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2017-12-01
Book
Ravi Rajamani
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion in aerospace. Also, cars, buses, and trucks are incorporating electric or hybrid-electric propulsion systems, reducing the pressure on hydrocarbons and lowering the costs of electrical components. The economies of scale necessitated by the automotive industry will help contain costs in the aviation sector as well. The use of electric propulsion in airplanes is not a new phenomenon. However, it is only recently that it has taken off in a concrete manner with a viable commercial future. The Electric Flight Technology: Unfolding of a New Future reviews the history of this field, discusses the key underlying technologies, and describes how the future for these technologies will likely unfold, distinguishing between all-electric (AE) and hybrid-electric (HE) architectures. Written by Dr.
CURRENT
2017-11-20
Standard
AMS3382D
This specification covers two classes (durometers) of tetrafluoroethylene/propylene rubber (FEPM) in the form of extrusions, sheet, strip, and molded shapes. These products have been used typically for components requiring continuous operation in dry air, hydraulic fluids, and synthetic engine oils at temperatures from -5 to +232 ° C (+23 to 450 ° F) or in high pH chemical decontamination solutions, but usage is not limited to such applications.
CURRENT
2017-11-20
Standard
AMS3331C
This specification covers a fluorosilicone (FVMQ) elastomer that can be used to manufacture product in the form of sheet, strip, tubing, extrusions, and molded shapes. This specification should not be used for molded rings, compression seals, O-ring cord, and molded in place gaskets for aeronautical and aerospace applications without complete consideration of the end use prior to the selection of this material.
2017-11-16
Article
Hardide has recently completed raising funds for the construction of two additional reactors at the company’s U.S. facility. This comes shortly after Hardide gained Nadcap accreditation for its Hardide-A coating as a replacement for toxic hard-chrome plating.
2017-11-15
WIP Standard
AIR1662B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides background information, technical data and related technical references for minimization of electrostatic hazards in aircraft fuel systems. Techniques used to minimize the electrostatic hazard include: a. Reducing fueling rate into tank bays including use of multiple refueling inlet nozzles. b. Reducing refuel plumbingn flow velocities. c. Introducing fuel into the tank at a low velocity near the bottom and directing it to impinge upon a grounded conducting surface. d. Avoiding electrically isolated conductors in the fuel tank. e. Using conductivity additives in the fuel.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0120
Go Asai, Yusuke Watanabe, Shuntaro Ishiguro, Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi
To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0119
Akira Iijima, Takuya Izako, Takahiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamashita, Shuhei Takahata, Hiroki Kudo, Kento Shimizu, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Hideo Shoji
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
2017-11-14
WIP Standard
AS5780D
This specification defines basic physical, chemical, and performance limits for 5 cSt grades of gas turbine engine lubricating oils used in aero and aero-derived marine and industrial applications, along with standard test methods and requirements for laboratories performing them. It also defines the quality control requirements to assure batch conformance and materials traceability, and the procedures to manage and communicate changes in oil formulation and brand. This specification invokes the Performance Review Institute (PRI) product qualification process. Requests for submittal information may be made to the PRI at the address in Appendix D Section D.2, referencing this specification. Products qualified to this specification are listed on a Qualified Products List (QPL) managed by the PRI. Additional tests and evaluations may be required by individual equipment builders before an oil is approved for use in their equipment.
2017-11-13
Tech Insights
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
2017-11-10
Article
Twelve years from today seems like forever. But in terms of automotive development time, it's right around the corner.
2017-11-02
Article
Hoist Liftruck Manufacturing is bringing full electrification for some of the biggest forklift trucks, motivated only in part by regulatory pressures. They are also proving to be less expensive to operate versus their ICE counterparts.
2017-11-02
WIP Standard
J1495
This SAE Standard details procedures for testing lead-acid SLI (starting, lighting, and ignition), Heavy-Duty, EV (electric vehicle) and RV (recreational vehicle) batteries to determine the effectiveness of the battery venting system to retard the propagation of an externally ignited flame of battery gas into the interior of the battery where an explosive mixture can be present. NOTE: At this time 2011, there is no known comparable ISO Standard.
2017-10-30
WIP Standard
AS6971
This standard is intended to provide a method (or methods) to obtain repeatable and consistent measurements to reflect true engine performance and durability in customer. Standardized methodology is needed to normalize engine performance to fairly rate engine operating variables and parameters. Operational protocols will be defined according to engine class and will be based on those developed for on-highway applications. Based on typical engine operation, a series of speed and load combinations and/or sequences will be determined. The scope will include dynamometer based testing and static propeller-based experiments. The industry consists of many platforms that use reciprocating engines as the main (or sole) provider of rotational energy to propeller. There also exists a significant move towards hybrid-based engine-battery systems that are expected to have different operational requirements.
2017-10-23
WIP Standard
J246
This SAE Standard covers complete general and dimensional specifications for tube fittings of the spherical and flanged sleeve compression types for use in the piping of air brake systems on automotive vehicles. The spherical sleeve compression type Figures 1A to 5 and Tables 1 to 3 is intended for use with annealed copper alloy tubing per SAE J1149, Type 1. The flanged sleeve compression type Figures 6A to 11 and Tables 4 to 6 is intended for use with nylon tubing per SAE J844. It is not intended to restrict or preclude other designs of a tube fitting for use with SAE J844, air brake tubing. Performance requirements for SAE J844 are covered in SAE J1131. See SAE J1131 for the Performance Requirements of Reusable (Push to Connect) Fittings Intended for Use in Automotive Air Brake Systems.
2017-10-20
WIP Standard
AIR5128B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of aircraft fuel systems and the questions concerning the requirements for electrical bonding of the various components of the system as related to Static Electric Charges, Fault Current, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Lightning Strikes (Direct and Indirect Effects). This AIR contains engineering guidelines for the design, installation, testing (measurement) and inspection of electrical bonds.
2017-10-18
WIP Standard
J3159
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of lithium battery anode active materials. Lithium battery anode active materials can be grouped in one of the following categories: lithium intercalation materials (including graphite, Li4Ti5O12); lithium alloying materials (including Sn, Si compounds/composites); lithium deposition materials (lithium metal). For the purposes of this document, material properties will be examined for particulate anode active materials (graphite, Li4TiO5, Sn compounds, Si compounds) and for metallic films (lithium metal). It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as this is usually established between the vendor and customer It is not within the scope of this document to examine the electrochemical properties of anode materials since these are influenced by electrode design.
CURRENT
2017-10-18
Standard
AMS3217/8A
This specification covers a fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber stock in the form of molded test slabs.
CURRENT
2017-10-18
Standard
MS1002_201710
See Table 1.
2017-10-17
WIP Standard
J2983
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery separator. The test methods in this RP have been grouped into one of three categories: 1. Manufacturing parameters: Minimum set of separator properties to be measured 2. Chemistry/Customer specific parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process etc. This RP will include the current best practice methodologies for these tests, with an understanding that the best practice methodologies are evolving as more information is learned. 3. R&D parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process etc. The methodologies in this 3rd section are under development and have not yet achieved broad application.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5014
Maurilio Pereira Gomes, Igor Santos, Camila Couto, Cristiano Mucsi, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marco Colosio
Abstract This work consists of evaluating the influence of heat treatment on sintered valve seat insert (VSI) obtained with two different high-speed steels powders and one tool steel: AISI M3:2, AISI M2 and AISI D2, respectively. The high-speed / tool steel powders were mixed with iron powders and additives such as manganese sulphide, zinc stearate, graphite and niobium carbide. All the high-speed / tool steel powders had its particle size distribution and morphology analyzed. The heat treatment of the VSI consisted of air quenching followed by double tempering it in seven different and equidistant temperatures, ranging from 100 °C until 700 °C. A data acquisition system with a thermocouple type k attached to the samples was used to determine the air-quenching cooling rate. The mechanical and physical properties measurements were carried out, i.e., apparent density, apparent hardness and crush radial strength.
2017-10-12
Article
Emission Analytics' EQUA database provides online users with vehicle-to-vehicle comparisons of greenhouse gas emissions and real-world fuel economy.
2017-10-12
WIP Standard
J2931/7
This SAE Information Report J2931/7 establishes the security requirements for digital communication between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV), the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and the utility, ESI, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and/or Home Area Network (HAN).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2340
Shashank Mishra, Anand Krishnasamy
Abstract Biodiesel is a renewable, carbon neutral alternative fuel to diesel for compression ignition engine applications. Biodiesel could be produced from a large variety of feedstocks including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their composition, fuel properties and thereby, engine characteristics. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations on engine characteristics are captured using a multi-linear regression model incorporated with two new biodiesel composition based parameters, viz. straight chain saturation factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm). For this purpose, biodiesel produced from seven vegetable oils having significantly different compositions are tested in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads and injection timings. The regression model is formulated using 35 measured data points and is validated with 15 other data points which are not used for formulation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2339
Pi-qiang Tan, Yuan Li
Abstract With increasingly severe atmospheric environmental problems, diesel car emissions have attracted broad attention for its main contribution to air pollutant. Alternative fuels become a hot research point in vehicle for rapidly consuming of fossil oil resources. Biodiesel and GTL (gas to liquid) fuels are two typical alternative fuels for diesel fuel. Low blend ratio (≤10%) biodiesel and GTL fuels can be used in a diesel engine without modifying the engine’s configuration. It is important to investigate the difference of low blend ratio biodiesel and GTL fuels used in the same diesel car and to find the optimum one. Gaseous and particle emissions from a light duty diesel car with B10 (10% biodiesel from cooking oil +90% diesel, v/v) and G10 (10% GTL fuel +90% diesel, v/v) was investigated. It was equipped with high pressure common rail system, cooled EGR and DOC and was tested on a chassis dynamometer under NEDC mode.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2327
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
Abstract Fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing processes play a dominant role on engine performance and emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Understanding of microscopic spray characteristics is essential to predict combustion phenomena. The present work investigated near nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuels in a constant volume chamber. Waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels were applied and the results were compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. The tested fuels were injected by a solenoid injector with a common-rail injection system. A high-speed camera with a long distance microscopic lens was utilized to capture the near nozzle flow. Meanwhile, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer to compare atomization characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2326
Ang Li, Zhiwei Deng, Lei Zhu, Zhen Huang
Abstract In the present study a novel surrogate model for biodiesel including methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl crotonate (MC) was proposed and validated. In the binary mixture of surrogate fuel, MD was chosen to represent saturated methyl esters, which exhibited great low-temperature reactivity with typical negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior and MC represented unsaturated components in real biodiesel, which was mainly responsible for soot formation and evolution. The proportion of MD and MC was determined by matching the characteristics such as derived cetane number (DCN), molecular weight (MW), atom number, H/C ratio and unsaturated degree. All of the criterions were calculated by the least square principles and the calculated surrogate of biodiesel was comprised of 92% MD and 8% MC in mole fraction. Furthermore, detailed kinetic model of the surrogate fuel was constructed and developed with modifications, which was composed of 2918 species and 9164 reactions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Zhi Ning, Chia-Fon Lee, Han Wu
Abstract Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
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