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1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270030
D. C. Ritchie
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270009
S. A. MCKEE
A STUDY of the performance characteristics of journal bearings when an abrasive is in the lubricant was undertaken to obtain an indication as to what effect an increase in the viscosity of the lubricant might have on the performance of the bearings of automobile engines when diluted or low-viscosity crankcase-oil is contaminated with road dust or other solid matter. The general scheme of conducting the tests involves acceptance of the common theory of lubrication of complete journal-bearings and actual operation of bearings under conditions simulating practical applications, with oils of different viscosities and with and without the addition of an abrasive. During one series of runs, an attempt was made to measure the wear that occurred. The wear on the shaft was practically negligible, but the wear on the bearings was found to have been sufficient to change the average clearance-diameter value from 1/663 at the commencement of the test to 1/597 after the test was completed.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270010
A. C. FIELDNER
NO danger exists of the imminent exhaustion of the petroleum reserves of the United States, as is shown by a committee report published early in 1926 by the American Petroleum Institute, from which figures are given in the following paper. It is reasonable to assume that a sufficient supply of oil will be available for all purposes beyond the time when the demand therefor will be reduced by more efficient use of petroleum products or by the production of substitutes for them. The possibility of a future shortage of petroleum fuel suitable for automotive engines, however, and of the production of substitutes to avoid such a contingency, is receiving considerable attention in America and Europe. The author presents a general review of the situation and the status of research in the manufacture of gasoline substitutes from coal, of which enormous quantities remain unmined in this Country.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270061
M. R. SCHMIDT
ALL large users of petroleum lubricants are endeavoring to reduce to printed form their individual ideas of what the lubricants they want should contain and what their physical and mechanical properties should be. The lubricants manufacturer finds, however, that anarchy prevails among the requirements and that the technique of writing the specifications is distinctly amateurish. One method followed is to analyze a satisfactory lubricant and embody the results in the specifications, but the specifier does not know that the product is the best for his purpose and does not possess the facilities for accurate analysis and the ability to determine the pertinent from the irrelevant factors. Another method is to select from a number of analyses and specifications items that seem important and incorporate them in the writer's specification. The result calls for a non-existent hybrid that may be impossible to produce.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260006
ROBERT E. WILSON, ROBERT E. WILKIN
The dilution of crankcase oils with the heavy ends of gasoline constitutes the outstanding present-day problem in the lubrication of automobile engines. This paper first presents the results of extensive tests designed to determine the rate and extent of dilution for various types of car under various operating-conditions. From these results it appears that, in the average car in winter service in the northern half of the Country, the viscosity of the original oil drops to about one-third of its original value in the first 150 to 180 miles of intermittent operation. Beyond this the viscosity, contrary to general opinion, remains fairly constant at an equilibrium value corresponding to about 15 per cent dilution, where, on the average, the rate at which fresh diluent enters the oil is practically balanced by the rate at which it is eliminated therefrom.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260003
W S JAMES
Measurement of the volatility of motor fuels by batch distillation is regarded by the author as unsatisfactory, because the carbureted fuel is vaporized in an internal-combustion engine by continuous distillation, hence there is great difficulty in correlating the temperatures of test with those of actual use. Whereas formerly gasoline was produced by batch distillation in the refinery, it is produced now by removing the gasoline from crude oil by continuous distillation or is produced by cracking and continuous fractionation. Therefore the temperatures of production also bear no rational relation to those of test by batch distillation. Similarly, in an engine, fresh gasoline is supplied continuously by the carbureter and is vaporized continuously in the manifold and cylinder, all of the constituents being present at any time in any cross-section of the manifold.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260035
S. A. MCKEE
A report is made of the results of tests of the performance of oils diluted with kerosene in a journal-bearing friction-machine with regard to the so-called “oiliness” property of the lubricant, oiliness being defined as the property that causes a difference in the friction when two lubricants of the same viscosity at the temperature of the oil-film are used under identical conditions. A detailed description is given of the method of procedure and of the precautions taken to keep the speed, load, bearing temperature, and oil-pressure constant throughout the duration of a run. Four series of test-runs were made with the first test-bearing, the lubricant in the several runs being respectively a light mineral motor-oil, a blend of 35.75 per cent of kerosene with 64.25 per cent of cylinder stock, the light mineral motor-oil, as a check to see whether the conditions of the bearing had changed, and the light mineral motor-oil plus 2 per cent of oleic acid.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260036
George W. Burke
This paper deals with the relationship between the viscosity and Conradson carbon-residues of lubricating-oils for internal-combustion engines. Several curves are established using many grades of the same brands of oil while others are constructed to show this relationship with oils representing everything on the market. Evidence is presented indicating that a true relationship does not exist between the viscosity at any temperature and the carbon-residue value, and sufficient data are presented to show in a general way what can be expected as to the carbon-residue value when the viscosity is known. Limitations are drawn showing which oils can be considered as being, from a carbon-residue standpoint, representative of good commercial products and further, those which have been subjected to drastic refining can be selected.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260005
ALBERT LE ROY TAYLOR
Tests made to ascertain the degree of crankcase-oil dilution beyond which it is unsafe to run an engine bearing are described and the data obtained are analyzed, the details of the apparatus used being specified. To study the effect of dilution only, new oil was used in each case and was diluted to the desired extent by adding to it the proper quantity of diluent; that is, samples of oil obtained from engine crankcases were distilled by heating, and the distillates were used to dilute the new oil. The apparatus used for distilling the crankcase oil was an ordinary glass still, which was operated in conformity with standard methods. Four lines of investigation were followed in making the tests, these being outlined. In general, the results of the tests indicate that dilution of the oil up to 50 per cent has no bad effect upon the engine as regards increased friction and temperature of the bearings, although the dilution may be injurious from other standpoints.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260031
S. P. MARLEY, C. J. LIVINGSTONE, W. A. GRUSE
High operating-temperature, the use of the more volatile fuels and a lean air-fuel mixture and the use of lubricating oils of relatively high volatility which contain little carbon-residue all tend to reduce the deposition of carbon in an internal-combustion engine, as indicated by the experimental study reported in this paper. Believing that heat, fuel and oil are the most important factors influencing carbon formation and deposition, the experimenters adopted the method controlling closely the other conditions of operation of a specially designed single-cylinder test-engine and varying the operating temperature and the fuel and oil, allowing the carbon deposit to build up in the normal way during the test periods of 15 and 36-hr. The test engine and control apparatus and the test procedure are described.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260030
DANIEL ROESCH
Valuable data pertaining to the anti-knock qualities of fuels, combustion-chamber shapes and the efficiency of gasoline dopes are believed to be obtainable by the method described. Several hundred tests have failed to show anything seriously wrong with the method; on the contrary, involved matters such as the relative effect of various anti-knock fuels, anti-knock dopes, altitude, compression, mixture-ratio, and cylinder actions, have become clearer. No apparent reason exists why the method is not applicable to the determination of the relative merits of combustion-chamber shapes, various spark-plug locations and other important considerations necessary to the realization of higher compression-pressure and its accompanying substantial fuel-saving. Further, the incidental information gained concerning engines of present-day compressions is of no small value.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260033
R. L. SKINNER
Ideal lubrication requires that the body and the viscosity of the lubricant shall be preserved. The flash-point also must not be appreciably lowered. Contamination seriously interferes with perfect lubrication and consists of (a) fuel end-points, termed “dilution,” (b) water, (c) acid, and (d) solid matter. Each of these is discussed in turn, together with the degree to which it enters into the contamination of the lubricant and its effect in producing wear on the engine. The average dilution obtained in more than 500 samples of oil during the winter of 1924-1925 showed 39 per cent of fuel and 1 per cent of water, the maximum being 92 per cent of fuel and 3 per cent of water. The result was a reduction of all the original lubricating properties of the oil. Water causes rust, emulsifies a poor oil, is responsible for oil-pump freezing, and combines with sulphur products to form acids.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260004
T S SLIGH
Laboratory test-methods of indicating the volatility characteristics and the starting capability of fuels used in internal-combustion engines are described, together with the testing apparatus and procedure, the objective having been the development of a simple method or methods of measuring the volatility of individual samples of motor fuel. The requirements are that the methods be practicable from the standpoint of routine laboratory, give directly the necessary information regarding characteristics of the fuel and be sufficiently precise to permit their use as specification tests. Defining “volatility” as the property of a substance which causes it to be dispersed readily into the air, the author states that volatility as regards fuels is understood to indicate the quantity of fuel that will evaporate into air under definite conditions, so as to be enabled to speak of volatility as a definite quantitative property, and discusses both operating and starting volatility.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250036
T A BOYD
As the automobile, a chemical factory on wheels, converts gasoline and air into energy for propelling itself and its load, its prinicpal problems of operation center on the properties and impurities of the raw materials, the utilization and disposition of the by-products and the proper maintenance of the plant equipment. After discussing the nature of gasoline, the author enumerates the five sources from which motor fuel is derived. The major part of the gasoline is said to be obtained directly by distillation from petroleum; about one-quarter of American gasoline, to be secured by the cracking of heavier petroleum oils; about one-tenth, to be gasoline that is separated from natural gas; from 1 to 2 per cent, to consist of benzol and similar material; and fuel used in some sugar-producing localities, to comprise alcohol made from molasses.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250034
LAWRENCE T WAGNER
Effects of engine operation on the lubricating oil used in it determine to a large extent the ability of the oil to maintain continuous lubrication and, consequently, of the engine to function efficiently. Engine operation has three major effects on the oil: (a) complete destruction of part of the oil, (b) physical and chemical changes in the oil and (c) contamination of the oil by foreign matter. Oil is not worn out by friction but is destroyed by burning or decomposition caused by exposure to the intense heat of fuel combustion in the cylinders or the metallic parts of the combustion-chamber. The quantity so destroyed depends upon (a) fuel-combustion temperatures, (b) temperatures of the metallic parts, (c) quantity of oil exposed to these temperatures, (d) length of time of such exposure, and (e) volatility of the oil.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250030
FRANK JARDINE
Corrosion in gasoline engines is generally believed to be due to sulphuric acid formed by the combination of sulphur carried in low-grade fuels and oils with water that enters or is generated in the engine. Much of this trouble occurs in winter and may be traced directly to the action of water that condenses on the inside of the cylinders and crankcase when a cold engine is started. The water destroys the oil-film and comes into direct contact with metal of the pistons, cylinders and other parts, causing them to rust. If this occurs and the lubricating system does not supply more oil to the surfaces immediately upon the restarting of the engine, scored cylinders and pistons are likely to result, or, if the engine is stopped before it is warmed up, condensation and rusting will be rapid and will result in excessive wear.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250029
A H DENISON
Inasmuch as the heat or power developed by any fuel or combustible compound depends on the rate of flame propagation through the mixture, to increase the power and efficiency of present types of internal-combustion engine, the rate of flame propagation must be increased. Improvements in production engines to date have resulted primarily from modifications of the engine. Although the burning characteristics of conventional and low-priced fuels have received attention, nothing, with the exception of the heating of the hot-spot, has changed the conditions of the delivering and mixing of the charge during the last 20 years.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250003
T S SLIGH
Various methods of measuring the percentage of diluent in used crankcase-oils are summarized in this paper but the broader questions of deterioration of the oil due to other factors are not considered. The characteristics of viscometric methods and of steam, atmospheric and vacuum-distillation methods are discussed. It is pointed out that as dilution is not the only change the oil undergoes in service, methods based upon the assumption that oil is unchanged except by the presence of diluent may yield misleading results. Distillation methods seem best suited for this determination and those which are rational, in that the evaluation of the diluent is based on the change in the properties of the distillate as the distillation proceeds from diluent to oil, seem to promise the greatest accuracy over a wide range of diluents and oils.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240029
JOHN O EISINGER
This paper deals with progress in the Cooperative Fuel Research since the last report was presented to this Society. Previous tests had shown that the temperature of the jacket water exerted a major influence on the rate of dilution of crankcase oil. The reason for this influence was investigated and it was concluded that it was due to differences in the rate at which diluent was added to or eliminated from the oil-film upon the cylinder-walls, the temperature of this film being dependent upon the temperature of the jacket water. Experiments failed to show that changes in the temperature of the piston head or changes in the viscosity of the oil upon the cylinder-walls exerted a major influence upon the rate of dilution. These conditions were investigated as being probable consequences of a change in the temperature of the jacket water. Evidence is presented which demonstrates that under certain conditions the diluent may be eliminated from the oil at a fairly rapid rate.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240032
RALPH L SKINNER
It is generally recognized that the dilution of crankcase-oil with water and unburned fuel tends to accelerate the wear of engine bearings, cylinders and pistons. The author traces the engineering development of a rectifying device and system designed to combat this problem. In this system, diluted oil that tends to work-up past the pistons, in company with the water vapor and unburned fuel that tend to work down into the crankcase, is drawn from the cylinder-walls and pistons by vacuum. This diluted oil is conducted into a still or rectifier where it is subjected to heat from the engine exhaust. The heating action is just sufficient to volatilize the fuel and water, the resulting vapor being returned to the intake-manifold and thence to the engine where it is burned. The lubricating oil that remains behind is conducted back into the crankcase. The system functions automatically.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240030
NEIL MACCOULL
An independent study of a similar nature to that made by the Bureau of Standards on fuels in 1923 was conducted by the company the author represents, and the paper presents first the results of the tests made on five 7½-ton trucks during the regular course of business deliveries. Curves plotted from the data thus obtained are presented and analyzed in considerable detail. These data were then utilized as a basis for a series of dynamometer experiments in an attempt to explain further the effects of the many temperature and mechanical variables on the rate of oil consumption and oil dilution when only one factor was allowed to vary at a time. The dynamometer apparatus and the engine used are described, together with the test routine, and an analysis is made of the result of wear of the test engine. The “standard” conditions under which the test runs were made are stated.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240031
A Ludlow Clayden
Describing the three ways in which water may reach the oil-pan, the author says that the danger-point for water accumulation is reached when an emulsion becomes too highly viscous or when an accumulation of free water reaches the pump intake. The effect of using an emulsifying oil is explained and consideration is given the quantities of water actually deposited because of cylinder-wall condensation. An emulsion of oil with water up to 5 or 6 per cent differs hardly at all from the pure oil so far as film-forming and lubricating qualities are concerned. On the other hand, with an oil that is absolutely non-emulsifying, the tendency is for the water to segregate and collect in comparatively large globules. The ability of an oil to absorb a small percentage of water has the advantages of minimizing the danger of complete failure of oil circulation when starting in cold weather and of reducing somewhat the rate of piston-ring and cylinder-wall wear.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240009
L H POMEROY
Very few data seem to be available on the frictional losses in automobile engines caused by the failure of the oil to perform its function as a lubricant. The researches of the Lubrication Inquiry Committee in England indicate that the friction of a flooded bearing is proportional to the speed of the engine, the area of the bearing and the viscosity of the lubricant and is independent of the pressure and of the materials of which the opposing surfaces are composed. The principal sources of friction in an engine are the crankshaft, the camshaft and the connecting-rod bearings, which rotate; the pistons and the valves, which slide; and the auxiliaries, such as the generator, the pump and the distributor.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230035
E F HALLOCK
Present-day fuels are stated to be the cause of crankcase-oil dilution, due to their high end-points, and the author presents tabular data to show how end-points have risen since 1910, together with data showing the effects of various percentages of fuel dilution with relation to the Saybolt viscosities and pour-points of high-grade oils. Three divisions are made of the dilution due to mechanical defects. Contamination, not dilution, necessitates oil drainage, and this statement is elaborated. The rise of heavier-bodied oils is decried. Six specific divisions of how to avoid crankcase-oil dilution are made and emulsification is discussed, together with demulsibility and crankcase service. Five specifications are made with regard to how to avoid oil-sludging, and carbonization is given lengthy consideration. Proper oil-specification is treated, and instructions on how to avoid oil-pumping and carbon deposit are presented in eight divisions.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230001
H M CRANE
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230003
STEPHEN M LEE, STANWOOD W SPARROW
This Annual Meeting paper is concerned with certain of the methods used and results obtained in two investigations of fuels for high-compression aviation engines. The fuels in question are benzol and ethyl alcohol, either alone or as blended with gasoline. The necessity of mixture-ratio runs in fuel investigations is vigorously emphasized. In that the tendencies of a fuel to detonate or preignite limit the conditions under which it may be used, methods of estimating these characteristics are discussed. Also a graphical representation has been made to illustrate the relation between compression pressure, compression-ratio, volumetric efficiency and indicated power in order that, with a given engine, the effect on detonation of changing engine conditions may be estimated. Results characterizing the performance of the different fuels are mentioned and particular attention is directed to cases where these results are in contrast with current opinion.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230008
C S KEGERREIS, G A YOUNG
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230009
ROBERT E WILSON, DANIEL P BARNARD
Since the authors presented a paper on this subject that included the test results of only three fuels, the number of fuels investigated has been increased to 14 and several improvements have been made in the method relating to the manner of the preparation of the equilibrium solution and in the apparatus used for the measurement of vapor-pressures. In addition to describing these improvements, the present paper includes data on the fuels; a series of empirical curves from which it is possible to determine, aided by the data from the distillation curve, the dew-points of non-aromatic hydrocarbon fuel; a table showing a comparison of the more important properties of the fuels; and definite evidence that the 85-per cent point is the best single measure of the effective volatility of a motor-fuel, from a standpoint of distribution and crankcase-oil dilution.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230010
LLOYD F BAYER
The term “natural gasoline” has been accepted generally by the petroleum industry as applying to the gasoline product extracted by any process from natural gas. Two processes are in use. The older one is the compression process applied to casinghead gas, which is produced from the oil-bearing sands of oil wells and carries vapors from the oil with which it has been in contact. This process of subjecting the relatively rich gas to a high pressure and then cooling it to or below atmospheric pressure, results in the direct condensation of gasoline which is weathered later to remove the “wild” unusable vapors. The later method is the absorption process in which the gas is brought into contact with a heavy oil, originally of no gasoline-content, which absorbs the gasoline. The enriched oil is then heated to distill off the gasoline, and these two operations of absorption and distillation are repeated continuously within a closed system.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220005
C A NORMAN
After pointing out that although kerosene costs less than gasoline at the present time and is a cheaper fuel for the farmer to use, the author states that if the industry continues to construct tractors designed to use kerosene as fuel it will not be long before the cost of it is the same as that of gasoline. He argues that automotive engines should be designed to run on any liquid fuel and gives figures on the available supply of petroleum products and distillates in the world at the present time. The requirements laid down by the Government for gasoline are mentioned and it is stated that it is not possible for the oil industry to supply generally to the trade a gasoline meeting the recently adopted Government specifications which the author considers are very lenient.
Viewing 16591 to 16620 of 16662