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Viewing 151 to 180 of 16604
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0097
Epaminondas Mastorakos, Patton Allison, Andrea Giusti, Pedro De Oliveira, Sotiris Benekos, Yuri Wright, Christos Frouzakis, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0099
Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows knock tendency reduction in spark-ignition engines mainly due to the cooling effect of the in-cylinder fuel evaporation. However, the charge formation and thus the injection timing and strategies deeply affect the flame propagation and consequently the knock occurrence probability and intensity. In particular, split injection allows a reduction of knock intensity by inducing different AFR gradient and turbulent energy distribution. Present work investigates the tendency to knock of a GDI engine at 1500 rpm full load under different injection strategies, single and double injections, obtained delivering the same amount of gasoline in two equal parts, the first during intake, the second during compression stroke. In these conditions, conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine endowed of optical accesses to the combustion chamber.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0169
Robert E. Morgan, Neville Jackson, Andrew Atkins, Guangyu dong, Morgan Heikal, Christopher lenartowicz
Abstract The conventional Diesel cycles engine is now approaching the practical limits of efficiency. The recuperated split cycle engine is an alternative cycle with the potential to achieve higher efficiencies than could be achieved using a conventional engine cycle. In a split cycle engine, the compression and combustion strokes are performed in separate chambers. This enables direct cooling of the compression cylinder reducing compression work, intra cycle heat recovery and low heat rejection expansion. Previously reported analysis has shown that brake efficiencies approaching 60% are attainable, representing a 33% improvement over current advanced heavy duty diesel engine. However, the achievement of complete, stable, compression ignited combustion has remained elusive to date.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0001
Alexander Fandakov, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende, Andre Casal Kulzer
Abstract The most significant operation limit prohibiting the further reduction of the CO2 emissions of gasoline engines is the occurrence of knock. Thus, being able to predict the incidence of this phenomenon is of vital importance for the engine process simulation - a tool widely used in the engine development. Common knock models in the 0D/1D simulation are based on the calculation of a pre-reaction state of the unburnt mixture (also called knock integral), which is a simplified approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions in the end gas where knock occurs. Simulations of thousands of knocking single working cycles with a model representing the Entrainment model’s unburnt zone were performed using a detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The investigations showed that, at specific boundary conditions, the auto-ignition of the unburnt mixture resulting in knock happens in two stages.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0043
Thomas Kammermann, Jann Koch, Yuri M. Wright, Patrik Soltic, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Abstract The interaction of turbulent premixed methane combustion with the surrounding flow field can be studied using optically accessible test rigs such as a rapid compression expansion machine (RCEM). The high flexibility offered by such a test rig allows its operation at various thermochemical conditions at ignition. However, limitations inherent to such test rigs due to the absence of an intake stroke do not allow turbulence production as found in IC-engines. Hence, means to introduce turbulence need to be implemented and the relevant turbulence quantities have to be identified in order to enable comparability with engine relevant conditions. A dedicated high-pressure direct injection of air at the beginning of the compression phase is considered as a measure to generate adjustable turbulence intensities at spark timing and during the early flame propagation.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0014
Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Pietro Giannattasio, Luigi Teodosio, Luca Marchitto
Abstract The technique of liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake port of downsized boosted SI engines is a promising solution to improve the knock resistance at high loads. In this work, an existing 1D engine model has been extended to improve its ability to simulate the effects of the water injection on the flame propagation speed and knock onset. The new features of the 1D model include an improved treatment of the heat subtracted by the water evaporation, a newly developed correlation for the laminar flame speed, explicitly considering the amount of water in the unburned mixture, and a more detailed kinetic mechanism to predict the auto-ignition characteristics of fuel/air/water mixture. The extended 1D model is validated against experimental data collected at different engine speeds and loads, including knock-limited operation, for a twin-cylinder turbocharged SI engine.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0118
Marius Zubel, Stefan Pischinger, Benedikt Heuser
Abstract Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9002
Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah, Stephen Morse, James Goddin, Gary Moore, Kevin M Morris, Jayne Rogers, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Andrew Clifton, Jacquetta Lee
Abstract Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products.
2017-08-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9378
Eric Kurtz, Christopher J. Polonowski
Abstract The design of modern diesel-powered vehicles involves optimization and balancing of trade-offs for fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise. To meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, diesel powertrains employ aftertreatment devices to control nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter emissions and use active exhaust warm-up strategies to ensure those devices are active as quickly as possible. A typical strategy for exhaust warm-up is to operate with retarded combustion phasing, limited by combustion stability and HC emissions. The amount of exhaust enthalpy available for catalyst light-off is limited by the extent to which combustion phasing can be retarded. Diesel cetane number (CN), a measure of fuel ignition quality, has an influence on combustion stability at retarded combustion phasing. Diesel fuel in the United States tends to have a lower CN (both minimum required and average in market) than other countries.
2017-08-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9377
Senthil Ramalingam, Silambarasan Rajendran
Abstract Biodiesel as an alternative diesel fuel prepared from vegetable oils or animal fats has attracted more and more attention because of its renewable and environmental friendly nature. Many recent studies shows that 20% proportion of biodiesel-diesel blend (B20) can substantially reduce the hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke emissions. However, there is a slight increase in NOx emission for B20 than that of diesel and it was a barrier to market expansion. The addition of antioxidant additives was the most effective method to mitigate the NOx emission. Hence, in this paper experimental investigation has been carried out to mitigate the NOx emission in Annona biodiesel (A20) operated diesel by addition of antioxidant additives. The antioxidant additives such as p-phenylenediamine, A-tocopherol acetate and L-ascorbic acid were used in the present investigation. In recent years Annona biodiesel has been considered as potential novel renewable energy source in India.
2017-08-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9379
John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West, Paul Chambon
Abstract Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1934
Anil Thakur, Md Tauseef Alam, Venkatesh Kumar PS, P D Kulkarni, Senthur Pandian
Abstract Current high rating thermal loaded engines must have super-efficient lubrication system to provide clean oil at appropriate pressure and appropriate lube oil temperature to every part of the engine at all engine RPM speeds and loads. So oil pump not only have to satisfy above parameters but also it should be durable till engine life. Gerotor pumps are internal rotary positive-displacement pumps in which the outer rotor has one tooth more than the inner rotor. The gear profiles have a cycloidal shape. Both are meshed in conjugate to each other. Gerotor takes up engine power through crankshaft and deliver to various engine consumers at required pressure and required time. Over the complete engine rpm speed and loads range, oil pump need to perform efficiently to provide proper functioning of the engine.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1954
Premkumarr Santhanamm, K. Sreejith, Avinash Anandan
A local and global environmental concern regarding automotive emissions has led to optimize the design and development of Power train systems for IC engines. Blow-by and Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modern IC engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption and blow-by on in-cylinder engine emissions. This paper describes a case study of how simulation played a supportive role in improving piston ringpak assembly. The engine taken up for study is a six cylinder, turbocharged, water cooled diesel engine with a peak firing pressure of 140 bar and developing a power output of 227 KW at 1500 rpm. This paper reveals the influence of stepped land, top groove angle, ring face profile, twist features with regard to tweaking of Blow-by & LOC. Relevant design inputs of engine parameters were provided by the customer to firm up the boundary conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1957
Anant Parashar, Thangaraja Jeyaseelan
Oxygenated fuels like biodiesel and ethanol possess prominent characteristics as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, these fuels are corrosive in nature and hygroscopic. This might results in material incompatibility with the fuel supply system of an automobile. The filter consists of a filter membrane that that traps the contaminants from the fuel and prevents them from entering into the combustion chamber. The operational hours of the filter membrane depend on the quality of fuel employed. The conventional filter is designed for fossil diesel operation and hence the filter life might degrade earlier in the case of oxygenated fuels like biodiesel or ethanol. The proposed work focuses on the impact of oxygenated fuels, viz. karanja and ethanol blended karanja biodiesel on the filter membrane and its flow characteristics. Two tests, pressure difference and contaminant retention test are carried out in accordance with Japanese standard D1617:1998.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1958
Jyothivel Giridharan, Gokul Kumar
Bio-fuels potentially represent a more environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels as they produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions when burned. Ethanol is one such bio-fuel alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. Towards the initiative of sustainable transportation using alternative fuels, it is attempted to develop an ethanol powered engine for commercial vehicles and this paper attempts to explain the 1D thermodynamic simulation carried out for predicting the engine performance and combustion characteristics, as a part of the engine development program. Engine simulation is becoming an increasingly important engineering tool for reducing the development cost and time and also helps in carrying out various DOE iterations which are rather difficult to be conducted experimentally in any internal combustion engine development program. AVL Boost software is used for modeling and simulation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1964
Rajaganesh Ramamoorthy, T. Venkatesan, R. Rajendran
Abstract Machining of materials has received significant consideration due to the increasing use of machining processes in various industrial applications. In machining, the heat generated in the cutting zone during machining is critical in deciding the work piece quality. Lubricants are widely used to reduce the heat generation. Their usage poses threat to environment and health hazards. Hence, there is a need to identify eco-friendly and user-friendly alternatives to conventional cutting fluids. Modern tribology has facilitated the use of solid lubricants such as graphite, calcium fluoride, molybdenum disulphide, and boric acid as an alternative to cutting fluids in machining. Solid lubricant assisted machining is an environmental friendly clean technology for improving the surface quality of the machined work piece.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1963
Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, S Srihari
Abstract In recent times control of emissions has been the major issue resulting strict emission norms. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction is a major concern over the years and diesel engine has big hand when compared to gasoline. Several promising techniques have been developed, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is one of the effective ways to trim down the NOx emissions by keeping thermal efficiency identical to diesel engine. However, this concept lags in controlling CO and HC emissions. Methanol fuel blends are chosen as it significantly improves the combustion quality. Oxygen content in methanol drags attention as it can compensate HC and CO emissions caused by HCCI mode of combustion. In this work conventional diesel engine is converted into HCCI engine by mounting diesel vaporizer at inlet manifold to attain homogenous mixture. An experimental investigations have been carried out to analyse performance and emission characteristics using different methanol blends.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1975
ANIL P M, K Nantha Gopal, B. Ashok
Abstract The present research deals with study of pongamia oil methyl ester as a lubricant by blending with anti-wear additive ZDDP. The experimental work carried in this work aims to investigates the friction and wear characteristics by blending zinc diakyldithio phosphates (ZDDP) with pongamia oil methyl ester as lubricant under various loading conditions and temperatures. The coefficient of friction and wear scar depth were determined using pongamia biodiesel blended with 0.3%, 0.6% and 1 % ZDDP by concentration through high frequency reciprocating wear testing machine for 2 h duration. The reciprocating wear tests were performed on an engine liner-piston ring contact under the loads of 40 N, 60 N and 80 N for 2 h duration at temperatures of 100°C, 125°C 150° C with 10 Hz oscillation frequency. The addition of ZDDP with pongamia biodiesel showed marginal reduction in friction coefficient and wear scar depth under all loads and temperatures.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1921
Jyotirmoy Barman
Abstract Engine down speeding is rapidly picking up momentum in many segment of world market. Numerous engine down speeding packages from OEM have been tailored to take advantage of the increased efficiencies associated with engine down speeding. Running engine at lower rpm has numerous advantages. The most obvious of these is reduced fuel consumption, since the engine can spend more time running within its optimum efficiency range. By down speeding, the engine is made to run at low speeds and with high torques. For the same power, the engine is operated at higher specific load- Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP) which results in higher efficiency and reduced fuel consumption-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The reasons for increased fuel efficiency are reduced engine friction due to low piston speeds, reduced relative heat transfer and increased thermodynamic efficiency.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9280
Marco Braun, Johannes Palmer, Timo van Overbrueggen, Michael Klaas, Reinhold Kneer, Wolfgang Schroeder
Abstract The influence of in-cylinder flow on the propagation of 2-Butanone and Ethanol sprays is studied. To solely evaluate the interaction of air flow and fuel, high-speed Mie-Scattering Imaging of hollow cone sprays is conducted both in a single-cylinder optical engine with tumble movement and in a pressure vessel with negligible air flow. The direct comparison reveals an improved spray propagation of 2-Butanone due to the engine’s air flow. The lower viscosity of 2-Butanone causes an enhanced jet breakup compared to Ethanol such that the spray consists of more and smaller droplets. Small droplets possess a lower momentum, which allows the droplets to be more efficiently transported by the air flow. Consequently, the fuel distribution across the cylinder is enhanced. As the liquid fuel is distributed to a larger volume, improved convection accelerates evaporation.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9279
Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
Abstract The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the on-road transportation, both for passengers and freight. CO2 reduction is the present technological driver, considering the major worldwide greenhouse reduction targets committed by most governments in the western world. In the near future (2020) these targets will require a significant reduction with respect to today’s goals, reinforcing the importance of reducing fuel consumption. In ICEs more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected into the environment as thermal waste through exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved if this energy is recovered and converted into useful mechanical or electrical power on board. For long haul vehicles, which run for hundreds of thousands of miles per year at relatively steady conditions, this recovery appears especially worthy of attention.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9376
Alexander Weinebeck, Olivier Reinertz, Hubertus Murrenhoff
Abstract The cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at RWTH Aachen University seeks to identify and investigate new potential biofuels and their production routes. To ensure a safe handling in common-rail systems the lubricity of future biofuels is part of the investigations. To further deepen the understanding of the behaviour of such fluids in the regime of boundary lubrication a group of twelve potential biofuels and systematically derived fluids was investigated by a modified version of the standardised High Frequency Reciprocating Rig test procedure for Diesel lubricity. Insufficient lubricity is observed for most biofuels whereas linear molecules with polar head groups provide good or very good lubrication. For all studied groups longer molecules provide better lubricities. The position of the functional group significantly influences the overall lubricity and impact of the carbon chain length.
2017-06-27
Journal Article
2017-01-9179
Mike Liebers, Dzmitry Tretsiak, Sebastian Klement, Bernard Bäker, Peter Wiemann
Abstract A vital contribution for the development of an environmental friendly society is improved energy efficiency in public transport systems. Increased electrification of these systems is essential to achieve the high objectives stated. Since the operating range of an electrical vehicle is heavily influenced of the available energy, which primarily is used for propulsion and thermal passenger comfort, all heat losses in the vehicle systems must be minimized. Especially for urban buses, the unwanted heat losses through open doors while passengers are boarding, have to be controlled. These energy fluxes are due to the large temperature gradients generated between in- and outdoor conditions and to install air-walls in the door opening areas have turned out to be a promising technical solution. Based on air-wall technologies used for climate control in buildings, this paper presents an experimental investigation on the reduction of heat losses in the door opening of urban buses.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1801
Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Aditya Palsule, Ekambaram Loganathan, Nagasuresh Inavolu, Jaganmohan Rao Medisetti
Abstract Powertrain is the major source of noise and vibration in commercial vehicles and has significant contribution on both interior and exterior noise levels. It is vital to reduce the radiated noise from powertrain to meet customer expectations of vehicle comfort and to abide by the legislative noise requirements. Sound intensity mapping technique can identify the critical components of noise radiation from the powertrain. Sound intensity mapping has revealed that oil sump as one of the major contributors for radiated noise from powertrain. Accounting the effect of dynamic coupling of oil on the sump is crucial in predicting its noise radiation performance. Through numerical methods, some amount of work done in predicting the dynamic characteristics of structures filled with fluid.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9375
Lukas Moeltner, Lucas Konstantinoff, Verena Schallhart
Abstract The increasingly stringent emission legislation worldwide and the demand for independence from fossil energy carriers represent major challenges for the future development of diesel engines, particularly for maintaining the diesel engine’s positive characteristics, such as its dynamic driving performance and fuel economy, while drastically reducing emissions. This survey investigates alternative fuel blends used in a state-of-the-art EURO 6 diesel engine with different shares of biomass to liquid, hydrotreated vegetable oils and fatty acid methyl ester, which present a possibility to meet these requirements. In particular, the reduction of particulate matter and, as a result, the possibility to reduce nitrogen oxides emissions holds remarkable potential for the application of synthetic fuels in diesel engines. The investigated fuel blends generally demonstrate good applicability when used in the test engine with standard settings.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1928
David Mumford, Dale Goudie, James Saunders
Globally, many jurisdictions are working toward greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles that will take effect in the next decade and require GHG reductions of up to 25% from 2017 legislated levels. While diesel engines will require increasingly complex improvements, high pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas can provide GHG reductions of approximately 20% (75% or more with renewable natural gas / bio-methane) while preserving the same power density, torque and performance as diesel. This paper will provide an overview of the improvements in the Westport™ HPDI 2.0 components as well as performance and emissions results demonstrated to-date. The potential and challenges of higher injection pressures will be explored while also investigating sources of and methods to eliminate methane venting on the vehicle.
2017-04-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-5000
Alexander Koder, Florian Zacherl, Hans-Peter Rabl, Wolfgang Mayer, Georg Gruber, Thomas Dotzer
Abstract An effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) is to use rurally produced straight jatropha oil as a substitute for diesel fuel. However, the different physical and chemical properties of straight vegetable oils (SVOs) require a customized setup of the combustion engine, particularly of the injection timing and quantity. Therefore, this study demonstrates the differences in the injection and combustion processes of jatropha oil compared to diesel fuel, particularly in terms of its compatibility with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A 2.2 l common-rail diesel engine with a two-stage turbocharging concept was used for testing. To examine the differences in injection rate shaping of diesel fuel and jatropha oil, the injector was tested with an injection rate analyzer using both the fuels. To investigate the combustion process, the engine was mounted at an engine test bench and equipped with a cylinder pressure indication system.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9178
Arash E. Risseh, Hans-Peter Nee, Olof Erlandsson, Klas Brinkfeldt, Arnaud Contet, Fabian Frobenius lng, Gerd Gaiser, Ali Saramat, Thomas Skare, Simon Nee, Jan Dellrud
The European Union’s 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy that converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 16604