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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1285
Tarun Mehra
Abstract Exploring and enhancement of biodiesel production from feedstock like non-edible vegetable oil is one of the powerful method to resolve inadequate amount of conventional raw materials and their high prices. The main aim of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters of a biodiesel obtained from non-edible feedstocks, namely Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil, with response surface methodology using Doehlert’s experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the mixture A50S50 oil mixture at 51.045° C over a period of 45 minutes are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 8.45, and catalyst concentration: 1.933 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters give the highest yield for the A50S50 biodiesel with a value of 95.24%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0893
Marek Tatur, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0906
Thomas L. Darlington, Gary A. Herwick, Dennis Kahlbaum, Dean Drake
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and California Air Resources Board released the joint mid-term Technical Assessment Review of the light-duty GHG standards in July of 2016. The review generally asserted that the GHG standards adopted in calendar year 2012 for 2022-2025 model year vehicles were feasible. Although many different technologies were evaluated, the review did not assess the benefits of high compression ratio engines enabled by a high-octane low carbon fuel. This study fills in the gap in the Technical Assessment Review by examining the impacts of a 98-research octane number gasoline-ethanol blend with 25 percent ethanol. We find that this fuel would enable higher compression ratios to improve tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions by about 6 percent on most engines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0898
Jongwon Lee, Sedoo Oh, Kyung Sub Joo, Seyoung Yi, Kyoung-Pyo Ha, Seongbaek Joo
Abstract The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1078
Walid Ashraf, Sherif Khedr, Aya Diab, Hashim Elzaabalawy
Abstract A throttle valve is one of the main components of the intake system of a vehicle and is used to control the air flow rate into the combustion chamber at different engine speeds. Consequently, it has considerable effect on the engine power and performance especially at high engine speeds. The butterfly throttle valve is more common in commercial vehicles due to its simplicity. However, the butterfly throttle plate may affect the engine performance by incurring some pumping losses at high engine speeds even with the plate at wide open throttle (WOT) position. Hence it is proposed in this research work to replace and compare the performance of a spark ignition engine butterfly throttle valve to a newly designed barrel-shaped one with regards to the induced air mass flow rate. The main benefit of the proposed barrel-shaped throttle valve is the elimination of the flow restriction at WOT and high engine speeds.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0446
Xiao Chuan Xu, Xiuyong Shi, Jimin Ni, Jiaqi Li, Xiaochuan Xu Sr.
Abstract Oil pump is a critical part of engine lubrication system. The performance and efficiency of oil pump are greatly affected by vibration and noise, which would lead to the pump service life decreasing and pump body easily wearing. Hence the vibration and noise of oil pump is of great importance to study. In this paper, a FEA model of the variable displacement oil pump(VDOP) was established to carry on the modal and noise analysis, while the geometric structure was optimized with test verification. The modal analysis of VDOP was carried out by ABAQUS software, the 3-D unsteady flow field in VDOP was simulated by Pumplinx software, and the sound field was analyzed by ACTRAN acoustic module. Using a special oil pump test bench combined with B&K PULSE vibration and noise test equipment, the NVH and comprehensive performance experiment of the VDOP were carried out here.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0464
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract Friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for large amount of the friction losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Therefore, any effort to minimize such a friction will also result in higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is considered as a hard ceramic coating which can provide a dimpled surface for oil retention to bear the wear and reduce the friction from sliding piston rings. In this work, a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to generate the boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Five different lubricating oils and two different loads were applied to do the tribotests and the COFs of a PEO coating were studied. The results show that the PEO coating indeed had a lower COF in a lower viscosity lubricating oil, and a smaller load was beneficial to form the mixed and hydrodynamic lubricating regimes earlier.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1087
Pengfei Zang, Zhe Wang, Yu Fu, Chenle Sun
Abstract The Linear Internal Combustion Engine-Linear Generator Integrated System (LICELGIS) is different from conventional crank-based engine for reducing frictional losses by eliminating the crankshaft. Thus, the LICELGIS piston stroke is not constrained geometrically and the system compression ratio is variable. During steady-state operation, the LICELGIS converts the fuel chemical energy into electric power with piston assembly reciprocating motion, which can be used as a range-extender in hybrid electric vehicles. The LICELGIS scavenging process is prerequisite and key for the system steady-state operation, which has remarkable influence on mixture gas and, eventually, on engine combustion performance. In order to achieve high scavenging performance, a LICELGIS is investigated in this paper. The LICELGIS motion characteristics and scavenging process were analyzed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1077
Nicolas Arnault, Nicolas Batailley, Arnaud Maria, Laurent Bechu
Abstract PSA Group, SOLVAY and SOGEFI have teamed-up to produce the first Plastic Diesel Fuel Filter fully made of recycled polyamide 66, ready for mass-production. This has been achieved by using the brand new plastic compound developed by SOLVAY Engineering Plastics. This material is 100% recycled from airbag wastes, providing a premium material able to stand demanding applications requirements supplied through circular economy, which is quite unusual in automotive industry yet. SOGEFI has used this material through its existing plastic injection process, and tested the parts on extensive bench validation tests. It confirmed that this material is fully compatible with standard injection process, and that all the tests have been passed successfully. Finally, PSA Group has driven the choice of the tested parts: DV engine 1.6l Euro6b application, homologated the material grade and evaluated the whole validation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1180
Stefan Brandstätter, Michael Striednig, David Aldrian, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell, Tomas Dehne, Christoph Kügele, Michael Paulweber
Abstract The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1187
Tatsuya Sugawara, Takuma Kanazawa, Naoki Imai, Yu Tachibana
Abstract This paper describes the motorized turbo compressor, which is a key technology for reducing the size of the fuel cell system for the Clarity Fuel Cell. The oxygen needed for fuel cell power generation is sent into the fuel cell by compressing the air from the atmosphere by a compressor. The conventionally used Lysholm compressor needed numerous sound absorbers, such as silencers and covers, to help achieve quietness when driving. Therefore, changing to a turbo compressor enhanced quietness and helped to eliminate or reduce the size of these auxiliary sound absorbers. Furthermore, a two-stage supercharging structure was used and the air pressure supplied to the fuel cell was increased to 1.7 times the previous air pressure. This increased the fuel cell power, which enabled to reduce the number of cells needed, and reduced the needed humidification amount which enabled to reduce the size of the humidifier. These enhancements helped to reduce the system size.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1189
Tsuyoshi Maruo, Masashi Toida, Tomohiro Ogawa, Yuji Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Nada Mitsuhiro, Yoshihiro Ikogi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) since 1992. As part of a demonstration program, TMC launched the FCHV-adv in 2008, which established major technical improvements in key performance areas such as efficiency, driving range, durability, and operation in sub-zero conditions. However, to encourage commercialization and widespread adoption of FCVs, further improvements in performance were required. During sub-zero operating conditions, the FC system output power was lower than under normal operating conditions. The FC stack in the FCHV-adv needed to dry the electrolyte membrane to remove unneeded water from the stack. This increased the stack resistance and caused low output power. In December 2014, TMC launched the world’s first commercially available FCV named the Mirai, which greatly improved output power even after start-up in sub-zero conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1188
Daisuke Hayashi, Atsushi Ida, Shota Magome, Takahisa Suzuki, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Hori
Abstract The key challenge in designing a high power density fuel cell is to reduce oxygen transport loss due to liquid water. However, liquid water transport from catalyst layers to channels under operating conditions is not completely understood. Toyota developed a high resolution space and time liquid water visualization technique using synchrotron x-ray (Spring-8) radiography. In addition, a simulation method was created based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify the cell performance relationship to water distribution. The relationship among gas diffusion layer (GDL) parameters, water distribution, and fuel cell performance was clarified by combining the techniques Toyota developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1085
Todd Brewer, Cagri Sever, Ruichen Jin, Michael Herr, Xingfu Chen, Reda Adimi
Abstract In a separate SAE paper (Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance), cylinder head high cycle fatigue (HCF) analysis approach and damage calculation method were developed and presented. In this paper, the HCF damage calculation method is used for risk assessment related to customer drive cycles. Cylinder head HCF damage is generated by repeated stress alternation under different engine operation conditions. The cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE process can be used as a transfer function to translate engine operating conditions to cylinder head damage/life. There are many inputs, noises, and design parameters that contribute to the cylinder head HCF damage CAE transfer function such as cylinder pressure, component temperature, valve seat press fit, and cylinder head manufacturing method. Material properties and the variation in material properties are also important considerations in the CAE transfer function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1076
Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani, Esra Demren
Abstract In this presentation, two cases of CAE simulations of oil pump-induced tonal noises are presented. The first case involves oil pump-induced whine in an I4engine during coast down. The second case addresses oil pan moan during hot idle and the effect of oil pump pick-up tube positioning inside the oil pan of an I5 engine. The investigations include several design modifications to the pump and the pick-up tube to prevent the tonal noise. Test data are also included to demonstrate the accuracy of the CAE simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1088
Katherine Randall, Cody Bradford, Jeremy Ross, Jeremy Church, Nolan Dickey, Adam Christian, Matthew Dunn
Abstract High frequency variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in Inline-four cylinder (I4) engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through a review and explanation of the physics related to engine operation followed by comparison to measured vehicle data, the relationship between crankcase volume throughout the engine cycle and the observed pressure fluctuations. It is demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of the key engine design parameters, the frequency and amplitude of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1086
Cagri Sever, Todd Brewer, Scott Eeley, Xingfu Chen, Ruichen Jin, Emad Khalil, Michael Herr
Abstract For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes through many different operating conditions such as cold start, through warm up, peak power, and intermediate cycles. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Cylinder heads having an integrated exhaust manifold are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer/bench thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. The bench test was used to verify the TMF analysis approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1145
Eric De Hesselle, Mark Grozde, Raymond Adamski, Thomas Rolewicz, Mark Erazo
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicles are continuously challenged to meet cross attribute performance while minimizing energy usage and component cost in a very competitive automotive market. As electrified vehicles become more mainstream in the marketplace, hybrid customers are expecting more attribute refinement in combination with the enhanced fuel economy benefits. Minimizing fuel consumption, which tends to drive hybrid powertrain engines to operate under lugging type calibrations, traditionally challenge noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) metrics. Balancing the design space to satisfy the cost metrics, energy efficiency, noise and vibration & drivability under the hybrid engine lugging conditions can be optimized through the use of multiple CAE tools. This paper describes how achieving NVH metrics can put undesirable boundaries on Powertrain Operation which could affect other performance attributes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1079
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Sayak Mukherjee, Rahul Jain, Shivdayal Prasad, Kamal Rohilla
Abstract Flex Connectors are intended for mitigating the relative movement of exhaust system components along the axis of the system arising from the thermal expansion due to intermittent engine operation. Flex connectors must not be installed in locations, where they will be subjected to destructive vibration. Hence, the stiffness of the flex connector plays an important role, while designing or selecting the right design. It consists of a multi-ply bellows combined with an inside and an outside steel braid. The liner is included to reduce the temperature of the bellows and improve flow conditions. The braid is included for mechanical protection and to limit the possible extension of the joint. It has only axial translational motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1081
Chongzhi Zhong, Tieqiang Fu, Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Ke Wu, Wangwen Gu
Abstract In order to study the single cavity and double cavity canister work performance, the L/D, as well as the similarities and differences among the diameter of the adsorption mouth, purge mouth and air mouth have been studied. At the same time, the work performance of ORVR canister and common canister is also studied. The results demonstrate that the similar of L/D, efficient work ability and efficient adsorption rate of the double cavity canister is better than the single cavity canister. The bigger of L/D, the stronger work ability of the canister. However, the excessive increase of the L/D is not conducive to the canister desorption, instead resulting in the increase of RARCP. The adsorption mouth diameter of common canister is generally smaller or similar to the purge mouth, while for ORVR canister the adsorption mouth diameter is bigger than the purge mouth and similar to air mouth.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1083
Chawin Chantharasenawong
Abstract This study focuses on achieving a lower overall lap time at SAE Formula Student competition through a modification to the standard intake system. The lower lap time is achieved by widening the range of engine RPM which produces torque higher than 90% of the maximum value and lowering the engine RPM corresponding to the maximum torque. An intake system with ‘variable runner length’ is introduced to the 2015 racecar of KMUTT team. The values of intake lengths are determined from the wave equation with the goal of producing over 90% of the maximum torque of the baseline configuration over a range of engine RPM. Computer simulations are performed to determine the pressure at engine entry at various runner lengths. Finally, a prototype variable runner length intake system with linear motor actuators is constructed and installed on the racecar. Chassis dynamometer tests are performed to determine the engine torque for 3,000 – 10,500 RPM at all interested runner lengths.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0803
Christiane Behrendt, Alastair Smith
Injector cleanliness is well characterised in the literature as a key factor for maintained engine performance in modern diesel cars. Injector deposits have been shown to a reduce injector flow capacity and result in loss of full load power; however, deposit effects on fuel economy are less well characterised. A study was conducted with the aim of building understanding of diesel injector nozzle deposits on fuel economy. A series of tests have been run using a previously published chassis dynamometer test method. The test method was designed to evaluate injector deposit effects on performance under driving conditions more representative of real world driving than the high intensity test cycle of the industry standard, CEC DW10B engine test. A light duty Euro 5 certified vehicle was tested and performance degradation was compared with fuels with a keep-clean dose of a new fuel borne additive versus additive free and low additised fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0654
Haiqiao Wei, Dengquan Feng, Mingzhang pan, JiaYing PAN
Abstract Combustion characteristics of neat 2-methylfuran (MF), 10% and 20% volumetric fraction 2-methylfuran gasoline blends were experimentally investigated in a single cylinder spark ignition engine, and the results were benchmarked against that of the research on octane number 97 neat gasoline. The investigation focused on the performance of cyclic variation of MF and its blends, and the effects of spark ignition timing, compression ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were studied. Experiments were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 rpm, and loads between 7 and 11 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) with using stoichiometric air-fuel ratio mixture. Index of the coefficient of variation of IMEP (COVIMEP) was used to evaluate the combustion stability of the tested fuels. The results show that neat MF and MF gasoline blended fuels have superior combustion stability compared with gasoline.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0774
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly non-premixed combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I will investigates the effect of late post injection (LPI) and Part II will study the effect of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas late post-injections (LPI) was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder,15 liter HPDI engine. The post injection contains 10-25% of total fuel mass, and occurs after the main combustion event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0683
Michael Fischer, Philipp Kreutziger, Yong Sun, Adam Kotrba
Abstract External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0699
Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
Abstract The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel.
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