of the dilution ratio of CO2 and N2, the ignition delay and combustion duration were prolonged. On the contrary, no obvious changes of combustion phase were found when using the Ar as the dilution gas.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mohsen Salem Radwan, Osayed Sayed Mohamed Abu-Elyazeed, Y. A. Attai, M. E. Morsy
Jojoba bio-diesel is one of the most promising bio-fuels to substitute gas oil in diesel engines. Therefore, since the ignition delay is an important parameter in combustion, emissions and engine noise , the present work was dedicated to measure and correlate the pressure rise ignition delay of jojoba bio-diesel and its blends with gas oil behind incident shock waves. For this purpose, a shock tube test set up was designed and manufactured. It was fully instrumented for delay measurement with two piezo-electric pressure transducers, dual mode charge amplifier, data acquisition card and a computer with suitable LabVIEW software. The test variables included the type of fuel (percentage of Jojoba bio-diesel in the blend with gas oil), equivalence ratio, ignition temperature and ignition pressure. It was found that jojoba bio-diesel exhibited a lower ignition delay in comparison with that of gas oil. Rich or lean mixtures produce long delays, whilst the minimum delay occurred near the stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Toby Rockstroh, Victor Burger, Andy Yates, Dylan Smit
Recent work has highlighted a strong correlation between the so-called super-knock phenomenon and laminar flame speed [1]. Fuel components with high flame speed were shown to be very prone to pre-ignition leading to catastrophic super-knock and engine destruction. It has however also been shown that high laminar flame speed decreases the burn duration in spark ignition engines which can lead to improved engine thermal efficiency (and associated fuel efficiency) as well as knock resistance [2]. Synthetic gasoline blends can contain relatively high olefin content and it is known that some olefins can exhibit very high flame speed properties. These fuel formulations could therefore provide improved fuel efficiency and resistance to conventional knock on the one hand, but could potentially have a greater propensity for super-knock in modern boosted GDI engines. This paper investigated the laminar flame speed behaviour of a matrix of ten fuels and fuel components that were evaluated using a spherical combustion bomb.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Mario Farrugia, Andrew Briffa, Michael Farrugia
A conversion of a SI engine that was originally run with a carbureted SI engine is reported in this work. The conversion was implemented on a 1988 Skoda 120L with a 1174cc rear engine. The conversion to run on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was carried out using a programmable Engine Control Unit (ECU) that operated a single point fuel injection system. The LPG used was a commercially available mixture of Butane and Propane. The fuel injection system was designed to operate with the LPG in the liquid state. A circulating pump was used to maintain availability of LPG in liquid state at the inlet to the fuel injector. This made possible the use of similar fuel injection parts as in a petrol (gasoline) system. Injection of the fuel in the liquid state provided cooling to the intake air as measured during driving of the vehicle and also on chassis dynamometer runs. Engine power output measured on the chassis dynamometer showed equal power between petrol and LPG around mid rpm of 2500 rpm with a slight decline (4%) in power of the LPG system at 5000rpm.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation. Formulation adjustments were necessary to deal with the impacts of lower sulfur diesel fuel, increased engine operating temperatures leading to more oxidation, increased levels of soot contamination as a result of EGR, and reductions in maximum allowable sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus for the benefit of exhaust gas after-treatment devices that were necessary to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter emissions. It seems that the industry has reached the point of diminishing returns where it comes to reducing emissions. In the absence of an NOx and particulate emission legislation driven, technical need for renewing the diesel engine oils, the current API CJ-4 specification has had the longest life time of any API diesel engine oil specification in the last 25 years. However, economical, market driven developments seem to have taken over the task as a driver for renewal of diesel engine oils.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Wim van Dam, James Booth, Jimmy Pitta, Gary Parsons
Advancement in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oils has, for approximately two decades, been driven by the ever more stringent emission legislation. Formulation adjustments were necessary to deal with the impacts of lower sulfur diesel fuel, increased engine operating temperatures leading to more oxidation, increased levels of soot contamination as a result of EGR, and reductions in maximum allowable sulfated ash, sulfur and phosphorus for the benefit of exhaust gas after-treatment devices that were necessary to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter emissions. It seems that the industry has reached the point of diminishing returns where it comes to reducing emissions. With fuel economy as an important new technology driver, the industry is exploring and introducing diesel engine oils of viscosity grades that used to be applied solely in passenger car engines, such as API 10W-30 and even 5W-30. To avoid misapplication, API has decided that diesel engine oils, most of which are formulated close to the maximum 0.12% phosphorus limit in the API C specification, can no longer add the API S gasoline engine claim.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Kohei Kuzuoka, Tadashi Kurotani, Hiroshi Chishima, Hirotsugu Kudo
Bio-ethanol is one of the major alternative liquid fuels used to replace conventional fossil fuels for motor vehicles because of its productivity, lower CO2 emissions and compatibility with conventional fuels. It is used in many areas of the world as ethanol blended gasoline at low concentrations such as "E10 gasoline". It can be used in a similar way as conventional gasoline, but for additional improvement in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, it is important to investigate its combustion procedure. It is common knowledge that ethanol has high anti-knock properties. However, due to its lower ethanol fraction, ethanol blended gasoline (E10) does not. In this study, a method was studied to effectively use this small amount of ethanol within ethanol blended gasoline to improve thermal efficiency and high load performance in a high compression ratio engine. Ethanol blended gasoline was separated into high concentration ethanol fuel and gasoline using a fuel separation system employing a membrane.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, Ronghua Huang
Ethanol is a widely used alternative fuel to address the issue of sustainability. However, making the use of renewable fuel effective and efficient is still challenging. Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) has been in development due to its great potential in taking the advantages of ethanol fuel to increase the compression ratio and thermal efficiency. The work reported in this paper contributes to understanding the fuel and gas behaviours which are crucial in the development of EDI+GPI engine. A set of engine models have been developed using ANSYS FLUENT. The model was verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results of cylinder pressure in an engine and spray shapes in a constant volume chamber. The verified model was used to investigate the fuel vaporization and mixture formation of the EDI+GPI research engine. The effect of the ethanol/gasoline ratio on charge cooling has been studied. Compared with GPI only, EDI+GPI demonstrated stronger effect on charge cooling by decreased in-cylinder temperature and increased volumetric efficiency.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16402