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Viewing 16591 to 16620 of 16633
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220005
C A NORMAN
After pointing out that although kerosene costs less than gasoline at the present time and is a cheaper fuel for the farmer to use, the author states that if the industry continues to construct tractors designed to use kerosene as fuel it will not be long before the cost of it is the same as that of gasoline. He argues that automotive engines should be designed to run on any liquid fuel and gives figures on the available supply of petroleum products and distillates in the world at the present time. The requirements laid down by the Government for gasoline are mentioned and it is stated that it is not possible for the oil industry to supply generally to the trade a gasoline meeting the recently adopted Government specifications which the author considers are very lenient.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220036
P S TICE
The author gives a brief and purely qualitative treatment of what a vapor is, where it comes from and how it appears; the necessity of vaporizing a liquid fuel before attempting to burn it; the separate effects of the conditions that control vaporization; and the heat-balance of vaporization. This is done to summarize the conditions surrounding and controlling fuel vaporization in the cycle of operation of a throttle-controlled internal-combustion engine, fitted with an intake-manifold and a carbureter. Charts and photographs are included and commented upon, descriptions being given of actual demonstrations that were made at the time the paper was presented. The conclusion is reached that it is well to depend as little as possible upon the cylinder heat and temperature to complete the vaporization of the fuel.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220033
THOMAS MIDGLEY, T A BOYD
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220039
George A Round
Oil-pumping is defined and its results are mentioned. The influence of various operating conditions is brought out, particular reference being made to passenger-car service. The factors that control the rate of oil consumption are described in detail and some unusual conditions are reported. Various features of piston grooving and piston-ring design are mentioned and the effect of changes illustrated. The relative advantages of the splash and the force-feed systems as affecting the development of oil-pumping troubles are set forth and improvements suggested. A new device for reducing oil-pumping dilution troubles is described and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220034
F C MOCK, M E CHANDLER
The development of intake-manifolds in the past has been confined mainly to modifications of constructional details. Believing that the increased use of automotive equipment will lead to a demand for fuel that will result in the higher cost and lower quality of the fuel, and being convinced that the sole requirement of satisfactory operation with kerosene and mixtures of the heavier oils with alcohol and benzol is the proper preparation of the fuel in the manifold, the authors have investigated the various methods of heat application in the endeavor to produce the minimum temperature necessary for a dry mixture. Finding that this minimum temperature varied with the method of application of the heat, an analysis was made of the available methods on a functional rather than a structural basis.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220037
C T COLEMAN
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210011
FRANK A HOWARD
After stating that the meaning of the term “gasoline” seems to be generally misunderstood for the reason that it has been assumed that gasoline is, or ought to be, the name of a specific product, the author states that it is not and never has been a specific product and that although gasoline has a definite and generic meaning in the oil trade it has no specific meaning whatever. It means merely a light distillate from crude petroleum. Its degree of lightness, from what petroleum it is distilled and how it is distilled or refined are unspecified. Specifically, “gasoline” is the particular grade of gasoline which at a given moment is distributed in bulk at retail. It can be defined with reasonable precision as being the cheapest petroleum product acceptable for universal use as a fuel in the prevailing type of internal-combustion engine.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210026
C A WOODBURY, H A LEWIS, A T CANBY
The nature of flame propagation in an automobile engine cylinder has, for some time, been the subject of much discussion and speculation. However, very little experimental work has been done on flame movement in closed cylinders with a view to applying the knowledge directly to the internal-combustion engine. It has become recognized that knocking is one great difficulty which attends the use of the higher-boiling paraffin hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, and that knocking is one of the major difficulties to be overcome in designing higher-compression and hence more efficient engines. It was desirable, therefore, to determine, if possible, the nature and cause of the so-called fuel knock in an internal-combustion engine. The work described in this paper was undertaken to determine the characteristic flame movement of these various fuels and the physical and chemical properties which influence this flame propagation.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210046
G P DORRIS
About 1917 the heavy ends of the fuel sold as gasoline required such an amount of heat to vaporize them that the expression “crankcase dilution” appeared; now they have increased to a maximum boiling-point of 446 deg. fahr., which has made it necessary to go still farther in the direction of heat application. After a brief consideration of the relative heat-absorption of air and fuel and the time factor in its relation to vaporizing, the author describes experiments with a specially designed manifold for increased vaporization efficiency and presents photographs of the device. With this type of manifold it has been possible to eliminate crankcase oil dilution completely and effect a reduction in carbonization. The lubrication efficiency has been improved, as well as other features that are enumerated.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210016
A L NELSON
The author states preliminarily that it is believed that never before in the history of the Society of Automotive Engineers has a single problem been so universally studied as the fuel problem that is confronting the industry today. It is also believed that never before has the industry had a problem which includes such a wide scope of work. The solution calls for the service of every class of engineer, inventor and scientist. The paper does not attempt to give highly scientific information; its real purpose is to appeal for a broader viewpoint and to give illustrations and tests which show that the solution of a problem may lie in an entirely different method than that which often becomes stereotyped by sheer usage, rather than by its specific merit. In the solution of the fuel problem we undoubtedly will have to change some of our old habits, replacing them by studiously worked out viewpoints.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200078
JOHN A SECOR
Kerosene has advanced to the front rank as a fuel for the farm tractor within a decade. A heavily preponderating majority of tractors burn kerosene. The history of early oil engines is reviewed and some comparative costs of kerosene and gasoline fuel for tractors, obtained from tests made in January, 1920, are given. Kerosene tractor-engine development is then discussed. The conditions required for complete combustion are the same in principle for both kerosene and gasoline, but in actual practice a wider latitude in providing ideal conditions is permissible for gasoline than for kerosene. The four classes of commercial liquid fuels usable in internal-combustion engines are the alcohols, the gasolines, the common kerosenes and the low-cost heavy-oil fuels. The alcohols rank lowest in heating value per pound of combustible. Under existing economic conditions neither alcohol nor the fuel oils require consideration as available fuels for the tractor.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200017
J G VINCENT
Some of the salient facts regarding the character of the engine fuel marketed within the past few years are shown in accompanying curves. The desirability of operating present-day experimental cars with fuel that is the equivalent of fuel that will probably be generally marketed two years hence is stated and various methods of meeting the fuel problem are then examined. A dry fuel mixture is desired to prevent spark-plug fouling, to improve engine performance in cold weather and to minimize lubricating oil contamination by fuel which passes the pistons. Various methods of obtaining a dry mixture are then discussed, leading to a detailed description of the construction and operation of a device specially designed to accomplish such a result more successfully.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200019
WILLIAM C DAVIDS
The comments the author makes regarding fuels, lubricants and engine and piston performance are suggested by pertinent points appearing in papers presented at the 1920 Annual Meeting of the Society. A list of these papers is given. The subjects upon which comments are made include salability of a car, engine balancing, pressure and chemical constitution of gasoline at the instant of ignition, the use of aluminum pistons, the success attending the various departures from orthodox construction, gasoline deposition in the crankcase and cleanness of design, as stated by Mr. Pomeroy; the performance of a finely atomized mixture of liquid gasoline and air and the contamination of lubricating oil by the fuel which passes the pistons, as discussed by Mr. Vincent; the dilution of lubricating oil in engine crankcases and the saving that can be effected by its prevention, as mentioned by Mr. Kramer; and tight-fitting pistons and special rings as presented by Mr. Gunn.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200008
GUSTAVE A KRAMER
Engine lubrication troubles resulting from the dilution of the lubricating oil in engine crankcases appear with increasing frequency, particularly where economy demands the use of cheap grades of fuel. Unless a lubricant not miscible with present engine fuels can be produced, lubricants will steadily decrease in viscosity whenever fuel finds its way into them. The most satisfactory remedy is to prevent dilution of the oil. To prevent absorption of the fuel by the oil is a problem of engine design. In experiments made by the Bureau of Standards the absorption of fuel vapors at average engine temperatures was found to be negligible; further experiments and oil tests showed no indication of dilution due to cracking, with representative refiners' products from typical crude oils available in this country.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200012
JOSEPH E POGUE
The progressive decrease in the volatility of gasoline due to the insufficiency of the high-volatility supply has developed a problem of efficient utilization of internal-combustion-engine fuel that requires coordination between the engine and its fuel and a technical as well as economic adjustment between supply and demand. The three channels through which this adjustment tends toward accomplishment are stated and commented upon, consideration then passing to the three main resources from which the components of composite fuels can be drawn.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200058
C A NORMAN
Design factors are considered from the thermodynamic standpoint only, which excludes several factors affecting power and economy. The problem of air heating includes a consideration of its influence on pressure, the consequent lowering of pressure being counteracted to some extent by the resulting improvements in carburetion and distribution and by more rapid and complete combustion; the effects of delayed combustion, with a study of the thermodynamic conditions and possible improvements; and the results that are actually obtainable from lean and rich fuel mixtures. Fuel economy is difficult because its factors conflict with those of power. The benefit of the expansion of any elastic working medium to economy is emphasized. Charts from previous papers, showing the ratio of air to fuel by weight, are referred to and discussed, best economy being obtained with mixtures leaner than those giving maximum power.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200049
H M CRANE
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190035
E W DEAN, J P SMOOTZ
BUREAU of Mines refinery statistics for the calendar year 1918 show a production of different types of petroleum fuel products represented by the following approximate figures: Added to this are 3,100,000,000 gal. of crude oil, used as fuel without refining. The statistics do not distinguish the different classes of fuel oils, and the following provisional estimate has been made: Processing or refining costs for the different oils are difficult to estimate and of little significance in determining the selling price, which is controlled by the law of supply and demand. All types in the last list can be used in so-called heavy-oil engines, but the gas oil and light residuum are most desirable in the order given. They are less plentiful than the heavy-residuum type which generally cannot be used without special equipment for preheating. The proportionate yield of gas oil can be increased if a sufficient demand is developed.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190012
E W DEAN
THE production of gasoline in this country could be increased through the following changes in refinery practice: (1) Universal adoption of a high “end-point,” or upper volatility limit for gasoline (2) General use of more efficient distillation methods and equipment (3) Recovery of gasoline now lost in refinery operation (4) Wider use of cracking processes Other possible methods of increase are not considered of sufficient importance to merit discussion in this connection. Some of the details of the four methods of increase are discussed and it is estimated on the basis of the evidence now at hand that the maximum percentage increases in production under the four heads listed are as follows: (1) 15 to 20 per cent; (2) 10 per cent; (3) 10 per cent, and (4) 100 per cent.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190013
JOSEPH E POGUE
THE automotive industry is developing without due regard to the fuel situation. This situation is an integral part of the automotive field and should not be left out of account. Owing to the pressure of automotive demand, the supply of engine fuel is changing in character and price, with danger of precipitant alterations; there arises in consequence a fuel problem which cannot be adequately solved without the active participation of the automotive industry.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190045
JOSEPH E POGUE
The engine-fuel situation has changed almost overnight. Oil-consuming activities have taken on an accelerated expansion and the situation has shifted from excess supply to a position where demand is assuming the lead and is seeking a supply. A gasoline stringency, accompanied presumably by a marked rise in price, is a prospect to be anticipated. The production of gasoline is increasing more rapidly than the production of its raw material, crude petroleum. The available supply of the latter is very limited in view of the size of the demand. As a direct result of the situation, gasoline is changing in character and becoming progressively less volatile. The low thermal efficiency of the prevailing type of automotive apparatus contributes strongly to the demand for gasoline as engine fuel and has a bearing upon the quantity and the price of this specialized fuel.
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180007
E W DEAN
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180043
E B BLAKELY
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180027
W G CLARK
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180028
J L MOWRY
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180030
C W STRATFORD
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180035
C E Sargent
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180037
C W STRATFORD
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170021
F. C. MOCK
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170047
W. P. DEPPÉ
The author first compares mineral oils with certain other liquids in order to point out clearly certain of their characteristics. He then shows the economic benefits that would result from making more of the crude available for use as fuels. He discusses such topics as cracking methods in use, advantages of dry gas, initial flame propagation, gas producers, hot mixtures, wet mixtures and difficulties of correcting existing engines. He concludes by proposing as a solution of the gasoline problem the more general use of superheated homogeneous fixed dry gases made in vaporizing devices independent of engine cylinders, and outlines means for attaining this end. Performance data covering the use of mixtures of kerosene and gasoline on several cars are included in a table, and several charts throughout the paper illustrate many of the topics discussed.
Viewing 16591 to 16620 of 16633