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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0879
Richard Bernardoff, Benjamin Hennebert, Thierry Delvigne, Olivier Courtois, Philippe China
In order to meet the EU6c, 6×〖10〗^11 # / km particulate number emission target that will be introduced in 2017, some gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines might require the use of particulate filters (GPF). The lifetime of wall-flow filters is influenced by the composition of the engine lubricant due to the potential of the lubricant to contribute to ash accumulation in the GPF. In order to anticipate the potential need for new, lower ash, lubricants an endurance test was performed using a commercially available GPF. An innovative radio-labelling method was used to identify the amount of lubricant derived ash trapped in the GPF. After the endurance test, during which 9 kg of 1% sulphated ash oil was consumed, approximately 50 g of ash had accumulated in the GPF. This amount is only 56% of the expected amount based on fresh oil sulphated ash concentration and oil consumption.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0874
Thorsten Langhorst, Felix Rosenthal, Thomas Koch
Throughout the world cost-efficient Naphtha streams are available in refineries. Owing to less processing, CO2 emissions emitted in course of production of these fuels are significantly lower than with conventional fuels. In common CI/SI engines, however, the deployment of Naphtha is considerably restricted due to unfavourable fuel properties, e.g. low cetane/octane numbers. Former investigations illustrated high knocking tendency for SI applications and severe pressure rise for CI combustion. Moreover, the focus of past publications was on passenger vehicle applications. Hence, this paper centers on heavy-duty stationary engine applications. Consequently, measures to increase the technically feasible IMEP with regard to limitations in knocking behaviour and pressure rise were explored whilst maintaining efficient combustion and low emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0601
Huayi Li, Kenneth Butts, Kevin Zaseck, Dominic Liao-McPherson, Ilya Kolmanovsky
The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for online prediction and controller validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with multi-layer perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0682
Yuedong Chao, Haifeng Lu, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Yuan Shen, Shuang Yuan
In this paper comparisons were made between the fuel economy improvement by a High Pressure (HP) water-cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and that by a Low Pressure (LP) water-cooled EGR system. Experiments were implemented on a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 14bar because of the relative narrow available range of HP-EGR system. In consideration of practical application of EGR system, the coolant used in this experiment was kept almost the same temperature as in real vehicles (88±3℃) instead of underground water temperature. The results indicated that, HP-EGR usually got higher best EGR rates for fuel economy at low-load region, and a better improvement (up to 2.96%) of fuel economy was expected. In contrast at moderate-to-high loads, especially at low speed high load region, HP-EGR rates were severely constrained by the application of turbo.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0803
Christiane Behrendt, Alastair Smith
Injector cleanliness is well characterised in the literature as a key factor for maintained engine performance in modern diesel cars. Injector deposits have been shown to a reduce injector flow capacity and result in loss of full load power; however, deposit effects on fuel economy are less well characterised. A study was conducted with the aim of building understanding of diesel injector nozzle deposits on fuel economy. A series of tests have been run using a previously published chassis dynamometer test method. The test method was designed to evaluate injector deposit effects on performance under driving conditions more representative of real world driving than the high intensity test cycle of the industry standard, CEC DW10B engine test. A light duty Euro 5 certified vehicle was tested and performance degradation was compared with fuels with a keep-clean dose of a new fuel borne additive versus additive free and low additised fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0780
Dongwei Wu, Baigang Sun, Qinghe Luo, Xi Wang, Yunshan Ge
Hydrogen internal combustion engine has advantages in many aspects compared with traditional internal combustion engine. E.g. hydrogen is renewable energy and its source is more widely and more easily, so it can alleviate the traditional energy crisis; the hydrogen internal combustion engine has the higher efficiency and the lower emissions. The structure of hydrogen internal combustion engine is highly consistent with the traditional internal combustion engine, so users do not need to change a lot when using hydrogen internal combustion engine. The combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixture are great significance for the performance and control of hydrogen internal combustion engine and it is also the theory and technical difficulties in the process of designing hydrogen internal combustion engine. The model that can accurately predict the mixture combustion velocity in cylinder is very important. The combustion velocity is an important parameter for mixture combustion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0733
Mario Martins, Ivanir Fischer, Franciel Gusberti, Rafael Sari, Macklini Dalla Nora
Ethanol with high levels of hydration is a low cost fuel that has offers the potential to replace fossil fuels and lower atmospheric CO2 emissions. However, it can be of difficult ignition depending on the hydration levels. Combustion modes like HCCI have shown to be very tolerant to the water content in the fuel due to their non-flame propagating nature. Moreover, HCCI tends to increase engine efficiency while lowering emissions levels. This paper demonstrates the operation of a 3-cylinder generator engine in which one of the cylinders acts as a dedicated EGR producer for a dedicated ethanol cylinder operating with HCCI of wet ethanol. When the diesel cylinder is under low load, due to the excess air, it produces low combustion gases and becomes almost solely an air heater, Heat is then directly recycled back to the ethanol cylinder intake to promote autoignition of wet ethanol.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0740
Yu Zhang, Yuanjiang Pei, Nayan Engineer, Kukwon Cho, David Cleary
Partially-premixed combustion (PPC) enabled through gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) shows a promising potential to achieve high fuel efficiency with low engine-out oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, it faces technical barriers to meet the need for simultaneously mitigating combustion efficiency loss at low load as well as containing maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) and soot at high load. In addition, GCI typically requires high EGR rate at medium-to-high load and therefore poses challenges on the air system development and transient engine operation. The current study aims to utilize 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion analysis to guide the development of a viable full-load range combustion strategy using a higher reactivity gasoline that has a research octane number (RON) of 70. RON70 was selected as it has the potential to offer a good balance between low load and high load GCI operation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1016
Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
For the upcoming Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions regulation, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessment. As part of the technology assessment, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated on an engine capable of running the Atkinson cycle. The base engine was a production 2.0L four cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the technology effectiveness could be evaluated. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle fuel economy estimates were made using fuel weighted modes and ALPHA (EPA’s full vehicle simulation model). Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what two-cycle fuel economy benefits could be achieved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0683
Michael Fischer, Philipp Kreutziger, Yong Sun, Adam Kotrba
External EGR has been used on diesel engines for decades. It has also been used on gasoline engine in the past. It was recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulate numbers, which will be limited by Europe RDE legislation from 2017 onwards. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rate (> 20%), but compared to diesel engines, it needs extreme cooling (~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known . To avoid this, Tenneco introduced a coated Gasoline Particulate Filter in the EGR loop to clean the EGR gas by removing particulates, HC, NOx and CO. Only CO2, N2 and H2O will remain in the cleaned EGR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0764
Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno, Carlo Beatrice
The paper reports the results of a wide experimental campaign aimed to assess the effects of the geometric compression ratio variation on the performance of light-duty diesel engines operated in dual-fuel NG-diesel mode in terms of fuel consumption, NVH and pollutant emissions. The single-cylinder research engine employed in the experimental campaign had a combustion system is representatives of a 2L automotive diesel engine for passenger cars. The test methodology was defined in order to analyse carefully the effects of the compression ratio, injection parameters and air throttling on the global performances and emissions, also in terms of emitted carbonaceous particles. Three pistons with different bowl volumes corresponding to compression ratio (CR) values of 16.5, 15.5 and 14.5 were selected for the whole test campaign.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0769
Pierpaolo Napolitano, Chiara Guido, Carlo Beatrice, Nicola Del Giacomo
An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction for carbon dioxide and is intrinsically cleaner, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the high duty engines category. An experimental research activity was devoted to the analysis of the potentiality offered by the application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG configuration on a light duty 2L Euro 5 automotive diesel engine, equipped with an advanced control system of the combustion. The test campaign foresaw to test the engine in dynamic and steady state conditions, comparing engine performance and emissions in conventional Diesel and Dual Fuel combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0766
Gary D. Neely, Radu Florea, Jason Miwa, Zainal Abidin
Although low diesel fuel prices have reduced the appeal of natural gas (NG) engines recently, the CO2 advantage and low NOX and PM potential of NG makes it well-suited for meeting future greenhouse gas (GHG) and potential lower NOX regulations for on-road medium and heavy-duty engines. However, traditional NG fueling strategies and/or poor air/fuel ratio control can result in significant levels of tailpipe methane (CH4) emissions which offset the CO2 advantage due to the high global warming potential of CH4. To address this issue, the unique co-direct injection capability of the Westport HPDI fuel system was leveraged to obtain a partially-premixed fuel charge by injecting NG during the compression stroke followed by diesel injection for ignition timing control. This combustion strategy, referred to as DI2, was shown to improve the brake thermal and combustion efficiencies over equivalent fumigated dual-fuel combustion modes in a previous publication.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1232
Tsubasa YAMAZAKI, Hidekazu UCHIYAMA, Kazuaki NAKAZAWA, Tsubasa ISOMURA, Hisashi OGATA
Solar car races are held worldwide, aiming to promote vehicles that help reduce environmental loads on the roads. In order to gain superiority in solar car racing, it is essential to develop a high efficiency brushless direct drive motor that optimizes the energy use to the fullest and allows high speed driving when needed.To achieve these goals, two development approaches of solar car motors are proposed: the high efficiency motor which improves electrical characteristics and significantly reduces energy loss; and the variable field magnet motor that offers instant speed boost for a temporary period of time for overtaking other opponents.We have developed a high efficiency motor with the application of an amorphous core and laminated magnets. Instead of the standard method of the W-EDM (Wire-Electric Discharge Machining) for amorphous cores, we utilized water jet cutting, through which we succeeded in insulation between laminated cores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0763
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I investigated the effect of late post injection (LPI); the current paper (Part-II) reports on the effects of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. In SPC operation, the diesel injection is delayed, allowing more premixing of the natural gas prior to ignition. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas slightly premixed combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder, 15 liter HPDI engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0774
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly non-premixed combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I will investigates the effect of late post injection (LPI) and Part II will study the effect of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas late post-injections (LPI) was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder,15 liter HPDI engine. The post injection contains 10-25% of total fuel mass, and occurs after the main combustion event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA’s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0805
Jue Li, Tushar K. Bera, Michael Parkes, Timothy J. Jacobs
This paper investigates the effects of cetane number (CN) on energy balance between a light duty (1.9L) and medium duty (4.5L) compression ignition engine at 1500 rev/min (RPM) and nominally 1.88 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (low load) and 5.65 BMEP (medium load) conditions. The preliminary results show that CN significantly affects the distribution of supplied fuel energy in the engine systems. Increasing CN decreases heat loss to cylinder wall on both engines and load conditions. The sensitivity of increasing CN on heat loss to cylinder wall changes by various loads: high CN has stronger impacts on medium duty engine at low load condition, but results larger difference on light duty at medium load condition, which are balance results between temperature difference and combustion duration. Moreover, as CN increases, energy loss to exhaust increases on both engines at low load condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across automotive and truck industry for several years if not decades. In heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from small gains in fuel economy lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG levels which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art FE technologies, incremental gains are so small that they are hard to measure on an actual vehicle. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynos are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due factors such as part to part differences, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0171
Quansheng Zhang, Yan Meng, Christopher Greiner, Ciro Soto, William Schwartz, Mark Jennings
In this paper, the tradeoff relationship between the Air Conditioning (A/C) system performance and vehicle fuel economy for a hybrid electric vehicle during the SC03 drive cycle is presented. First, an A/C system model was integrated into Ford’s HEV simulation environment. Then, a system-level sensitivity study was performed on a stand-alone A/C system simulator, by formulating a static optimization problem which minimizes the total energy use of actuators, and maintains an identical cooling capacity. Afterwards, a vehicle-level sensitivity study was conducted with all controllers incorporated in sensitivity analysis software, under three types of formulations of cooling capacity constraints. Finally, the common observation from both studies, that the compressor speed dominates the cooling capacity and the EDF fan has a marginal influence, is explained using the thermodynamics of a vapor compression cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0539
Duc-Khanh Nguyen, Sebastian Verhelst
Methanol fueled spark ignition (SI) engines have the potential for very high efficiency using an advanced heat recovery system for fuel reforming. In order to allow simulation of such an engine system, several sub-models are needed. This paper reports the development of two laminar burning velocity correlations, corresponding to two reforming concepts, one in which the reformer uses water from an extra tank to produce hydrogen rich gas (syngas) and another that employs the water vapor in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream to produce reformed-EGR (R-EGR). This work uses a one-dimensional (1D) flame simulation tool with a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism to predict the laminar burning velocities of methanol/syngas blends and correlate it. The syngas is a mixture of H2/CO/CO2 with a CO selectivity of 6.5% to simulate the methanol steam reforming products over a Cu-Mn/Al catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0781
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0158
Masaaki Nakamura, Koichi Machida, Kiyohiro Shimokawa
A diesel engine is advantageous in its high thermal efficiency, however it still wastes more than 50% of total input energy to exhaust and cooling losses. A feasibility study of thermoacoustic refrigerator was carried out as one of the means to recuperate waste heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator prototyped for this study showed a capability to achieve cooling temperature lower than -20 degree C, which indicated that the system has a potential to be used in refrigerator trucks not only for cargo compartment cooling but also for cabin cooling. The experimental system was single loop type with its total length of 3160mm. A mixture of argon and helium was used as the working gas. Cordierite honeycombs of 100mm long with cell density of 1200 cpsi were used as the regenerators in both the heating and cooling parts. The heat exchanger, which was made of anoxic copper with high thermal conductivity, was maintained at room temperature by recirculating cooling water.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0640
Robert Wade, Steven Murphy, Paul Cross, Craig Hansen
The Variable Displacement Supercharger (VDS) is a twin helical screw style compressor that has a feature to change the compression ratio actively during vehicle operation. This device can reduce the parasitic losses associated with supercharging and improve the relative fuel economy of a supercharged engine. Supercharging is a boosting choice with several advantages over turbocharging. There is fast pressure delivery to the engine intake manifold for fast engine torque response and the fun to drive feel. The performance delivered by a supercharger can enable engine fuel economy actions like engine downsizing and downspeeding. The cost and difficulty of engineering hot exhaust components is eliminated with using only an air side compressor. Faster catalyst warm up can be achieved when not warming the turbine housing of a turbocharger.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0933
Yunhua Zhang, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu, Qian Feng
Biodiesel as a renewable energy is becoming increasingly attractive due to the growing scarcity of conventional fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the development of after-treatment technologies for the diesel engine brings new insight concerning emissions especially the particulate matter pollutants. In order to study the coupling effects of biodiesel blend and CCRT (Catalyzed Continuously Regeneration Trap) on the particulate matter emissions, the particulate matter emissions from an urban bus operated under steady and transient conditions respectively on real road equipped with and without CCRT (the same bus) fuelled with biodiesel blends BD10 (90% pure diesel and 10% biodiesel by volume) and BD0 (100% pure diesel) was tested and analyzed using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Results showed that the particulate number-size distribution of BD10 had two peaks in nuclei mode and accumulation mode respectively except the condition of high speed, which was similar to BD0.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0885
Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Vishnu Vijayakumar, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh
API-CF grade lubricants cater to majority of light and heavy duty commercial vehicles on road in India. Soot accumulation in lubricating oil can result in engine wear and lubricant's viscosity increase thereby affecting its pumping ability and drain interval. Due to faster lubricant degradation and with emergence of newer engine technologies, there is increasing demand on improving performance of lubricants particularly with respect to soot dispersancy. This paper describes the development of test method for evaluating the lubricant's dispersancy/anti-wear characteristics up to 6% soot level on a commercial BS II, 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The test severity was generated in order to match real time environment by incorporating various engine hardware modifications like inlet air restriction, retarded injection timing, increased fuel delivery, auxiliary oil sump unit, and change in injector pressures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0136
Apostolos Karvountzis-Kontakiotis, Apostolos Pesiridis, Hua Zhao, Fuhaid Alshammari, Benjamin Franchetti, Ioannis Pesmazoglou, Lorenzo Tocci
Modern heavy duty diesel engines can well extend the goal of 50% brake thermal efficiency by utilizing waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies. The effect of an ORC WHR system on engine brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) is a compromise between the fuel penalty due to the higher exhaust backpressure and the additional power from the WHR system that is not attributed to fuel consumption. This work focuses on the fuel efficiency benefits of installing an ORC WHR system on a heavy duty diesel engine. A six cylinder, 7.25ℓ heavy duty diesel engine is employed to experimentally explore the effect of backpressure on fuel consumption. A zero-dimensional, detailed physical ORC model is utilized to predict ORC performance under design and off-design conditions.
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