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Viewing 16411 to 16440 of 16538
1934-01-01
Technical Paper
340110
A. E. Becker, H. G. M. Fischer
THE ignition and detonation phases of the fuel problem were discussed in a previous paper which is cited, C.F.R.-engine data for 20 fuel oils being given, and the results were expressed in terms of the critical compression ratio. Since then, further analysis of the data indicated even better correlation between the critical compression ratio and a function of aniline point and gravity. Since both of these physical constants are so readily determinable by simple and standardized laboratory methods, the authors propose that this function be used as a “Diesel Index” of ignition and combustion characteristics of fuel oils. The present paper shows the correlation of this “Index” with critical compression ratio, not only by use of the data cited in the paper referred to but also for some 30 additional fuels.
1934-01-01
Technical Paper
340108
Robert E. Wilson, D. P. Barnard
THIS paper represents an attempt to appraise the general automotive-fuel situation from the viewpoint of its relation to farm-tractor fuels. In particular, the probable effects of demands for fuels other than gasoline upon costs of production and distribution have been tied-in with engine operation and maintenance costs for the purpose of indicating the most logical course for fuel and engine development. In general, the farm-tractor fuel-problem is a very important one from the viewpoint of the tractor user, due to the fact that, as farm tractors are generally used, fuel is a major cost-item amounting to more than one-third of the total cost of operation of the tractor. In spite of the fact that many other considerations logically outweigh fuel costs in importance-particularly availability of the equipment and its capacity during the seasons of peak demand-this item continues to be one which is scutinized most carefully by the user and emphasized in tractor sales.
1934-01-01
Technical Paper
340121
W. D. Huffman
CUTTING oils are coolants and lubricants. As lubricants, they lubricate the area between the tool and the chip, and are tool and power preservers. Aside from these functions, they are useful in washing away the accumulated chips, giving a bright and smooth finish and acting as rust preventives. There are two general types of cutting oils, the so-termed soluble or emulsifiable oil and the straight cutting oil. The soluble oils mix or emulsify in all proportions in water; they are primary coolants but also have some lubricating action. There are two types of soluble oils, those which are principally or entirely of mineral-oil origin and those which contain an appreciable amount of saponifiable materials or soaps. The straight cutting oils offer a greater range of composition, and likewise a greater field for individual preference. Mr.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330048
O. C. Bridgeman, J. C. Molitor
THE paper 1 constitutes the fourth progress report to the Society on the investigation at the Bureau of Standards of the gumming characteristics of gasolines. Previous work has shown that the relative gum contents of a series of gasolines are the same, regardless of the volume evaporated. In the present paper, experimental data are given which indicate the effect of variations in bath temperature on the determination of gum content. These data show that the relative gum contents of a series of gasolines are the same, regardless of the bath temperature. Accordingly, it is concluded that any convenient volume of gasoline can be evaporated at any convenient temperature with equal significance. Preference is expressed for the evaporation at a temperature of 200 deg. cent. (392 deg. fahr.), due to the rapidity with which a determination of gum content can be made.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330050
S. A. McKee, F. G. Bitner, T. R. McKee
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330002
Max Hofmann
ONCE a method for standard Diesel-fuel knock-rating has been established, a standard for Diesel-fuel specifications should be set which will cover standard knock-rating, gravity, viscosity, pour point, Conradson carbon, water, sediment and sulphur content. The last three items have an important influence on the wear and depreciation of the engine as well as on the carbon formation in the combustion chamber. The foregoing conclusions are reached after the author has treated the subject in general as well as in particular, under the headings: Combustion process, delay period, turbulence, drop-size, variable delay-time, spontaneous and controlled combustion, chemical characteristics of the fuel and physical properties. Practical methods for oil-engine-fuel knock-ratings are also suggested.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330067
J. Kuttner, J. B. Rippere
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330054
ARTHUR NUTT
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330016
S. A. McKee, E. A. Harrington, T. R. McKee
THE choice of a suitable lubricant for a given mechanism involves a study of the relation between the various factors of design, operation and lubricant characteristics. One of the most important phases of the extreme-pressure-lubricant problem is the development of laboratory apparatus and test methods for the determination of the characteristics of a lubricant that are significant measures of its service performance. During the last year the U. S. Bureau of Standards has undertaken a comprehensive study of the problem of extreme-pressure lubricants in cooperation with the S.A.E. Lubricants Research Subcommittee. Since the primary requisite for an extreme-pressure lubricant is that “it lubricate under high load,” it was decided that a start on this program be made with an investigation of the load-carrying capacity. The preliminary tests are described, the effect of speed and temperature is considered, and the apparatus and procedure are explained.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330015
C. B. Veal, H. W. Best, J. M. Campbell, W. M. Holaday
ALTHOUGH the C.F.R. Engine-Test Method of knock evaluation, now designated as the Research Method, is accurate and reproducible to a remarkable degree, investigation developed that it was not adequately simulating service conditions as judged by the most critical technician or the less critical lay user. To bring the laboratory method in line with road evaluation of a fuel, a definite technique of road test was evolved that, while not to be considered in commercially determining octane numbers, was regarded by the Committee as sufficiently accurate and reproducible to serve as the first step in the development of a satisfactory laboratory method. With a satisfactory road-test method available, the next step was to test a representative group of fuels and then develop a laboratory method which closely approximates the road results.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330028
Ralph R. Teetor
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320040
A. W. Pope, J. A. Murdock
NEEDING to study the ignition characteristics of Diesel-engine fuels, the authors developed an idea that was presented at a meeting of the Research Committee of the Society last June. The idea was that engine tests must be the basis of evaluation. A C. F. R. engine was converted into a variable-compression Diesel engine by substituting a new piston and a fuel-injection system for the original piston and ignition system. Test methods that have been developed are reported, together with some results that show the practicability of the procedure and its substantial agreement with data secured in other ways. It is suggested that, as some of the most desirable qualities of gasoline are undesirable for Diesel fuel, and vice versa, fuels may be divided in the future on that basis, and Diesel and gasoline engines may approach each other in compression ratio.
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320008
E. W. Aldrich, N. P. Robie
AN investigation of the accelerated oxidation method for predicting the gum stability of gasolines was made to determine the effects of oxygen pressure and of temperature on the observed induction periods. The data obtained on the effect of pressure indicated that there was a definite relation between the induction period at any pressure and the induction period at an air pressure of 1 atmosphere. The data obtained on the effect of temperature showed that the induction periods of different gasolines changed to a different extent with temperature, so that gasolines with the same induction period at any one temperature might have very different periods of stability at storage temperatures. Since temperature has a marked effect on the observed induction period and since the gasoline is at a lower temperature than that of the bath for a considerable period of time at the beginning of the experiment, a correction factor was applied to obtain true induction periods at the bath temperature.
1932-01-01
Technical Paper
320020
Graham Edgar
INCREASING realization by automotive engineers and by oil refiners that the nature of the fuel available largely determines engine-performance possibilities has resulted in valuable cooperative research, important progress and the preparation of a firm groundwork for future progress. The author outlines the more important characteristics that automotive-engine fuel should possess and indicates some of the relations existing between possible engine efficiency and fuel characteristics. Heat of combustion of a fuel, volatility, tendency to detonate and freedom from impurities are discussed. Actual data from two commercial cars for which optional cylinder-heads were available are presented.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310028
Neil MacCoull
IN matching one fuel against another directly with a double-float carbureter, the knock sometimes either disappears or increases in intensity when the change from one fuel to the other is made. Results of a study of this subject, which was made recently, are presented in the paper. From the tests the conclusion is drawn that means should be provided to dry out the mixture between the carbureter and the cylinder-block of the engine used for antiknock measurement. Before a satisfactory answer to the problem can be reached, however, several other points require further investigation.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310027
Neil MacCoull
EXPERIMENTS to determine if any difference in fuel matching by bouncing-pin or throttle-audibility on the same engine are described, also tests to determine if the Cooperative-Fuel-Research and Series-30 Ethyl Gasoline Corp. engines gave similar results for either method. To check these tests another study to find the relative precision of these two methods of knock testing was made. From these tests the conclusion is drawn that, with few exceptions, little difference could be detected in matching fuels on either the Ethyl Gasoline Corp. Series-30 or the Cooperative Fuel-Research engine.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310030
Oscar C. Bridgeman, Elizabeth W. Aldrich
WIDESPREAD adoption of crude-oil cracking processes to provide an adequate supply of gasoline of high antiknock value has introduced the gum problem. The solution of this depends upon the development of a satisfactory method for determining the true gum-content of a fuel at the time of test and for predicting the content of a gasoline stored for a given time under specified conditions, and upon the correlation of data obtained by these methods with the results of engine tests. Several methods proposed and used for determining the gum content of gasolines are described and data obtained by means of them are compared.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310032
E. Wooler
INABILITY of the roller-bearing company with which the author of this paper is connected to obtain from oil manufacturers or others the information it desired regarding the properties of lubricants for transmissions and rear axles caused the company to undertake to secure the information at first hand itself. It began testing lubricants for their abrasive qualities and their load-carrying capacities. The investigators soon realized that the usual physical tests do not prove the effects of lubricants on gears. Therefore two machines were built, one to give the scuffing properties and the other to give the abrasive properties, the latter being the more important as regards antifriction bearings.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310031
Oscar C. Bridgeman, Elizabeth W. Aldrich
IN a previous paper covering a comparison of several methods for determining gum in gasolines, the conclusion was reached that the air-jet method gave the lowest and most reproducible results. Since gum deposition in the engine occurs in the presence of air, a more extended study of that method was undertaken. By evaporation of different volumes of gasoline and of various blends with a gum-free gasoline in each case, the concentration of gum and of gum-forming constituents was found to be one of the most important factors in determining the gum content. The temperature of the gasoline and the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere surrounding it during evaporation appeared to have little effect on the results. Further work on methods for determining the gum content is contemplated.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310033
F. W. Sullivan, Vanderveer Voorhees, P. T. Oak, D. P. Barnard
ONE method employed in a fundamental investigation of the composition of lubricating oils as it affects the viscosity characteristics has involved the synthesis of viscous oils by polymerizing a wide range of olefins with a condensing agent, such as aluminum chloride. Many thousand gallons of synthetic lubricating oils have been made within the last two or three years from olefins produced by cracking paraffin waxes. Details of the process have been published previously and hence are not included. The present paper deals with the characteristics of two such oils that have been synthesized in commercial quantities. The raw materials and the process of manufacture make these more expensive than ordinary motor oils, but their temperature-viscosity characteristics make them desirable for use in transmission and steering mechanisms and in hydraulic shock-absorbers, as they are less susceptible than the usual oil to viscosity changes with changes of temperature.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310021
C. H. Barton, C. H. Sprake, R. Stansfield, O. Thornycroft
EXPERIMENTS carried out in 1930 by the Knock Rating of Motor Fuels Subcommittee of the Institution of Petroleum Technologists are described in the paper which, in reality, is a continuation of one presented at the 1930 Annual Meeting of the Society. Various fuels, both straight run and blended, were tested in the Ricardo 2-liter E-35, the Delco and the Armstrong engines under three different sets of conditions and were rated in terms of blends of a high-value and a low-value straight-run gasoline, benzene and heptane and iso-octane and heptane. The last method gave a greater degree of fluctuation in knock intensity than the benzene-heptane blend, and in the future all knock ratings will be expressed in terms of the octane number, which is in agreement with knock-rating practice in the United States.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310023
Edgar Graham
DATA that were obtained while investigating some of the variables affecting the relative antiknock values of certain fuels are presented to show that if one condition of knock testing is varied, at least one other condition must also be varied. Increasing the jacket temperature necessitates increasing the knock intensity, decreasing the throttle opening or the compression ratio or retarding the spark. Two sets of tests were run. One consisted in adding tetraethyl lead or crude benzene to one of the six test fuels to make it equal in knock intensity to each of the other five. In the other series the quantities of tetraethyl lead that must be added to a straight-run Mid-Continent gasoline to give knock ratings equal to different percentages of chemically pure benzene in the same fuel were determined. The results of both series, which led to somewhat opposing conclusions, are presented in tables and charts, and a possible explanation of this conflict is given.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310026
Harry F. Huf, J. R. Sabina, J. Bennett Hill
MEASURING knock-sound intensity by a microphone and vacuum-tube amplifying set is described in this paper. Widely varying fuels are compared with mixtures of normal heptane and iso-octane at knock intensities ranging from incipient knock to a knock severe enough to cause preignition. The conclusion is drawn that, for tests on the L-head Cooperative Fuel-Research knock-testing engine, the intensity of knock at which tests are made does not affect the knock ratings if a fuel-matching method is used.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310015
W. R. Ramsaur
INCREASES in horsepower, compression pressure and engine speed, which have occurred in the last five years, have imposed additional duties on the lubrication system, points out the author, who declares that bearing failure is the most serious trouble resulting on the road from the use of oil temperatures exceeding 300 deg. fahr. To reduce this temperature to a figure between 210 and 230 deg. fahr., heat must be dissipated from the oil at a rate in excess of 250 B.t.u. per min. or a heat equivalent of approximately 6 hp. Two types of oil-cooler, one using air and the other water as the cooling medium, are available at present. The former is extensively employed in connection with air-cooled engines, particularly on airplanes, but the latter is in more general use on automobiles.
1931-01-01
Technical Paper
310016
R. T. Haslam, W. C. Bauer
AFTER briefly describing the hydrogenation process and its three characteristic reactions, purification, stabilization and homogenizing, that remain unaltered in direction although they all change in extent, the authors discuss the possibilities of applying the process to the production of motor-fuel and lubricating oil. The possibilities offered by the process of reforming the molecular structure of petroleum hydrocarbons along directed lines to obtain products of the so-called paraffinic or naphthenic type are stressed. This presentation is supplemented by data on the actual properties and performance characteristics of hydrogenated gasolines and lubricating oils as tested by the fuel and lubrication laboratories of the Standard Oil Development Co. Two series of tests were run, one on a White motor-truck engine and the other on a Mack motor-truck engine, the latter being under abnormally severe conditions.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300026
OSCAR C. BRIDGEMAN, HOBART S. WHITE
PREVIOUS reports on the investigation of vapor lock in airplane fuel-systems have indicated that the tendency of aviation gasolines to cause trouble from vapor lock could be predicted from the standard A.S.T.M. distillation-data on the gasolines. The present paper deals with experiments made for the purpose of comparing the predicted conditions for vapor lock with those actually found in typical fuel-feed systems to cause trouble from this source. In gravity-feed systems, the predicted and experimentally observed conditions for vapor lock are in good agreement. On the suction side of a fuel pump, vapor lock occurs in a number of cases at lower temperatures than those predicted, particularly under conditions representing high-altitude flying in a system employing a long suction-lift.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300027
Edwin E. Aldrin
THE paper is an effort to provide a common basis for determining the relative knock-values of various aviation fuels. With this object in mind the author presents a chart showing data based on laboratory and flight tests of aviation engines with various fuels. The author points out that, generally speaking, the better the knock rating the lower the cylinder temperature. Until more experimental evidence has been obtained, he considers that vapor pressure is of secondary importance in its relation to vapor lock.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300022
ROBERT E. WILSON
IN THIS PAPER the author discusses the significance of the various tests for motor fuels, particularly in the light of extensive research work along these lines in the past few years by various industrial laboratories and the United States Bureau of Standards. A bibliography of the literature on the subject supplements the paper. Although a large part of the public still seems to assume that the principal difference to the car user between different grades of gasoline is in mileage per gallon, actually, if today's best and poorest commercial gasolines are compared, the difference in mileage is very small compared with the differences in engine-starting ability, antiknock quality, vapor-locking tendency and liability to injure the engine or the fuel-induction system.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300023
H. K. CUMMINGS
THIS paper was prompted by the numerous inquiries received by the Bureau of Standards from airplane owners and airport operators regarding the grades of gasoline that are suitable for aircraft use and the suggestion that the Bureau test all brands of commercial aviation gasoline and publish the results or that the Department of Commerce issue approved type certificates for certain standard grades of aviation gasoline. The purpose of the author in presenting the paper was to open discussion on the subject, and in this he was very successful. The problem of a suitable fuel and its general distribution throughout the Country for aviation use is complicated by considerable divergence of opinion among aircraft-engine manufacturers as to the kind of fuel preferred and by wide differences in detonation characteristics of gasolines of like volatility.
1930-01-01
Technical Paper
300024
S. D. Heron
FUELS for use in aircraft engines are discussed with reference to their antiknock value, volatility, vapor-locking and engine-starting properties, gum content and availability, and to antiknock agents. The usefulness of a fuel for spark-ignition engines is stated to be limited by its tendency to heat the cylinder and the piston unit. Definite evidence is available that the tendency of fuels to heat the cylinder unit is not always in accord with their tendency to cause audible knocking. The fuel required depends upon the compression ratio of the engine, its volumetric efficiency, the design, size and temperature of the cylinder unit, and the rate of revolution. Mid-Continent Domestic Aviation gasoline having an approximate antiknock value of 50 octane-50 heptane gives excellent results if the engine output is kept within the limitations of this fuel but is not suitable for many modern aircraft engines if flown wide open at sea level.
Viewing 16411 to 16440 of 16538