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Viewing 91 to 120 of 16433
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1077
Nicolas Arnault, Nicolas Batailley, Arnaud Maria, Laurent Bechu
Abstract PSA Group, SOLVAY and SOGEFI have teamed-up to produce the first Plastic Diesel Fuel Filter fully made of recycled polyamide 66, ready for mass-production. This has been achieved by using the brand new plastic compound developed by SOLVAY Engineering Plastics. This material is 100% recycled from airbag wastes, providing a premium material able to stand demanding applications requirements supplied through circular economy, which is quite unusual in automotive industry yet. SOGEFI has used this material through its existing plastic injection process, and tested the parts on extensive bench validation tests. It confirmed that this material is fully compatible with standard injection process, and that all the tests have been passed successfully. Finally, PSA Group has driven the choice of the tested parts: DV engine 1.6l Euro6b application, homologated the material grade and evaluated the whole validation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1069
Igor Trevas, Adm José baeta, Charles Pimenta, Heder Fernandes, Matheus Carvalho, Raphael Montemor
Abstract Variable Valve Actuation system (VVA) is a technology developed for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance mainly by reducing pumping losses. Many automakers have used VVA in their engine projects with excellent results. Usually, VVA systems are built to control the valve events in four different ways: changing the amplitude of the valve lift, the valve opening angle, the valve closing angle or a combination of those modes. A special attention at the calibration activity is needed to reach the optimum performance of this system, beyond this, it was necessary to develop a different way to calibrate, much more focused on the development of the combustion and the gas exchange process requiring an intense use of a pressure indicating system. This work presents a comparison between different way of actuation in combustion analysis of a VVA system on a spark ignition engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1175
Ran Bao, Victor Avila, James Baxter
Abstract Recovering as much braking energy as possible, and then fully reusing it, can significantly improve the vehicle powertrain efficiency, hence reducing the CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. A 48 V mild hybrid system recovers less braking kinetic energy than a HV (High Voltage) hybrid system due to the reduced peak power/current rating. However, the cost of the 48 V mild hybrid system is significantly less than the HV hybrid system which gives the 48 V mild hybrid system a much better cost-benefit ratio. The 48 V mild hybrid system can have several different system layouts (e- machines at different positions, or have numerous e-machines at different position combinations). The aim of this study is to investigate and explain how the system layout affects the powertrain system efficiency and CO2 benefit. Simulation models are used to predict the CO2 of three such configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1188
Daisuke Hayashi, Atsushi Ida, Shota Magome, Takahisa Suzuki, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Hori
Abstract The key challenge in designing a high power density fuel cell is to reduce oxygen transport loss due to liquid water. However, liquid water transport from catalyst layers to channels under operating conditions is not completely understood. Toyota developed a high resolution space and time liquid water visualization technique using synchrotron x-ray (Spring-8) radiography. In addition, a simulation method was created based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify the cell performance relationship to water distribution. The relationship among gas diffusion layer (GDL) parameters, water distribution, and fuel cell performance was clarified by combining the techniques Toyota developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0232
Nizar Khemri, Hao Ying, Joseph Supina, Fazal Syed
Abstract Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0192
Antti Lajunen
Abstract The energy used for cabin cooling and heating can drastically reduce the operating range of electric vehicles. The energy efficiency and performance of the cabin heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system depend on the system configuration and ambient conditions. The presented research investigates the energy efficiency and performance of cabin thermal management in electric vehicles. A simulation model of cabin heating and cooling systems was developed in the AMESim software. Simulations were carried out in the standard test cycles and one real-world driving cycle to take into account different driving behaviors and environments. The cabin thermal management performance was analyzed in relation to ambient temperature, system efficiency and cabin thermal balance. The simulation results showed that the driving range can shorten more than 50% in extreme cold conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0720
Omar Ramadan, Luc Menard, David Gardiner, Aaron Wilcox, Gary Webster
Abstract This paper is a continuation of work previously discussed in SAE 2014-01-0179 [1] and SAE 2015-01-0805 [2], which was intended to improve the capability and precision of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) and associated ASTM D6890 [3]/CEN EN 15195 [4]/EI IP 498 [5] Test Methods. The results presented in those two papers indicated how the new generation of IQT™ with the TALM Precision Package upgrade can markedly improve the precision of the ASTM D6890, CEN EN 15195 and EI IP 498 Derived Cetane Number (DCN) test methods. This paper will evaluate the performance of the upgraded instruments over the past 21 months of their participation in ASTM’s National Fuel Exchange Group (NEG) diesel fuel exchange program.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0682
Yuedong Chao, Haifeng Lu, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li, Yuan Shen, Shuang Yuan
Abstract In this paper comparisons were made between the fuel economy improvement between a High Pressure loop (HP) water-cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and a Low Pressure loop (LP) water-cooled EGR system. Experiments were implemented on a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine in two pars. One was EGR rate as single operating point to compare the different effect of HP- and LP-EGR. The other was mini map from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 14bar because of the relative narrow available range of HP-EGR system. In consideration of practical application of EGR system, the coolant used in this experiment was kept almost the same temperature as in real vehicles (88±3°C) instead of underground water temperature, besides a model was built to calculate constant volume ratio (CVR). The results indicated that the effect of HP-EGR was weaker than that of LP-EGR under the same EGR rate, which could be seen from change of combustion parameters.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0683
Michael Fischer, Philipp Kreutziger, Yong Sun, Adam Kotrba
Abstract External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Abstract Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across the automotive industry for several years if not decades. For heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from minor gains in fuel economy can lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG standards which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art fuel economy technologies, incremental gains are so miniscule that measurements on the vehicle are inadequate to quantify the benefits. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynamometers are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due to factors such as part to part differences, deterioration, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0804
Mohannad Al-Khodaier, Vijai Shankar Bhavani Shankar, Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Increasing the anti-knock quality of gasoline fuels can enable higher efficiency in spark ignition engines. In this study, the blending anti-knock quality of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a by-product of ethylene production from naphtha cracking, with various gasoline fuels is explored. The blends were tested in an ignition quality tester (IQT) and a modified cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine operating under homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) conditions. Due to current fuel regulations, ethanol is widely used as a gasoline blending component in many markets. In addition, ethanol is widely used as a fuel and literature verifying its performance. Moreover, because ethanol exhibits synergistic effects, the test results of DCPD-gasoline blends were compared to those of ethanol-gasoline blends. The experiments conducted in this work enabled the screening of DCPD auto-ignition characteristics across a range of combustion modes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1285
Tarun Mehra
Abstract Exploring and enhancement of biodiesel production from feedstock like non-edible vegetable oil is one of the powerful method to resolve inadequate amount of conventional raw materials and their high prices. The main aim of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters of a biodiesel obtained from non-edible feedstocks, namely Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil, with response surface methodology using Doehlert’s experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the mixture A50S50 oil mixture at 51.045° C over a period of 45 minutes are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 8.45, and catalyst concentration: 1.933 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters give the highest yield for the A50S50 biodiesel with a value of 95.24%.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0755
Karthik Nithyanandan, Yongli Gao, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee, Fushui Liu, Junhao Yan
Abstract Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0863
Bader Almansour, Sami Alawadhi, Subith Vasu
Abstract The biofuel and engine co-development framework was initiated at Sandia National Labs. Here, the synthetic biologists develop and engineer a new platform for drop-in fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass, using several endophytic fungi. Hence this process has the potential advantage that expensive pretreatment and fuel refining stages can be optimized thereby allowing scalability and cost reduction; two major considerations for widespread biofuel utilization. Large concentrations of ketones along with other volatile organic compounds were produced by fungi grown over switchgrass media. The combustion and emission properties of these new large ketones are poorly known.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0889
Adam Brandt, Allen Comfort, Edwin Frame
Abstract For existing fleets such as the U.S. military ground vehicle fleet, there are few ways to reduce vehicle fuel consumption that don’t involve expensive retrofitting. Replacing standard lubricants with those that can achieve higher vehicle efficiencies is one practical and inexpensive way to improve fleet fuel efficiency. In an effort to identify axle gear lubricants that can reduce the fuel consumption of its fleet, the U.S. Army is developing a stationary axle efficiency test stand and procedure. In order to develop this capability, on-track vehicle fuel consumption testing was completed using light, medium, and heavy tactical wheeled vehicles following a modified SAE J1321 type test procedure. Tested lubricants included a baseline SAE 80W-90, a fuel efficient SAE 75W-90, and a fuel efficient SAE 75W-140. Vehicle testing resulted in reductions in fuel consumption of up to 2%.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0891
Gregory Hunt
Abstract Modern automotive transmissions contain copper and copper alloys in the form of washers, bushings, brazes and electrical components. Corrosion that occurs with any of these components especially with electrical contacts can result in a malfunction of the vehicle control systems and loss of vehicle drivability. The compatibility of transmission lubricants with copper and copper alloys is an increasingly important consideration in the design of new additive technology. Traditional methods for monitoring corrosion processes and mechanisms in real time can be both time consuming and challenging to interpret, especially when evaluations at multiple temperatures are required. This work challenges some of the industry-held beliefs around lubricant additive corrosion processes, especially at elevated temperature (>130 °C).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0868
Robert L. McCormick, Gina Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Earl Christensen, Janet Yanowitz, Evgueni Polikarpov, Karl Albrecht, Daniel J. Gaspar, John Gladden, Anthe George
Abstract We describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10°C and boiling point (or T90) <165°C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminated from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0901
Alex Pink, Adam Ragatz, Lijuan Wang, Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN-reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-duty vehicles and two medium-duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend-for some vehicles the CAN under-reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over-reported fuel consumption. Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1289
Zinong Zuo, Yiqiang Pei, Jing Qin, Ruoyu Jia, Xiang Li, Zhang Song ZHAN, Bin Liu, Tie Gang Hu, Jing Zhong
Abstract This research presents an experimental study of the laminar burning combustion and emission characteristics of premixed methane -dissociated methanol-air mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber. All experiments were conducted at 3 bar initial pressure and 373K initial temperature. The dissociated methanol fractions were from 20% to 80% with 20% intervals, and the equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 1.8 with 0.2 intervals. The images of flame propagation were visualized by using a schlieren system. The combustion pressure data were measured and exhaust emissions were sampled with a portable exhaust gas analyzer. The results show that the unstretched laminar burning velocities increased significantly with dissociated methanol enrichment. The Markstein length decreased with increasing dissociated methanol fraction and decreasing equivalence ratio.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1016
Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessments supporting the Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions assessments. As part of an Atkinson cycle engine technology assessment of applications in light-duty vehicles, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated. The base engine was a production gasoline 2.0L four-cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake cam phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the CO2 reduction effectiveness could be evaluated. Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what CO2 benefits could be achieved. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle (FTP and HwFET) CO2 reduction estimates were made using fuel weighted operating modes and a full vehicle model (ALPHA) cycle simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1019
Bentolhoda Torkashvand, Andreas Gremminger, Simone Valchera, Maria Casapu, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Olaf Deutschmann
Abstract The effect of increased pressure relevant to pre-turbine catalyst positioning on catalytic oxidation of methane over a commercial Pd-Pt model catalyst under lean conditions is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The possible gas phase reactions due to high temperature and pressure were tested with an inert monolith. Catalyst activity tests were conducted for both wet and dry gas mixtures and the effect of pressure was investigated at 1, 2 and 4 bar. Aside from the water in the inlet stream, the water produced by oxidation of methane in dry feed inhibited the activity of the catalyst as well. Experiments were carried out to check the effect of added water in the concentration range of water produced by methane oxidation on the catalyst activity. Based on the experimental results, a global oxidation rate equation is proposed. The reaction rate expression is first order with respect to methane and -1.15 with respect to water.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0171
Quansheng Zhang, Yan Meng, Christopher Greiner, Ciro Soto, William Schwartz, Mark Jennings
Abstract In this paper, the tradeoff relationship between the Air Conditioning (A/C) system performance and vehicle fuel economy for a hybrid electric vehicle during the SC03 drive cycle is presented. First, an A/C system model was integrated into Ford’s HEV simulation environment. Then, a system-level sensitivity study was performed on a stand-alone A/C system simulator, by formulating a static optimization problem which minimizes the total energy use of actuators, and maintains an identical cooling capacity. Afterwards, a vehicle-level sensitivity study was conducted with all controllers incorporated in sensitivity analysis software, under three types of formulations of cooling capacity constraints. Finally, the common observation from both studies, that the compressor speed dominates the cooling capacity and the EDF fan has a marginal influence, is explained using the thermodynamics of a vapor compression cycle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0156
Olaf Erik Herrmann, Matteo Biglia, Takashi YASUDA, Sebastian Visser
Abstract The coming Diesel powertrains will remain as key technology in Europe to achieve the stringent 2025 CO2 emission targets. Especially for applications which are unlikely to be powered by pure EV technology like Light Duty vehicles and C/D segment vehicles which require a long driving range this is the case. To cope with these low CO2 targets the amount of electrification e.g. in form of 48V Belt-driven integrated Starter Generator (BSG) systems will increase. On the other hand the efficiency of the Diesel engine will increase which will result in lower exhaust gas temperatures resulting in a challenge to keep the required NOx reduction system efficiencies under Real Drive Emissions (RDE) driving conditions. In order to comply with the RDE legislation down to -7 °C ambient an efficient thermal management is one potential approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0609
Pan Song, Shugang Xie, Yuan Zhong, Bolin Gao
Abstract This paper presents a unified creep-speed controller specifically designed for the automated parking system of an automated manual transmission vehicle, whereby the engine management system, transmission control unit, and electronic stability control system can work cooperatively and harmoniously within the same control framework. First, a novel reference speed generator is designed and employs sinusoidal functions to produce the speed profile based on the maneuver-dependent distances computed by a path planner, such that the lag in vehicle response during start-up can be effectively reduced. Second, a well-tuned PID controller is adopted to determine the resultant longitudinal force in attempt to follow the reference speed and eliminate the distance error during the parking maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Abstract Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been in use for many years to control NOx emissions in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every new regulation while durability requirements continue to increase, so EGR system manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. The commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs and the same engine must cope with multiple applications that have totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with a consequential impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of an EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibration, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0871
Alexander K. Voice, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver
Abstract Lubricity is an empirically-determined tribological property, which is a function of the fluid properties and system, and which is known to influence fuel system wear durability. In this work, the lubricity of various fuels was tested using a modified version of ASTM D6079, which uses a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The fuels were tested as received and with various amounts of commercial diesel lubricity additives. Lubricity of all light-end fuels test as received (without lubricity additives) was found to be substantially worse than additized diesel certification fuel, and lowest for unadditized straight-run gasoline. All diesel lubricity additives tested were able to substantially improve the lubricity of the light-end fuel formulations. The best additives reduced the wear scar diameter in the HFRR test to around 200 μm at a concentration of 200 mg/kg, putting them well within the maximum allowable limit for market No. 2 diesel fuel.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0809
James E. Anderson, Travis R. Collings, Sherry A. Mueller, James C. Ball, Timothy J. Wallington
Abstract An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1085
Todd Brewer, Cagri Sever, Ruichen Jin, Michael Herr, Xingfu Chen, Reda Adimi
Abstract In a separate SAE paper (Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance), cylinder head high cycle fatigue (HCF) analysis approach and damage calculation method were developed and presented. In this paper, the HCF damage calculation method is used for risk assessment related to customer drive cycles. Cylinder head HCF damage is generated by repeated stress alternation under different engine operation conditions. The cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE process can be used as a transfer function to translate engine operating conditions to cylinder head damage/life. There are many inputs, noises, and design parameters that contribute to the cylinder head HCF damage CAE transfer function such as cylinder pressure, component temperature, valve seat press fit, and cylinder head manufacturing method. Material properties and the variation in material properties are also important considerations in the CAE transfer function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1086
Cagri Sever, Todd Brewer, Scott Eeley, Xingfu Chen, Ruichen Jin, Emad Khalil, Michael Herr
Abstract For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes through many different operating conditions such as cold start, through warm up, peak power, and intermediate cycles. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Cylinder heads having an integrated exhaust manifold are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer/bench thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. The bench test was used to verify the TMF analysis approach.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0883
Mitsuhiro Soejima, Yasuo Harigaya, Toshiro Hamatake, Yutaro Wakuri
Abstract It is effective in engine fuel economy to reduce the viscous friction by applying lubricating oil with low viscosity. The lower viscosity such as SAE0W20, however, increase lubricating oil consumption, LOC. In addition, it has become urgent to reduce the LOC because the emission of the sulfide ash, phosphorous and sulfur contents degrades the diesel particulate filter and the de-NOx catalyst, in addition to which the emission of metal oxide contents from oil additives can cause pre-ignition in highly supercharged spark ignition engines. In order to clarify the LOC mechanism of low viscosity oils, the LOC rates were measured with a supercharged diesel engine under various operating conditions when lubricated with SAE30 or SAE10W30 test oil, and the resulting data have been compared with the rates of the evaporation from the oil-film on the cylinder wall, LOE, as predicted by the devised analysis method for multi-species component oils.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 16433