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Viewing 61 to 90 of 16604
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2224
Paul Freeland, Gareth Jones, Rong-Sheih Chen, Liang-Wei Huang, Marwan El-Kassem, Roland Kaiser
REVISED ABASTRACT 4/7/2017 The challenges of maintaining continuous improvements in air quality, manage the earth’s energy resources, and to control atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, whilst supplying ever increasing global sales volumes mean that ever more detailed understanding and optimisation of powertrain systems is required. Downsizing, electrification and traffic flow management all have very important parts to play in achieving these goals, but can still only modify the outputs of the basic propulsion units, and methods to improve the efficiency, cleanliness and flexibility of powertrains remains a vital development requirement. The paper explores the fuel consumption benefits available from de-throttling technologies that can help to bring gasoline engine efficiency on a par with that of diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2264
Hyun Woo Won, Alexandre Bouet, Joseph Kermani, Florence Duffour, Simon Dosda
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low RON gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different Cetane Number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine. The purpose of this paper is to assess different airpath and after treatment system (ATS) definitions to maximize the potential of a low-RON gasoline fuel running on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2275
Chen Yang, Weixin li, Jiandong Yin, Yuan Shen
Abstract: In order to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations and reduce fuel consumption, development of modern powertrain is becoming more complicated, combining many advanced technologies. Gasoline engine downsizing is already established as a proven technology to reduce vehicle fleet CO2 emissions. Compressed natural gas (CNG) offers increased potential to further reduce both tailpipe CO2 and other regulated exhaust gas emissions without compromising driving performance. In this study, a turbocharged CNG port fuel injection (PFI) engine was developed based on gasoline version. Making most use of positive fuel properties of CNG, the paper quantifies the performance characteristics of downsized CNG engine considering reduced knock sensitivity, adaption of compression ratio and combustion efficiency. While peak cylinder pressure was controlled below 120bar, peak torque 180Nm, same level as gasoline variant, was realized from 3000rpm.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2353
Bernardo Tormos, Leonardo Ramirez, Guillermo Miró, Tomás Pérez
Attending the oncoming licensing of API F4K oil category for Heavy duty Vehicles, which main objective is to embrace the opportunity to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions lowering the High Temperature High Shear (HTHS) oil viscosity a fleet test was performed during 2016 in a fleet of urban buses in the city of Valencia. This paper describes the results of a comparison test where the effect of the use of API FA4 like engine oils are used to measure their fuel consumption benefits over the fleet. The aim was to verify and quantify the theoretical benefits in terms of fuel consumption in Heavy Duty applications. The study was performed using 48 urban buses which include diesel and CNG models of the city of Valencia. These buses were divided in two groups; a control and a test group, using regular oils and API FA4. The fuel consumption of buses was calculated with distance and refueling.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2351
Bernardo Tormos, Guillermo Miró, Leonardo Ramirez, Tomás Pérez
Low viscosity engine lubricants (LVO) are considered a possible solution for improving fuel economy in ICE. So, the aim of this study was to verify experimentally the performance of low viscosity lubricants regarding engine wear, since the use of LVO could imply unwanted wear performance. Potential higher wear could result in a reduction in life cycle for the ICE, a non-desired effect. In addition, currently limited data are available regarding “real-world” performance of LVO in a real service fleet. In this particular case, there were included out-of-specifications oils in terms of HTHS dynamic viscosity, where low viscosity was considered (3.0 cP), making this test highly interesting for industry.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
The impact of gasoline compositions to vehicle particular emission response have been widely investigated and documented with recently proposed so called Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN data has demonstrated correlations of the indices to vehicle response. In previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented. With increasing air pollution concern and ever stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenge. Emission control requires systematic approach on both fuel and vehicle. This paper will focus on China market gasoline on fuel’s sooting tendency. Additional China vehicle response with ranges of PEI fuels are presented. In addition to PEI index, other fuel properties in gums, final boiling, aromatics, and fuel detergency are also reviewed
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2183
Xiangfeng Yu, Shengcheng Li, Zhishuang Ma, Wei Du, Fengxiang Huang, Weijun Huang, Beiping Jiang
A reciprocating piston expander model based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is built for engine waste heat recovery. The expander characterizes by variable expansion ratio through adjusting refrigerant injection timing. This paper investigates the effect of refrigerant evaporating pressure, expansion ratio and clearance volume on the expander performance which mainly includes output power, expander efficiency, equivalent recovery efficiency, total output power, expander efficiency, weighted efficiency of expender and weighted heat recovery efficiency of expender. The results demonstrate that the total output power and the equivalent heat recovery efficiency increase with refrigerant evaporating pressure under overall operating conditions, while the increment is negligible. The expander reaches maximum total output power up to 83.442kW under c100 engine condition and 1.1MPa refrigerant evaporating pressure within the research operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2344
Robert Taylor, Hua Hu, Carl Stow, Tony Davenport, Robert Mainwaring, Scott Rappaport, Sarah Remmert
Future scenarios prepared by Shell anticipate that worldwide energy demand will approximately double by 2050, whilst at the same time, CO2 emissions need to be halved. Therefore, there is great pressure on improving efficiency of all machines, and clearly there is great focus on improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. The use of downsized, boosted, gasoline engines, can lead to exceptional fuel economy, and on a well-to-wheels basis, can give similar CO2 emissions to electric vehicles (depending, of course, on how the electricity is generated). A study is reported on a low weight Shell concept car, equipped with a three-cylinder 0.6 litre gasoline engine, which has achieved over 100 miles per imperial gallon, in real world driving conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2464
Xinyou Lin, Chaoyu Wu, Qingxiang Zheng, Liping Mo, Hailin Li
The Range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV) is a complex nonlinear system. The control strategy of REEV can be affected by numerous parameters. Firstly, the Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy is proposed based on operation features of the RE-EV and combining with the optimal efficiency region of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired operation mode transition, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. Then,GA(Genetic algorithm) is implemented to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The SOC (State of Charge) and speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters combination is obtained based on this control strategy.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2352
Gongde Liu, Li Wang, Runxiang Zhang, Chao Yang, Tengfei Shao
Fuel economy, Emission regulation and extended oil drain intervals (ODI) are the three key driving forces for engine oil development. More and more attentions have been focused on long ODI diesel engine oil both from the domestic OEMs and oil suppliers, and the ODI was being periodically improved from a normal mileage of about 10k kilometers to 60k/80k/100k or even 120k kilometers just within several years on China market. Lots and lots of factors may affect the oil life including oil properties, engine technologies, after-treatment devices and engine working conditions and so on. While from the oil side, the main factors contribute to the oil drain intervals may be the oil nitration and oxidation, soot contamination, base number deterioration and sludge accumulation and etc. There are two strategies to extend the oil longevity applied currently.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2195
Mei Wang, Xianyin Leng, Zhixia He, Shengli Wei, Liang Chen, Yu Jin
The spark-ignited pre-chamber stratified combustion system is one of the most effective way to expand lean-burn ability and improve the performance of a natural gas engine. For these pre-chamber engine, the geometrical structure of orifices between the pre- and main chamber play a significant role on the gas flow and flame propagation behaviors. The present study aims at investigating the effects of the orifice number and diameter on the combustion characteristics for a Shengdong T190 engine. Various geometrical structure for pre-chamber orifices were designed, offering variations in the number of orifices (2 to 6), and in the diameter of orifices (1.66mm to 4.98mm). A non-dimensional parameter β was employed to characterize the relative flow area of the orifices in the design. CFD simulations of combustion processes for these designs were carried out using a simplified chemical reaction kinetic model for methane.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2331
Amar Deep, Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability and better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of inedible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and reduction of biodiesel production cost etc. lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as diesel fuel. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2359
Yaodong Hu, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with P2 configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption test methods and its limits of the third stage will be introduced and explained in detail. Then, the quasi static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC cycle are built.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2437
Renjith S, Vinod Kumar Srinivasa, Umesh Venkateshaiah
The jet lubrication method is extensively used in the constant mesh high performance transmission system operating at range of speeds though it affects mechanical efficiency through spin power loss. The lubrication jet has a key role to maintain the meshing gears at non-fatal thermal equilibrium by effectively dissipating the heat generated to the surrounding. Heat Transfer coefficient (HTC) is the indicator of the thermal behavior of the system, which provides great insight of efficient lubrication system that needs to be employed for prescribed type of transmission. 1D and 3D simulations are of countless value in optimizing the automotive power train transmission system performance parameters. Thermal performance prediction of the jet lubricated transmission system through 3D CFD analysis is quite comprehensive task compared to 1D analysis. Both 1D and 3D methods complement each other to great extent in design process and one such exercise is demonstrated in the current activity.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2318
Xiaoxu Jia, Zhong Huang, Dehao Ju, Zhen Huang, Xing-cai Lu
Combustion instability often occurs inside the combustion chamber of aerospace engine. Almost every rocket engine using liquid fuel suffers combustion instability problem during R&D process. High frequency pressure oscillation inside the combustor, categorically those higher than 1kHz, can lead severe vibration to engine component and cause significant engine damage in a very short time. Dealing with this problem is one of the main subjects while developing rocket engine with superior stability and reliability. Fuel atomization and evaporation, one of the controlling processes of combustion rate, is an important mechanism of the combustion instability. To decrease and control the combustion instability, it challenges a deep understanding of the underlying mechanism of fuel atomization and evaporation process. In this paper, acoustic field was established to simulate the pressure fluctuation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2323
Lei Li, Kai Sun, Jianyu Duan
Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies in flames and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol). However, the impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines has not been reported. This work examined the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends at steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at the blend ratio 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels were set to obtain the maximum break torque, i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results showed that the particle number concentration could be reduced significantly with the increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2340
Shashank Mishra, Anand Krishnasamy
Owing to a rapid rise in global energy demand in various sectors including power, agriculture and transport, there is a tremendous increase in demand for conventional diesel fuel. Biodiesel are emerging as renewable alternative to diesel with better emission characteristics (except nitric oxides). The biodiesel could be produced from various feedstock including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their fatty acid methyl ester composition and physico-chemical properties and thereby, engine performance and emissions. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations in conjunction with changes in engine load and injection timings are captured using a multi-linear regression model which is applied to predict performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2289
Chunze Cen, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee, Shuxin Hao, Fushui Liu, Yikai Li
Droplets impacting onto the heated surface is a typical phenomenon either in CI engines or in GDI SI engines, which is regarded significant for their air-fuel mixing. Meanwhile, alcohols including ethanol and butanol, has been widely studied as internal combustion engine alternative fuels due to their excellent properties. In this paper, under different component ratio conditions, the ethanol-butanol droplet impacting onto the heated aluminum surface has been studied experimentally. The falling height of the droplets were set at 5cm. A high-speed camera, set at 512×512pixels, 5000 fps and 20 μs of exposure time,was used to visualize the droplet behavior impinging onto the hot aluminum surface. The impact regimes of the binary droplet were identified. The result showed that the Leidenfrost temperature of droplets was affected by the ratio of ethanol to butanol. The higher the content of butanol in the droplet, the higher the Leidenfrost temperature.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2294
Julien Gueit, Jerome Obiols
Abstract In order to be ever more fuel efficient the use of Direct Injection (DI) is becoming standard in spark ignition engines. When associated with efficient turbochargers it has generated a significant increase in the overall performance of these engines. These hardware developments lead to increased stresses placed upon the fuel and the fuel injection system: for example injection pressures increased up to 400 bar, increased fuel and nozzle temperatures and contact with the flame in the combustion chamber. DISI injectors are thus subjected to undesirable deposit formation which can have detrimental consequences on engine operation such as reduced power, EOBD (Engine On Board Diagnostics) issues, impaired driveability and increased particulate emissions. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of DI spark ignition engines to fuel-related injector deposit formation, a new engine test procedure has been developed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2303
Yan Wang, Xudong Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yong Wang, Guoxiu Li, Yusong Yu
Abstract Fuel spray impingement is a common phenomenon during the combustion processes of a DI diesel engine. When liquid droplets impinge on the hot surface of a combustion chamber, a complex heat transfer and mechanical interaction occur between the droplets and combustion chamber. This probably changes the surface topography and microstructure of the impact position. Based on the experimental method, the fuel spray phenomenon and conditions of a surface pit caused by droplet impingement were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the surface pit is formed under specific conditions, i.e., a specific droplet diameter and surface temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of the pit area shows that the microstructure of the pit changed from an original dense and smooth surface to a loose structure. The microstructure of the pit did not show a molten state. The concentration of metal and nonmetallic elements in the pit area changed significantly.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2257
Linjun Yu, Yanfei Li, Bowen Li, Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Xin He, Shi-jin Shuai
This study compares the combustion and emission performance of gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) in a single-cylinder, intake-boosting and water-cooling diesel engine with a compression ratio of 16.7. The test fuel was commercial gasoline in China with RON of 92, and intake pressure varied from 0.16 to 0.21 MPa, while Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) was fixed at 1.0 MPa. Both the knock limit and misfire limit of gasoline HCCI were studied. The results showed that Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) was observed before High Temperature Heat Release (HTHR) in gasoline HCCI, and the LTHR accounted for less than 10 percent of total heat release. The knock limit and misfire limit of gasoline HCCI coincided when the intake pressure decreased to 0.16 MPa. Increasing the intake pressure helped to promote the Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) for both gasoline HCCI and MPCI.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2348
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the World have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist for improvement in fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to cost of implementation. One area that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Generally speaking, the impact of chemical additives such as friction modifiers (FMs) is to reduce friction in tribocouples which experience metal-to-metal contact. These conditions commonly occur in valvetrain contacts and between the piston rings and cylinder bore at Top Dead Center (TDC).
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2356
Hyun-Soo Hong, Christopher Engel, Brian Filippini, Sona Slocum, Farrukh Qureshi, Tomoya Higuchi
Due to strict government legislation around the world to control carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their detrimental effects on climate change, improving fuel economy has become a major consideration in vehicle design. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have started using lower viscosity oils as engine, transmission and axle lubricants. For example, North American heavy duty OEMs started moving away from high viscosity SAE 75W-140 axle oils in the past decade, and now most OEMs use lower viscosity SAE 75W-90 as fuel efficient axle oils. OEMs also demanded an extended drain interval to address their customer’s needs. These trends forced the lubricant industries to use Group III and/or Group IV base oils in axle oils. Group II base oils have higher traction coefficients in comparison to group III and group IV base oils. Higher traction can lead to higher operating temperatures, which can impact fuel economy and oxidation performances of axle oils.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2346
Hong Liu, Jiajia Jin, Hongyu Li, Kazuo Yamamori, Toyoharu Kaneko, Minoru Yamashita, Liping Zhang
According to the Toyota gasoline engine oil requirements, this paper describes that the low viscosity engine oil of 0W-16 has been developed jointly by Sinopec and Toyota,which also conforms to the Toyota specification. As we know, the development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but shear stability and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property should be taken into consideration. The main elements content in the formulation was determined according to the results of Toyota’s previous LSPI research and the initial 0W-16 engine oil had passed Toyota LSPI test. Based on all above, viscosity index improver (VII) with better friction reduction property was selected by the Mini-traction Machine (MTM) and the High-frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) tests.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2343
Nicolas Champagne, Nicolas Obrecht, Arup Gangopadhyay, Rob Zdrodowski, Z Liu
The oil and additive industry is challenged to meet future automotive legislations aimed at reducing worlwide CO2 emissions levels. The most efficient solution used to date has been to decrease oil viscosity leading to the introduction of new SAE grades such as SAE 0W-8. However this solution may soon reach its limit due to potential issues related to wear with lower engine oil viscosities. In this paper, an innovative solution is proposed that combines the use of a new tailor-made polyalkylene glycol with specific anti-wear additives. Valvetrain wear measurements using radionuclide technique demonstrates the robustness of this solution. The wear performance was also confirmed in normalized GF-5 testings. An extensive tribological evaluation (film formation, wear testing and tribofilm surface analysis) of the interactions between the base oil and the anti-wear additives lead us to propose an underlying mechanism that can explain this performance benefit.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2341
Kongsheng Yang, Kristin A. Fletcher, Jeremy P. Styer, William Y. Lam, Gregory H. Guinther
Countries from every region in the world have set aggressive fuel economy targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To meet these requirements, automakers are using combinations of technologies throughout the vehicle drivetrain to improve efficiency. One of the most efficient types of gasoline engine technologies is the turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The market share of TGDI engines within North America and globally has been steadily increasing since 2008. TGDI engines can operate at higher temperature and under higher loads. As a result, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have introduced additional engine tests to regional and OEM engine oil specifications to ensure performance of TGDI engines is maintained. One such engine test, the General Motors turbocharger coking (GMTC) test (originally referred to as the GM Turbo Charger Deposit Test), evaluates the potential of engine oil to protect turbochargers from deposit build-up.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2336
Tanjin He, Hao-ye Liu, Yingdi Wang, Boyuan Wang, Hui Liu, Zhi Wang
Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether (PODEn) is a promising green additive to diesel fuel, owing to the unique chemical structure (CH3O[CH2O]nCH3, n≥2) and high cetane number. Together with the general wide-distillation fuel (WDF), which has an attractive potential to reduce the cost of production of vehicle fuel, the oxygenated WDF with PODEn can help achieve a high efficiency and low emissions of soot, NOx, HC, and CO simultaneously. In this paper, the first detailed reaction mechanism (225 species, 1082 reactions) which can describe the ignition characteristics of PODE1 and PODE3 at low temperature was developed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2400
Yanlong Wu, Jason Ferns, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuels have potential to provide reduced carbon footprint in diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion performance including ignition delay and heat release, and particulate number emissions including size segregated values. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A 3 litre direct injection intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW and is EURO5 emission compliant. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2295
Ahmad Omari, Stefan Pischinger, Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum, Jukka Nuottimäki, Markku Honkanen
Abstract The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 16604