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Viewing 121 to 150 of 16692
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2403
Yanzhao An, R Vallinayagam, S Vedharaj, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Alaaeldin Dawood, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Bengt Johansson
Abstract In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2420
Bertrand Kerres, Andreas Cronhjort, Mihai Mihaescu, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2415
Valery Dunaevsky
Abstract The film thickness-roughness ratio Λ has been used since the mid-1960s as a simplified criterion for the lubrication conditions in rolling bearings. However, due to an assumed Gaussian distribution of the roughness height amplitudes of the functional surfaces of rolling bearings and other unsubstantiated assumptions regarding the mechanisms of contact interaction, concerns have arisen about the representability of Λ in terms of lubrication. In this study, a more objective Λ-type ratio that does not depend on the law of roughness height distribution and the peculiarities of contact mechanics is introduced and defined as Λz. The relevant range of the new Λ ratio is lower than that of its conventional counterpart, and it overlaps with contemporary theoretical and experimental results. The study exhibits unique profilometric data of the functional surfaces of the roller bearings, produced by the major bearing manufacturers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2423
Xiaoming Ye, Yan Fu, Wei Li, Yuze Jiang, Shixin Zhu
Abstract As the key components of internal combustion engine(ICE), the crankshaft main bearings are used to support the crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism whose rotary motion realizes the energy conversion from heat energy to mechanical power in cylinder. The lubrication performances and wear life of crankshaft main bearings directly affect ICE working efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is very important to study the lubrication performances of crankshaft main bearings. In this paper, a 16V marine diesel engine was studied. Based on the AVL-Designer software platform, a dynamic model of crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism and a hydrodynamic lubrication model of crankshaft main bearing were built. The numerical analyses were carried out on the lubrication performances of crankshaft main bearings under different speed conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2422
Na Li, Fenlian Huang, Yuhua Bi, Yueqiang Xu, Lizhong Shen, Dewen Jia
Abstract The assembly of con rod bearing and crankpin is a key friction pair which offers an important guarantee for stable operation of diesel engine. Specific to the non-road 2-cylinder diesel engine developed independently and based on the theory of thermoelastohydrodynamic lubrication as well as multi-body dynamics, this paper establishes a multi-body dynamics model for con rod big end bearings of the 2D25 horizontal diesel engine and makes a research on the influence of bearing width, bearing clearance, and oil inlet position and diameter upon lubrication of con rod bearing, taking into consideration that of the surface appearance of bearing bush and the elastic deformation of bearing bush and axle journal upon the same. Research results show that bearing width and bearing clearance are the major factors that influence lubrication characteristics of con rod bearing while oil inlet position and diameter only have a small influence on such characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2435
Jian Ji, BoZhou He, Lei Yuan
Abstract It is well-known that, compared with automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmission (CVT) shows advantages in fuel saving due to its continuous shift manner, since this feature enables the engine to operate in the efficiency-optimized region. However, as the AT gear number increases and the ratio gap narrows, this advantage of CVT is challenged. In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy for a CVT based vehicle and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based vehicle is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT based vehicles are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy, respectively. For the 9-speed AT, an optimal gear shift map is constructed. With this gear shift map, the optimal gear is selected as vehicle velocity and driving condition vary.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2293.01
Jim Barker, Jacqueline Reid, Sarah Angel Smith, Colin Snape, David Scurr, Graham John Langley, Krina Patel, Anastarsia C.M. Carter, Cris Lapthorn, Frank Pullen
ABSTRACT
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2294
Julien Gueit, Jerome Obiols
Abstract In order to be ever more fuel efficient the use of Direct Injection (DI) is becoming standard in spark ignition engines. When associated with efficient turbochargers it has generated a significant increase in the overall performance of these engines. These hardware developments lead to increased stresses placed upon the fuel and the fuel injection system: for example injection pressures increased up to 400 bar, increased fuel and nozzle temperatures and contact with the flame in the combustion chamber. DISI injectors are thus subjected to undesirable deposit formation which can have detrimental consequences on engine operation such as reduced power, EOBD (Engine On Board Diagnostics) issues, impaired driveability and increased particulate emissions. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of DI spark ignition engines to fuel-related injector deposit formation, a new engine test procedure has been developed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2295
Ahmad Omari, Stefan Pischinger, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Jukka Nuottimäki, Markku Honkanen
Abstract The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2298
Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
Abstract The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2297
Thomas Dubois, Lidwine Abiad, Pauline Caine
Abstract As it is the case for Diesel engines, the Gasoline Direct Injection engines are using higher and higher injection pressures. The state of the art gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are currently using injection pressures as high as 500 bar. A lot of work is also currently ongoing on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines which use even higher injection pressures (above 1 000 bar). A high injection pressure means that a high pressure pump has to be used and so, proper lubricity has to be brought by the fuel. In the mean time the use of biofuels is increasing and several studies have shown the positive impact of ethanol on the energy consumption of gasoline engines mainly thru an octane number effect.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2299
Susumu Nagano, Nozomi Yokoo, Koji Kitano, Koichi Nakata
Abstract The effects of high boiling point fuel additives on deposits were investigated in a commercial turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. It is known that high boiling point substances have a negative effect on deposits. The distillation end points of blended fuels containing these additives may be approximately 15°C higher than the base fuel (end point: 175°C). Three additives with boiling points between 190 and 196°C were examined: 4-tert-Butyltoluene (TBT), N-Methyl Aniline (NMA), and 2-Methyl-1,5-pentanediamine (MPD). Aromatics and anilines, which may be added to gasoline to increase its octane number, might have a negative effect on deposits. TBT has a benzene ring. NMA has a benzene ring and an amino group. MPD, which has no benzene ring and two amino groups, was selected for comparison with the former two additives.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2306
Xiaochuan Sun, Xiang Li, Zhong Huang, Dehao Ju, Xing-cai Lu, Dong Han, Zhen Huang
Abstract Recently, the shortage of fossil resources contributes to strict regulations of environmental protection. The research on the high efficiency and low emission of engines becomes an important direction all over the world. Technologies like high injection pressure, high levels of supercharging and higher levels of back pressure have come into application. Increasing the injection pressure and average cylinder pressure results in that parts of the spray can experience transcritical and supercritical regimes. In this paper, we established a surrogate fuel composed of n-Hexadecane, HMN and 1-Metylnaphthalene, to analyze the injection and atomization of diesel surrogate fuel with large eddy simulation (LES) in a cubic calculation region with high temperature and high pressure environment.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2303
Yan Wang, Xudong Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yong Wang, Guoxiu Li, Yusong Yu
Abstract Fuel spray impingement is a common phenomenon during the combustion processes of a DI diesel engine. When liquid droplets impinge on the hot surface of a combustion chamber, a complex heat transfer and mechanical interaction occur between the droplets and combustion chamber. This probably changes the surface topography and microstructure of the impact position. Based on the experimental method, the fuel spray phenomenon and conditions of a surface pit caused by droplet impingement were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the surface pit is formed under specific conditions, i.e., a specific droplet diameter and surface temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of the pit area shows that the microstructure of the pit changed from an original dense and smooth surface to a loose structure. The microstructure of the pit did not show a molten state. The concentration of metal and nonmetallic elements in the pit area changed significantly.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2437
Renjith S, Vinod Kumar Srinivasa, Umesh Venkateshaiah
Abstract The jet lubrication method is extensively used in the constant mesh high performance transmission system operating at range of speeds though it affects mechanical efficiency through spin power loss. The lubrication jet has a key role to maintain the meshing gears at non-fatal thermal equilibrium by effectively dissipating the heat generated to the surrounding. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is the indicator of the thermal behavior of the system, which provides great insight of efficient lubrication system that needs to be employed for prescribed type of transmission. In this study, a segment of the transmission unit which constitutes a gear pair is used for the simulation. Parametric study is carried out by considering the critical parameters affecting the thermal performance such as lubrication jet flow rate and rotational motions of the gears with speeds and temperatures.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2457
Rickard Arvidsson, Tomas McKelvey
Abstract A two-state forward dynamic programming algorithm is evaluated in a series hybrid drive-train application with the objective to minimize fuel consumption when look-ahead information is available. The states in the new method are battery state-of-charge and engine speed. The new method is compared to one-state dynamic programming optimization methods where the requested generator power is found such that the fuel consumption is minimized and engine speed is given by the optimum power-speed efficiency line. The other method compared is to run the engine at a given operating point where the system efficiency is highest, finding the combination of engine run requests over the drive-cycle that minimizes the fuel consumption. The work has included the engine torque and generator power as control signals and is evaluated in a full vehicle-simulation model based on the Volvo Car Corporation VSIM tool.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2431
Michitaka Yamamoto, Takayuki Hosogi, Tetsuji Watanabe, Yuki Nishida
Abstract Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2316
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, John Zhou
Abstract Ethanol direct injection (EDI) has great potential in facilitating the downsizing technologies in spark ignition engines due to its strong anti-knock ability. The fuel temperature may vary widely from non-evaporating to flash-boiling sprays in real engine conditions. In this study, a CFD spray model was developed in the ANSYS Fluent environment, which was capable to simulate the EDI spray and evaporation characteristics under non-evaporating, transition and flash-boiling conditions. The turbulence was modelled by the realizable k-ε model. The Rinzic heterogeneous nucleation model was applied to simulate the primary breakup droplet size at the nozzle exit. The secondary breakup process was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup model. The evaporation process was modelled by the Convection/Diffusion Controlled Model. The droplet distortion and drag, collision and droplet-wall interaction were also included.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2318
Xiaoxu Jia, Zhong Huang, Dehao Ju, Zhen Huang, Xing-cai Lu
Abstract Combustion instability often occurs inside the combustion chamber of aero engine. Fuel atomization and evaporation, one of the controlling processes of combustion rate, is an important mechanism of the combustion instability. To tackle combustion instability, it challenges a deep understanding of the underlying mechanism of fuel atomization and evaporation. In this paper, acoustic field was established to simulate the pressure oscillation. Transient spray images of ethanol and kerosene were recorded using high-speed camera. The obtained images were processed by MATLAB to extract and analyze the related data. Spatial fuel atomization characteristics was analytically examined by multi-threshold image method to analyze the effect of the high frequency acoustic field on the fuel break-up and disintegration. The results show that the half spray cone angle on the side with speaker is suppressed by the presence of the imposed acoustic field compared with the case without speaker.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2320
George S. Dodos, Chrysovalanti E. Tsesmeli, Iraklis Zahos Siagos, Theodora Tyrovola, Dimitrios Karonis, Fanourios Zannikos
Abstract FAME is the most common renewable component of conventional automotive diesel. Despite the advantages, biodiesel is more susceptible to oxidative deterioration and due to its chemical composition as well as its higher affinity to water, is considered to be a favorable substrate for microorganisms. On the other hand, apart from biodiesel, alcohols are considered to be promising substitutes to conventional diesel fuel because they can offer higher oxygen concentration leading to better combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions. More specifically, n-butanol is a renewable alcohol demonstrating better blending capabilities and properties when it is added to diesel fuel, as its composition is closer to conventional fuel, when compared ethanol to for example. Taking into consideration the alleged disinfectant properties of alcohols, it would be interesting to examine also the microbial stability of blends containing n-butanol in various concentrations.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2321
Timothy H. Lee, Han Wu, Alan Hansen, Tonghun Lee, Gang Li
Abstract Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2323
Lei Li, Kai Sun, Jianyu Duan
Abstract Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies on combustion and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol).The impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines, however, has not been reported. This work examines the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends in steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at blend ratios from 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels are set to obtain the maximum break torque (MBT), i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results show that the particle number concentration is reduced significantly with increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2322
Tankai Zhang, Karin Munch, Ingemar Denbratt
Abstract Reducing emissions and improving efficiency are major goals of modern internal combustion engine research. The use of biomass-derived fuels in Diesel engines is an effective way of reducing well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, partially premixed combustion (PPC) makes it possible to achieve very efficient combustion with low emissions of soot and NOx. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using alcohol/Diesel blends or neat alcohols on emissions and thermal efficiency during PPC. Four alcohols were evaluated: n-butanol, isobutanol, n-octanol, and 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols were blended with fossil Diesel fuel to produce mixtures with low cetane numbers (26-36) suitable for PPC. The blends were then tested in a single cylinder light duty (LD) engine. To optimize combustion, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level, lambda, and injection strategy were tuned.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2325
Midhat Talibi, Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos
Abstract The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2326
Ang Li, Zhiwei Deng, Lei Zhu, Zhen Huang
Abstract In the present study a novel surrogate model for biodiesel including methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl crotonate (MC) was proposed and validated. In the binary mixture of surrogate fuel, MD was chosen to represent saturated methyl esters, which exhibited great low-temperature reactivity with typical negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior and MC represented unsaturated components in real biodiesel, which was mainly responsible for soot formation and evolution. The proportion of MD and MC was determined by matching the characteristics such as derived cetane number (DCN), molecular weight (MW), atom number, H/C ratio and unsaturated degree. All of the criterions were calculated by the least square principles and the calculated surrogate of biodiesel was comprised of 92% MD and 8% MC in mole fraction. Furthermore, detailed kinetic model of the surrogate fuel was constructed and developed with modifications, which was composed of 2918 species and 9164 reactions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2327
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
Abstract Fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing processes play a dominant role on engine performance and emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Understanding of microscopic spray characteristics is essential to predict combustion phenomena. The present work investigated near nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuels in a constant volume chamber. Waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels were applied and the results were compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. The tested fuels were injected by a solenoid injector with a common-rail injection system. A high-speed camera with a long distance microscopic lens was utilized to capture the near nozzle flow. Meanwhile, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer to compare atomization characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Zhi Ning, Chia-Fon Lee, Han Wu
Abstract Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2332
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2331
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability with better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of non-edible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems. In Asian countries like India, great need of edible oil as a food so cannot use these oils as alternative fuels for diesel engine. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. This research prepared micro emulsions of ethanol and Jatropha vegetable oil in different ratio and find out the physico-chemical parameters to compare with mineral diesel oil.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2329
Xiao Ma, Yue Ma, Shuaishuai Sun, Shi-Jin Shuai, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 16692