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Viewing 181 to 210 of 16433
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0598
Mohammad Reza Amini, Meysam Razmara, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Electronic throttle control is an integral part of an engine electronic control unit (ECU) that directly affects vehicle fuel economy, drivability, and engine-out emissions by managing engine torque and air-fuel ratio through adjusting intake charge flow to the engine. The highly nonlinear dynamics of the throttle body call for nonlinear control techniques that can be implemented in real-time and are also robust to controller implementation imprecision. Discrete sliding mode control (DSMC) is a computationally efficient controller design technique which can handle systems with high degree of nonlinearity. In this paper, a generic robust discrete sliding mode controller design is proposed and experimentally verified for the throttle position tracking problem. In addition, a novel method is used to predict and incorporate the sampling and quantization imprecisions into the DSMC structure. First, a nonlinear physical model for an electromechanical throttle body is derived.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0602
Vladimir Vasilije Kokotovic, Colby Buckman
Abstract With the trending electrification of vehicle accessory drives brings new control concepts useful in many cases to optimize energy management within the powertrain system. Considering that direct engine drives do not have as much flexibility as independent electric drives, it is apparent that several advantages are to be expected from electric drives. New developed high efficient electric drives can be implemented when considering many vehicle sub-systems. Combinations of continuous varying and discrete flow control devices offer thermal management opportunities across several vehicle attributes including fuel economy, drivability, performance, and cabin comfort. Often new technologies are integrated with legacy systems to deliver maximum value. Leveraging both electrical and mechanical actuators in some cases presents control challenges in optimizing energy management while delivering robust system operation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0603
Vicente Cuapio Espino, Akshay Bichkar, Joycer D. Osorio
Abstract Software development for automotive application requires several iterations in order to tune parameters and strategy logic to operate accordantly with optimal performance. Thus, in this paper we present an optimizer method and tool used to tune calibration parameters related to torque estimation for a hybrid automatic transmission application. This optimizer aims to minimize the time invested during the software calibration and software development phases that could take significant time in order to cover the different driving conditions under which a hybrid automatic transmission can operate. For this reason, an optimization function based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm using Matlab software helps to find optimized calibration values based on a cost function (square sum error minimization).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0073
Andreas Barthels, Christian Ress, Martin Wiecker, Manfred Müller
Abstract Vehicle to Vehicle Communication use case performance heavily relies on market penetration rate. The more vehicles support a use case, the better the customer experience. Enabling these use cases with acceptable quality on vehicles without built-in navigation systems, elaborate map matching and highly accurate sensors is challenging. This paper introduces a simulation framework to assess system performance in dependency of vehicle positioning accuracy for matching approach path traces in Decentralized Environmental Notification Messages (DENMs) in absence of navigation systems supporting map matching. DENMs are used for distributing information about hazards on the road network. A vehicle without navigation system and street map can only match its position trajectory with the trajectory carried in the DENM.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0077
Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao, David LeBlanc, Jun Li, Shaobo Qiu, Bin Liu
Abstract This paper provides an analysis of how communication performance between vehicles using Dedicated Short-range Communication (DSRC) devices varies by antenna mounting, vehicle relative positions and orientations, and between receiving devices. DSRC is a wireless technology developed especially for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. A frequency band near 5.9 GHz has been set aside in the US and other countries for exploring safety and other uses for road vehicles. DSRC devices installed onboard vehicles broadcast their location using global navigation space systems (GNSS), speed, heading, and other information. This can be used to study communication performance in many scenarios including: car-following situations, rear-end crash avoidance, oncoming traffic situations, left turn advisory, head-on crash avoidance and do-not-pass warnings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0865
Mark Walls, Michael Joo, Michael Ross
Abstract Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly known as autogas when used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. In North America, autogas primarily consists of propane, but can contain small amounts of butane, methane and propylene. Autogas is not a new fuel for internal combustion engines, but as engine technology evolves, the properties of autogas can be utilized to improve engine and vehicle efficiency. With support from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed testing to quantify efficiency differences with liquid autogas direct injection in a modern downsized and boosted direct-injected engine using the production gasoline fuel injection hardware. Engine dynamometer testing demonstrated that autogas produced similar performance characteristics to gasoline at part load, but could be used to improve brake thermal efficiency at loads above 9 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0906
Thomas L. Darlington, Gary A. Herwick, Dennis Kahlbaum, Dean Drake
Abstract The Environmental Protection Agency, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and California Air Resources Board released the joint mid-term Technical Assessment Review of the light-duty GHG standards in July of 2016. The review generally asserted that the GHG standards adopted in calendar year 2012 for 2022-2025 model year vehicles were feasible. Although many different technologies were evaluated, the review did not assess the benefits of high compression ratio engines enabled by a high-octane low carbon fuel. This study fills in the gap in the Technical Assessment Review by examining the impacts of a 98-research octane number gasoline-ethanol blend with 25 percent ethanol. We find that this fuel would enable higher compression ratios to improve tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions by about 6 percent on most engines.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0777
Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Jian Huang, Sandeep Munshi
Abstract Natural gas offers the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty on-road transportation. One of the challenges facing natural gas as a fuel is that its composition can vary significantly between different fuel suppliers and geographical regions. In this work, the impact of fuel composition variations on a heavy-duty, direct injection of natural gas engine with diesel pilot ignition is evaluated. This combustion process results in a predominantly non-premixed gaseous fuel combustion event; as a result, end-gas autoignition (knock) is not a concern. Changes in the fuel composition do still impact the combustion, both through the changes in the chemical kinetics of the reactions and due to changes in the density of the fuel. Increasing concentrations of heavier hydrocarbons, such as ethane or propane, in the fuel lead to higher fuel densities and hence greater fuel mass being injected for a given injection duration.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0119
Keith John Holmes
Abstract This paper provides a long-term view of the deployment of environmental technologies for light-duty vehicles in the United States and their implications for other vehicle attributes. It considers technologies for controlling tropospheric air pollutants, improving fuel economy, and reducing corollary greenhouse gas emissions. Since the introduction of the first controls to improve ambient air quality in the early 1960s, these technologies have gone from simple crankcase vapor recirculation and positive control valve systems and adjustments in carburetor air/fuel ratio and spark timing to systems that continuously control and monitor vehicle operations to optimize emissions reductions and fuel economy. Not only have these technologies produced major benefits for public health, the environment, and energy conservation, but they have also fundamentally altered the characteristics of the vehicles we drive today. And future regulations will reform the vehicle fleet even further.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0153
Dipankar Sahoo, Adam Kotrba, Tom Steiner, Greg Swift
Abstract Nearly a third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, there are multiple waste heat recovery technologies that are being investigated in the auto industry. One innovative waste heat recovery approach uses Thermoacoustic Converter (TAC) technology. Thermoacoustics is the field of physics related to the interaction of acoustic waves (sonic power) with heat flows. As in a heat engine, the TAC produces electric power where a temperature differential exists, which can be generated with engine exhaust (hot side) and coolant (cold side). Essentially, the TAC converts exhaust waste heat into electricity in two steps: 1) the exhaust waste heat is converted to acoustic energy (mechanical) and 2) the acoustic energy is converted to electrical energy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0533
Paul Dekraker, Mark Stuhldreher, Youngki Kim
Abstract The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been refined and revalidated using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. The robustness of EPA’s vehicle and engine testing for the MTE coupled with further validation of the ALPHA model has highlighted some areas where additional data can be used to add fidelity to the engine model within ALPHA.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0518
Sebastian Hann, Lukas Urban, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract Since 0D/1D-simulations of natural gas spark ignition engines use model theories similar to gasoline engines, the impact of changing fuel characteristics needs to be taken into consideration in order to obtain results of higher quality. For this goal, this paper proposes some approaches that consider the influence of binary fuel mixtures such as methane with up to 40 mol-% of ethane, propane, n-butane or hydrogen on laminar flame speed and knock behavior. To quantify these influences, reaction kinetics calculations are carried out in a wide range of the engine operation conditions. Obtained results are used to update and extend existing sub-models. The model quality is validated by comparing measured burn rates with simulation results. The benefit of the new sub-models are utilized by predicting the influence the fuel takes on engine operating limits in terms of knocking and lean misfire limits, the latter being determined by using a cycle-to-cycle variation model.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0523
Adam B. Dempsey, Scott B. Fiveland, Scott L. Post
Abstract This study focuses on the development of an autoignition model for diesel sprays that is applicable to phenomenological multi-zone combustion models. These models typically use a single-step Arrhenius expression to represent the low-temperature chemistry leading up to autoignition. There has been a substantial amount of work done in the area of n-heptane autoignition in homogeneous mixtures. Reduced kinetic mechanisms with ten reactions or less have been proposed in the literature to represent the complex low-temperature oxidation of n-heptane. These kinetic models are attractive for multi-zone simulations because of the low number of reactions involved. However, these kinetic mechanisms and the multi-zone treatment of the fuel spray do not account for the effect of turbulence/chemistry interactions on the chemical reaction rate.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0551
Alessandro D'Adamo, Sebastiano Breda, Salvatore Iaccarino, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi, Barbara Zardin, Massimo Borghi, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola
Abstract Engine knock is one of the most limiting factors for modern Spark-Ignition (SI) engines to achieve high efficiency targets. The stochastic nature of knock in SI units hinders the predictive capability of RANS knock models, which are based on ensemble averaged quantities. To this aim, a knock model grounded in statistics was recently developed in the RANS formalism. The model is able to infer a presumed log-normal distribution of knocking cycles from a single RANS simulation by means of transport equations for variances and turbulence-derived probability density functions (PDFs) for physical quantities. As a main advantage, the model is able to estimate the earliest knock severity experienced when moving the operating condition into the knocking regime.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0555
Salvatore Iaccarino, Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Adrian Irimescu, Simona Merola
Abstract The increasing limitations in engine emissions and fuel consumption have led researchers to the need to accurately predict combustion and related events in gasoline engines. In particular, knock is one of the most limiting factors for modern SI units, severely hindering thermal efficiency improvements. Modern CFD simulations are becoming an affordable instrument to support experimental practice from the early design to the detailed calibration stage. To this aim, combustion and knock models in RANS formalism provide good time-to-solution trade-off allowing to simulate mean flame front propagation and flame brush geometry, as well as “ensemble average” knock tendency in end-gases. Still, the level of confidence in the use of CFD tools strongly relies on the possibility to validate models and methodologies against experimental measurements.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0540
Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza, Luigi Teodosio, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract In this work, a promising technique, consisting of a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports, is investigated to overcome over-fueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized boosted engines, operating at high loads. In a first stage, experimental tests are carried out in a spark-ignition twin-cylinder turbocharged engine at a fixed rotational speed and medium-high loads. In particular, a spark timing and a water-to-fuel ratio sweep are both specified, to analyze the WI capability in increasing the knock-limited spark advance. In a second stage, the considered engine is schematized in a 1D framework. The model, developed in the GT-Power™ environment, includes user defined procedures for the description of combustion and knock phenomena. Computed results are compared with collected data for all the considered operating conditions, in terms of average performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles, burn rate profiles, and knock propensity, as well.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0610
Nicolo Cavina, Francesco Ranuzzi, Matteo De Cesare, Enrico Brugnoni
Abstract The most recent European regulations for two- and three-wheelers (Euro 5) are imposing an enhanced combustion control in motorcycle engines to respect tighter emission limits, and Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) closed-loop control has become a key function of the engine management system also for this type of applications. In a multi-cylinder engine, typically only one oxygen sensor is installed on each bank, so that the mean AFR of two or more cylinders rather than the single cylinder one is actually controlled. The installation of one sensor per cylinder is normally avoided due to cost, layout and reliability issues. In the last years, several studies were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of an individual AFR controller based on a single sensor. These solutions are based on the mathematical modelling of the engine air path dynamics, or on the frequency analysis of the lambda probe signal.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0584
Haksu Kim, Jaewook Shin, Myoungho Sunwoo
Abstract With fuel efficiency becoming an increasingly critical aspect of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, the necessity for research on efficient generation of electric energy has been growing. An energy management (EM) system controls the generation of electric energy using an alternator. This paper presents a strategy for the EM using a control mode switch (CMS) of the alternator for the (ICE) vehicles. This EM recovers the vehicle’s residual kinetic energy to improve the fuel efficiency. The residual kinetic energy occurs when a driver manipulates a vehicle to decelerate. The residual energy is commonly wasted as heat energy of the brake. In such circumstances, the wasted energy can be converted to electric energy by operating an alternator. This conversion can reduce additional fuel consumption. For extended application of the energy conversion, the future duration time of the residual power is exploited.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0641
Stephen J. Charlton, Charles E. Price, Jeff Rogers, James W.G. Turner, Roshan S. Wijetunge, William Anderson
Abstract The paper describes a completely new approach to fully variable valve actuation (FVVA), which allows almost unlimited continuously variable control of intake and exhaust valve opening and closing events, and duration without the use of a camshaft. DigitalAir replaces conventional poppet valves with horizontally actuated valves located directly above the combustion deck of the cylinder head, which open and close a number of slots connecting the cylinder with the intake and exhaust ports, Figure 1. The stroke of the valves to provide the full flow area is approximately 25% of the stroke of the equivalent poppet valve, thus allowing direct electrical actuation with very low power consumption. This design arrangement also avoids the risk of poppet valve to piston collision, or the need for cut-outs in the piston crown, since the valves do not open into the cylinder.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0662
David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg
Abstract Spark-ignition (SI) engine efficiency is typically limited by fuel auto-ignition resistance, which is described in practice by the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON). The goal of this work is to assess whether fuel properties (i.e. RON, MON, and heat of vaporization) are sufficient to describe the antiknock behavior of varying gasoline formulations in modern engines. To this end, the auto-ignition resistance of three compositionally dissimilar gasoline-like fuels with identical RON values and varying or non-varying MON values were evaluated in a modern, prototype, 12:1 compression ratio, high-swirl (by nature of intake valve deactivation), directly injected spark ignition (DISI) engine at 1400 RPM. The three gasolines are an alkylate blend (RON=98, MON=97), a blend with high aromatic content (RON=98, MON=88), and a blend of 30% ethanol by volume with a gasoline BOB (RON=98, MON=87; see Table 2 for details).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0647
Bradley Denton, Christopher Chadwell, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger
Abstract The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine has shown improved efficiency and emissions while minimizing the challenges of traditional cooled EGR. The concept combines the benefits of cooled EGR with additional improvements resulting from in-cylinder fuel reformation. The fuel reformation takes place in the dedicated cylinder, which is also responsible for producing the diluents for the engine (EGR). The D-EGR system does present its own set of challenges. Because only one out of four cylinders is providing all of the dilution and reformate for the engine, there are three “missing” EGR pulses and problems with EGR distribution to all 4 cylinders exist. In testing, distribution problems were realized which led to poor engine operation. To address these spatial and temporal mixing challenges, a distribution mixer was developed and tested which improved cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variation of EGR rate through improved EGR distribution.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0648
Dennis Robertson, Christopher Chadwell, Terrence Alger, Jacob Zuehl, Raphael Gukelberger, Bradley Denton, Ian Smith
Abstract Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) is an EGR strategy that uses in-cylinder reformation to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. The entire exhaust of a sub-group of power cylinders (dedicated cylinders) is routed directly into the intake. These cylinders are run fuel-rich, producing H2 and CO (reformate), with the potential to improve combustion stability, knock tolerance and burn duration. A 2.0 L turbocharged D-EGR engine was packaged into a 2012 Buick Regal and evaluated on drive cycle performance. City and highway fuel consumption were reduced by 13% and 9%, respectively. NOx + NMOG were 31 mg/mile, well below the Tier 2 Bin 5 limit and just outside the Tier 3 Bin 30 limit (30 mg/mile).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0711
Daniel Klein, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1005
Yizhou Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, David Rothamer
Abstract The effect of direct-injected fuel on particle size distributions (PSDs) of particulate matter emitted from dual-fuel combustion strategies was investigated. The PSD data were acquired from a light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine operated using conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and two diesel/natural gas dual-fuel combustion strategies. Three different direct-injection (DI) fuels (diesel, 2,6,10-trimethyldodecane, and a primary reference fuel blend) and two different injector nozzles were studied. The DI fuels were chosen to have similar energy and ignition characteristics (heat of combustion and cetane number) but different physical and chemical properties (volatility, aromatics %, viscosity, density). The two nozzles (with different orifice diameter and spray angle) allowed a wide range in DI fuel quantity for the dual-fuel combustion strategies.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1082
Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Thomas Sanders, Mikhail A. Ejakov, Reda Adimi, Alexander Boucke, Jochen Lang, Gunter Knoll
Abstract Strict requirements for fuel economy and emissions are the main drivers for recent automotive engine downsizing and an increase of boosting technologies. For high power density engines, among other design challenges, valve and guide interactions are very important. Undesirable contact interactions may lead to poor fuel economy, engine noise, valve stem to valve guide seizure, and in a severe case, engine failure. In this paper, the valve stem and valve guide contact behavior is investigated using computational models for the camshaft drive in push and pull directions under several misalignment conditions for an engine with roller finger follower (RFF) valvetrain and overhead cam configuration. An engine assembly analysis with the appropriate assembly and thermal boundary conditions are first carried out using the finite element solver ABAQUS.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1092
Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong, Jonathan Sullivan, Guopeng Hu, Edward Dai, Dennis Reed, Ryan Baker
Abstract This paper proposes an approach that uses the road preview data to optimize a shift schedule for a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission. The road preview is inferred here from the so-called electronic horizon of a digital map that includes road attributes such as road grade, curvature, segment speed limit, functional class, etc. The optimized shift schedule selects the gear ratio whose optimization is conducted through applying a hybrid model predictive control method to the powertrain system, which is modelled as the multiple plants associated with multiple gears together with engine models. The goal of this optimization of shift schedule includes improving real world fuel economy and drivability. The real-world fuel economy gains using the proposed approach are achieved through optimizing gear ratio w.r.t. the road grade variations of the road ahead.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0464
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract Friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for large amount of the friction losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Therefore, any effort to minimize such a friction will also result in higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is considered as a hard ceramic coating which can provide a dimpled surface for oil retention to bear the wear and reduce the friction from sliding piston rings. In this work, a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to generate the boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Five different lubricating oils and two different loads were applied to do the tribotests and the COFs of a PEO coating were studied. The results show that the PEO coating indeed had a lower COF in a lower viscosity lubricating oil, and a smaller load was beneficial to form the mixed and hydrodynamic lubricating regimes earlier.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0133
Bin Xu, Adamu Yebi, Simona Onori, Zoran Filipi, Xiaobing Liu, John Shutty, Paul Anschel, Mark Hoffman
Abstract This paper presents the transient power optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) system operating on a heavy-duty diesel (HDD). The optimization process is carried on an experimentally validated, physics-based, high fidelity ORC-WHR model, which consists of parallel tail pipe and EGR evaporators, a high pressure working fluid pump, a turbine expander, etc. Three different ORC-WHR mixed vapor temperature (MVT) operational strategies are evaluated to optimize the ORC system net power: (i) constant MVT; (ii) constant superheat temperature; (iii) fuzzy logic superheat temperature based on waste power level. Transient engine conditions are considered in the optimization. Optimization results reveal that adaptation of the vapor temperature setpoint based on evaporation pressure strategy (ii) provides 1.1% mean net power (MNP) improvement relative to a fixed setpoint strategy (i).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1179
Tatsuya Arai, Ozaki Takashi, Kazuki Amemiya, Tsuyoshi Takahashi
Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) systems for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) require both performance and durability. Carbon is the typical support material used for PEFC catalysts. However, hydrogen starvation at the anode causes high electrode potential states (e.g., 1.3 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode) that result in severe carbon support corrosion. Serious damage to the carbon support due to hydrogen starvation can lead to irreversible performance loss in PEFC systems. To avoid such high electrode potentials, FCV PEFC systems often utilize cell voltage monitor systems (CVMs) that are expensive to use and install. Simplifying PEFC systems by removing these CVMs would help reduce costs, which is a vital part of popularizing FCVs. However, one precondition for removing CVMs is the adoption of a durable support material to replace carbon.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1184
Kiyoshi Handa, Shigehiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Minowa, Steven Mathison
Abstract A new hydrogen fueling protocol named MC Formula Moto was developed for fuel cell motorcycles (FCM) with a smaller hydrogen storage capacity than those of light duty FC vehicles (FCV) currently covered in the SAE J2601 standard (over than 2kg storage). Building on the MC Formula based protocol from the 2016 SAE J2601 standard, numerous new techniques were developed and tested to accommodate the smaller storage capacity: an initial pressure estimation using the connection pulse, a fueling time counter which begins the main fueling time prior to the connection pulse, a pressure ramp rate fallback control, and other techniques. The MC Formula Moto fueling protocol has the potential to be implemented at current hydrogen stations intended for fueling of FCVs using protocols such as SAE J2601. This will allow FCMs to use the existing and rapidly growing hydrogen infrastructure, precluding the need for exclusive dispensers or stations.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 16433