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2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Abstract Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2350
Chalermwut Wongtaewan, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Komkrit Sivara, Ken Hashimoto, Yoichiro Nakamura
Abstract In Thailand, most heavy-duty trucks were equipped with diesel engine, while a small portion was equipped with compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. However, in the past few years the number of CNG fuel trucks in Thailand has increased significantly due to the cheaper cost of CNG. In general, the emphasis of heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance is on piston cleanliness and soot handling properties, while thermal and anti-oxidation properties are most critical for CNG engine oil performance. For truck fleet owners who operate both types of trucks, using the inappropriate oil that is not fit-for-purpose can adversely affect engine performance and reduce engine service lifespan under prolonged usage. A novel CNG/diesel engine oil was developed to meet both JASO DH-2 heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance and CNG engine oil performance. The candidate formulation was proved adequately fit for practical use regarding to thermal and anti-oxidation properties.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2194
Mateusz Pucilowski, Mehdi Jangi, Sam Shamun, Martin Tuner, Xue-Song Bai
Abstract Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2221
Peixuan Zeng, Penghao Zhang, Binyu Mei, Shiping Huang, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2266
Bin Yang, Hu Wang, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Jialin Liu, Naifeng Ma, Qiping Wang, Haien Zha, Peng Chen
Abstract Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2268
Zhanming Chen, Long Wang, Tiancong Zhang, Qimeng Duan, Bo Yang
Abstract Engines fuelled with Liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been widely used in the heavy-duty vehicles. However, they suffer from poor combustion performance and flame instability under fuel-lean condition. In this work, experiments were performed on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (NG) and methanol. The combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), burned mass fraction (BMF), ringing/knock intensity (RI), ignition delay, centroid of HRR, and coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) were analyzed under light load (brake mean effective pressure=0.3876 MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 16%, 34%, 46%). The experimental results showed that combustion phase advanced with the increase in MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol. Knock only occurred at MSR=46%, 2000 rpm.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2271
Zhongshu Wang, Mingyang Shao, Ming Li, Dan Wang, Zhongchang Liu
Abstract For diesel/natural gas dual fuel engines, the combustion of pilot diesel injection plays an important role to subsequent mixture combustion process. To better understand the effects of multiple injections, a detailed study was conducted on a 6-cylinder turbocharged intercooler diesel/natural gas dual fuel heavy-duty engine at low loads. Multiple variables were tested, including the single injection timings, the multiple injections timings and the mass ratios. The investigated results showed that the multiple pilot diesel injections have an obvious effect on not only pilot diesel combustion process but also natural gas mixture combustion process. Early injection leads to a pilot-diesel-ignition-mode and it is a two-stage auto ignition mode. This mode differs from the compression ignition mode of traditional diesel engine in regard to its random occurrence location within the spray.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2353
Bernardo Tormos, Leonardo Ramirez, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Abstract One of the most interesting alternatives to reduce friction losses in the internal combustion engines is the use of low viscosity engine oils. Recently, a new engine oil category focused fuel economy, has been released in North America encouraging the use of these oils in the heavy-duty vehicles’ segment. This paper presents the results of a comparative test where the differences in fuel consumption given by the use of these oils are shown. The test included 48 buses of the urban public fleet of the city of Valencia, Spain. The selected vehicles were of four different bus models, three of them fueled with diesel and the other one with compressed natural gas (CNG). Buses’ fuel consumption was calculated on a daily basis from refueling and GPS mileage. After three oil drain intervals (ODI), the buses using low viscosity engine oils presented a noticeable fuel consumption reduction. These results bear out the suitability of these oils to palliate engine inefficiencies.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2351
Bernardo Tormos, Guillermo Miró, Leonardo Ramirez, Tomás Pérez
Abstract Low viscosity engine oils are considered a feasible solution for improving fuel economy in internal combustion engines (ICE). So, the aim of this study was to verify experimentally the performance of low viscosity engine oils regarding their degradation process and possible related engine wear, since the use of low viscosity engine oils could imply higher degradation rates and/or unwanted wear performance. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the ICE, and higher degradation rates would be translated in a reduction of the oil drain period, both of them non-desired effects. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of low viscosity engine oils in a real service fleet.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2207
Nobunori Okui
Abstract Next-generation vehicles which include the Electric Vehicles, the Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are researched and expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the future. In order to reduce the emissions of the heavy-duty diesel plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), it is necessary to provide the high exhaust-gas temperature and to keep the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system effective. The engine starting condition of the PHEV is cold, and the engine start and stop is repeated. And, the engine load of the PHEV is assisted by the electric motor. Therefore, the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system of the PHEV is not able to get the enough high exhaust-gas temperature. And, the warm-up of the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system for the PHEV is spent the long time. So, it is worried about a bad effect on the emission characteristics of the PHEV.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2197
Vignesh Pandian Muthuramalingam, Anders Karlsson
Abstract Owing to increased interest in blended fuels for automotive applications, a great deal of understanding is sought for the behavior of multicomponent fuel sprays. This sets a new requirement on spray model since the volatility of the fuel components in a blend can vary substantially. It calls for careful solution to implement the differential evaporation process concerning thermodynamic equilibrium while maintaining a robust solution. This work presents the Volvo Stochastic Blob and Bubble (VSB2) spray model for multicomponent fuels. A direct numerical method is used to calculate the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. The multicomponent fuel model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code and the case simulated is a constant volume combustion vessel. The CFD code is used to calculate liquid penetration length for surrogate diesel (n-dodecane)-gasoline (iso-octane) blend and the result is compared with experimental data.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0026
Davide Paredi, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Angelo Onorati, Stefano Golini, Nicola Rapetto
Abstract The scope of the work presented in this paper was to apply the latest open source CFD achievements to design a state of the art, direct-injection (DI), heavy-duty, natural gas-fueled engine. Within this context, an initial steady-state analysis of the in-cylinder flow was performed by simulating three different intake ducts geometries, each one with seven different valve lift values, chosen according to an estabilished methodology proposed by AVL. The discharge coefficient (Cd) and the Tumble Ratio (TR) were calculated in each case, and an optimal intake ports geometry configuration was assessed in terms of a compromise between the desired intensity of tumble in the chamber and the satisfaction of an adequate value of Cd. Subsequently, full-cycle, cold-flow simulations were performed for three different engine operating points, in order to evaluate the in-cylinder development of TR and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under transient conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1921
Jyotirmoy Barman
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9279
Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
2017-06-27
Journal Article
2017-01-9179
Mike Liebers, Dzmitry Tretsiak, Sebastian Klement, Bernard Bäker, Peter Wiemann
Abstract A vital contribution for the development of an environmental friendly society is improved energy efficiency in public transport systems. Increased electrification of these systems is essential to achieve the high objectives stated. Since the operating range of an electrical vehicle is heavily influenced of the available energy, which primarily is used for propulsion and thermal passenger comfort, all heat losses in the vehicle systems must be minimized. Especially for urban buses, the unwanted heat losses through open doors while passengers are boarding, have to be controlled. These energy fluxes are due to the large temperature gradients generated between in- and outdoor conditions and to install air-walls in the door opening areas have turned out to be a promising technical solution. Based on air-wall technologies used for climate control in buildings, this paper presents an experimental investigation on the reduction of heat losses in the door opening of urban buses.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1928
David Mumford, Dale Goudie, James Saunders
Globally, many jurisdictions are working toward greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that will take effect in the next decade and require GHG reductions of up to 25% from 2017 legislated levels. While diesel engines will require increasingly complex improvements, high pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas can provide GHG reductions of approximately 20% (75% or more with renewable natural gas / bio-methane) while preserving the same power density, torque and performance as diesel. This paper will provide an overview of the improvements in the Westport™ HPDI 2.0 components as well as performance and emissions results demonstrated to-date. The potential and challenges of higher injection pressures will be explored while also investigating sources of and methods to eliminate methane venting on the vehicle.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9178
Arash E. Risseh, Hans-Peter Nee, Olof Erlandsson, Klas Brinkfeldt, Arnaud Contet, Fabian Frobenius lng, Gerd Gaiser, Ali Saramat, Thomas Skare, Simon Nee, Jan Dellrud
The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0778
Vishnu Vijayakumar, P. Sakthivel, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Amardeep Singh, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Abstract In the light of major research work carried out on the detrimental health impacts of ultrafine particles (<50 nm), Euro VI emission standards incorporate a limit on particle number, of which ultrafine particles is the dominant contributor. As Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a cheaper and cleaner fuel when compared to diesel, there has been a steady increase in the number of CNG vehicles on road especially in the heavy duty segment. Off late, there has been much focus on the nature of particle emissions emanating from CNG engines as these particles mainly fall under the ultrafine particle size range. The combustion of lubricant is considered to be the dominant source of particle emissions from CNG engines. Particle emission due to lubricant is affected by the oil transport mechanisms into the combustion chamber which in turn vary with engine operating conditions as well as with the physico chemical properties of the lubricant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0869
Job Immanuel Encarnacion, Edwin Quiros
Abstract The Philippine Biofuels Act of 2006 (RA 9367) requires commercial diesel fuel to be mixed with Coconut Methyl Ester (CME) in accordance with the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (RA 8749). As of 2015, the blend percentage is at 2% CME v/v, contrary to the scheduled 5% as stipulated in the biofuels act. Researches done locally showing the performance and emissions of CME-fueled engines are few and thus the basis for the CME percentage increase is still questionable and hampers the drive for the further implementation of the policy. The study investigates the influence of varying percentages of CME blends (2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% v/v) to the performance and emissions of a heavy-duty turbocharged common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. The engine is run at steady state at partial load (50Nm and 250 Nm) and at near full load (500Nm). Each run is set at three pedal positions, α (25%, 50% and 60%), controlled directly from the engine control unit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0866
Edwin N. Quiros, Karl B.N. Vergel, Ernesto B. Abaya
Abstract This paper presents a preliminary study to estimate, using on-road and laboratory tests, the mileage range of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel for diesel-fed public utility jeepneys in the Philippines. Data from the study would be used by the Philippine Department of Energy to formulate and implement alternative fuel programs for public transport. On-road fuel consumption, load factor, and GPS speed data from selected in-use LPG and diesel jeepneys plying a chosen urban route were gathered to develop corresponding drive cycles for chassis dynamometer testing at 100% load factor were conducted to estimate an upper limit for fuel consumption. Measured on-road diesel jeepney mileage was about 6.7 km/liter at 63.5% load factor while that for LPG jeepney was 3.8-4.2 km/liter at 59.8% load factor. Drive cycle tests yielded 5.2 km/liter for diesel and 2.6-3.1 km/liter for LPG.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0090
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Junbo Jing, Steve Szwabowski, Dimitar Filev
Abstract Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0181
Benny Johnson William, Agathaman Selvaraj, Manjeet Singh Rammurthy, Manikandan Rajaraman, V. Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract The modern day automobile customers’ expectations are sky-high. The automotive manufacturers need to provide sophisticated, cost-effective comfort to stay in this competitive world. Air conditioning is one of the major features which provides a better comfort but also adds up to the increase in operating fuel cost of vehicle. According to the sources the efficiency of internal combustion engine is 30% and 70% of energy is wasted to atmosphere. The current Air conditioners in automobiles use Vapour compression system (VCS) which utilizes a portion of shaft power of the engine at its input; this in turn reduces the brake power output and increases the specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine. With the current depletion rate of fossil fuels, it is necessary to conserve the available resources and use it effectively which also contributes to maintain a good balance in greenhouse effect thus protecting the environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0150
Ankit Kumar Shukla, Raj Dhami, Aashish Bhargava, Sanjay Tiwari
Abstract In the current landscape of commercial vehicle industry, fuel economy is one of the major parameter for fleet owner’s profitability as well as greenhouse gasses emission. Less fuel efficiency results in more fuel consumption; use of conventional fuel in engines also makes environment polluted. The rapid growth in fuel prices has led to the demand for technologies that can improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Phase change material (PCMs) for Thermal energy storage system (TES) is one of the specific technologies that not only can conserve energy to a large extent but also can reduce emission as well as the dependency on convention fuel. There is a great variety of PCMs that can be used for the extensive range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications in automobiles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0611
Viktor Leek, Kristoffer Ekberg, Lars Eriksson
1 ABSTRACT Today’s need for fuel efficient vehicles, together with increasing engine component complexity, makes optimal control a valuable tool in the process of finding the most fuel efficient control strategies. To efficiently calculate the solution to optimal control problems a gradient based optimization technique is desirable, making continuously differentiable models preferable. Many existing control-oriented Diesel engine models do not fully posses this property, often due to signal saturations or discrete conditions. This paper offers a continuously differentiable, mean value engine model, of a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with VGT and EGR, suitable for optimal control purposes. The model is developed from an existing, validated, engine model, but adapted to be continuously differentiable and therefore tailored for usage in an optimal control environment. The changes due to the conversion are quantified and presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0158
Masaaki Nakamura, Koichi Machida, Kiyohiro Shimokawa
Abstract A diesel engine is advantageous in its high thermal efficiency, however it still wastes about 50% of total input energy to exhaust and cooling losses. A feasibility study of thermoacoustic refrigerator was carried out as one of the means to recuperate waste heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator prototyped for this study showed a capability to achieve cooling temperature lower than -20 degree C, which indicated that the system has a potential to be used in refrigerator trucks not only for cargo compartment cooling but also for cabin cooling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been in use for many years to control NOx emissions in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every new regulation while durability requirements continue to increase, so EGR system manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. The commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs and the same engine must cope with multiple applications that have totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with a consequential impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of an EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibration, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0756
Zhenkuo Wu, Christopher Rutland, Zhiyu Han
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its rich reserves and low price, as well as good physical and chemical properties. Its low carbon structure and high octane number are beneficial for CO2 reduction and knock mitigation, respectively. Diesel and natural gas dual fuel combustion is a viable pathway to utilize natural gas in diesel engines. To achieve high efficiency and low emission combustion in a practical diesel engine over a wide range of operating conditions, understanding the performance responses to engine system parameter variations is needed. The controllability of two combustion strategies, diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and single injection reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), were evaluated using the multi-dimension CFD simulation in this paper.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 907