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Viewing 31 to 60 of 16538
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vectors used in the transport sector but these fuels associated to CI engines are nowadays often criticized. Nevertheless, engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants. CI engines, with gasoline-like fuels, are a promising way for NOx and particulates emission abatement while keeping lower CO2 emission. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigations of pollutants are mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied the behavior of low RON gasoline soot generated with a CI engine. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of such fuel/engine technology on the HC emissions and on the DOC behavior. HC speciation is performed upstream and downstream DOC. Warm-up and efficiency are also tested for different operating conditions. Then, exothermal capacities are considered to ensure high level of temperature for DPF regeneration.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2423
Xiaoming Ye, Yan Fu, Wei Li, Yuze Jiang, Shixin Zhu
Crankshaft main bearing is the key component of internal combustion engine(ICE), which is used to support the movement of crank link mechanism and realize the conversion of energy. The lubrication performances and wear life of the crankshaft main bearing will directly affect the working efficiency and reliability of ICE. Therefore, it is very important to study the lubrication performances of the crankshaft main bearings. In this paper, a 16V marine diesel engine was studied as the research object. Based on the AVL-Designer software platform, the crank link mechanism dynamics model and the main bearing fluid lubrication numerical model were established. Numerical analysis was carried out on the lubrication performances of the crankshaft main bearings under different rotating speed conditions. The stress state, the maximum oil film pressure, the minimum oil film thickness, the axis orbit and other lubrication performance parameters were obtained from the results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2422
Na Li, Fenlian Huang, Yuhua Bi, Yueqiang Xu, Lizhong Shen, Dewen Jia
The assembly of connecting rod bearing and crankpin is a key friction pair which offers an important guarantee for stable operation of diesel engine. Specific to the non-road 2-cylinder diesel engine developed independently and based on the theory of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication as well as multi-body dynamics, this paper establishes a multi-body dynamics model for connecting rod bearing of the 2D25 horizontal diesel engine and makes a research on the influence of bearing width, bearing clearance, and oil inlet position and diameter upon lubrication of connecting rod bearing, taking into consideration that of the surface appearance of bearing bush and the elastic deformation of bearing bush and axle journal upon the same. Research results show that bearing width and bearing clearance are the major factors that influence lubrication characteristics of connecting rod bearing while oil inlet position and diameter only have a small influence on such characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2457
Rickard Arvidsson, Tomas McKelvey
A two dimensional Forward Dynamic Programming algorithm is evaluated in a series hybrid drive-train with the objective to minimize fuel consumption when look ahead information is available. The algorithm is compared to one dimensional approaches where the engine is operated at it’s optimum efficiency line in sustain with load following power demand, or with constant load in the optimum operating point where the system efficiency is highest. The work have included the engine speed target and generator power as control signals in a full drive train simulation model which is based on the Volvo Car Corporation VSIM tool. Lowest fuel consumption is obtained by the two dimensional approach, with 12% less fuel consumed in fuel consumption for the drive cycle analyzed compared to when the engine is operated at the maximum efficiency and even more fuel could be gained compared to the load following approach.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1990
Xiangyu huang, Hao Zhou
The most important role of V2X technology is to significantly enhance driving safety. This paper proposes an omnidirectional collision warning method based on vehicle to vehicle communication. The warnings are divided into two categories: forward collision warning (FCW) for vehicles moving in the same direction and cross collision warning (CCW) for vehicles moving in different directions. With the Basic Safety Message (BSM), the driving states of vehicles which communicate with host vehicle can be obtained. For vehicles which moves in the same direction, the lateral offset of the two vehicles, the time to collision (TTC) and time headway (THW) are used to estimate forward collision risk. For vehicles which moves in different directions, time to the closest point approach (TCPA) model and the separating axis theorem (SAT) are used for cross collision detection.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2013
Zhe Xu
The rapid development of connected vehicle technology provides a promising platform for traffic monitoring and traffic data collection. In connected vehicle environment, the vehicles equipped with wireless communication devices can transmit vehicle safety messages to other connected vehicles and the Roadside Unit (RSU). The trajectory information in the safety message may provide potential usage for traffic states estimation. Over the last few years, the applications of a macroscopic traffic flow model, the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) has attracted increased attention. However, the detection of MFD remains a challenging task even with probe vehicle data from mobile GPS, Bluetooth, and cellphone sensors. This paper explores a potential method of observing the MFD through Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) connected vehicle data.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1983
Bing Zhu, Shude Yan, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng, Ning Bian
Electric power steering system (EPS) is a kind of dynamic control system for vehicle steering, which can amplify the driver steering torque inputs to the vehicle to improve steering comfort and performance, but the present EPS can’t cater to the driving habits of different people. In this paper, a personalized EPS controller is designed based on the driver behavior, which combines real-time driver behavior identification strategy with personalized assistance characteristic curve. Firstly, the driver behavior data acquisition system is designed and established, based on which, the input data of different kinds of drivers along with vehicle signals are collected under typical working conditions, then the identification of driver usage modes on line is realized using the BP neural network.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2017
Catherine Ninah, Brian Strevens, Cole Barcia, Isabelle Labbe, Michael Frenna, Austin Faulconer, Keon Habbaba, Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Alexa Frost, Andrew Foran, Robert Brown, Luis Rabelo
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainability of civilization on the planet Mars. Our research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still a mystery to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software called Simio, the research team has been able to replicate the fuel production process on Mars.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2022
Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Andrew Foran, Catherine Ninah, Khristopher Bandong, Robert Brown, Hunter Heston, John-Paul Steed, William Young, Mark Heinrich, Luis Rabelo
The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an un-manned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2028
Steven Nolan, Patrick Norman, Graeme Burt, Catherine Jones
Turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) for aircraft allows for the complete redesign of the airframe so that greater overall fuel and emissions benefits can be achieved. Whilst conventional electrical power systems may be used for smaller aircraft, much larger aircraft are likely to require the use of superconducting electrical power systems to enable the required whole system power density and efficiency levels to be achieved. The TeDP concept requires an effective electrical fault management and protection system. However, the fault response of a superconducting TeDP power system and its components has not been well studied to date, limiting the effective capture of associated protection requirements. For example, with superconducting systems it is the possible that a hotspot is formed on one of the components, such as a cable. This can result in one subsection, rather than all, of a cable quenching.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2032
Nisha Kondrath
Efficient, small, and reliable dc-dc power converters with high power density are highly desirable in applications such as aerospace and electric vehicles, where battery storage is limited. Bidirectional full-bridge (FB) dc-dc converters are very popular in medium and high-power applications requiring regenerative capabilities. Full-bridge topology has several advantages such as: • Inherent galvanic isolation between input and output and high conversion ratio due to the transformer with a turns ratio n. • Reduction in passive component sizes due to the increase in inductor current frequency to twice the switching frequency. • Reduced voltage stresses on the low-voltage side switches and current stresses on the high-voltage side switches. However, due to the high number of switches, device losses increase.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2031
Nisha Kondrath, Dalvir Saini, Nathaniel Smith
In aerospace applications, it is important to have efficient, small, affordable, and reliable power conversion units with high power density to supply a wide range of loads. Use of wide-band gap devices, such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) devices, in power electronic converters is expected to reduce the device losses and needs for extensive thermal management systems in power converters, as well as facilitate high-frequency operation, thereby reducing the passive component sizes and increasing the power density. A novel hybrid SiC-GaN based full-bridge dc-dc buck converter with improved efficiency for high power applications will be presented in this paper. With the current device manufacturing technology, GaN devices can only handle breakdown voltages up to 650 V, while SiC devices can handle up to 1200 V. GaN devices exhibit remarkable switching performance compared to SiC devices.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2037
Daniel Schlabe, Dirk Zimmer, Alexander Pollok
The thermal inertia of aircraft cabins and galleys is significant for commercial aircraft. The aircraft cabin is controlled by the Environment Control System (ECS) to reach, among other targets, a prescribed temperature. Allowing a temperature band of e.g. 2 K around the prescribed temperature, it is possible to use the cabin dynamics as an energy storage. This storage can then be used to reduce electrical peak power, increase efficiency of ECS, reduce thermal cooling peak power, or reduce engine offtake if it is costly or not sufficiently available. In the same way, also the aircraft galleys can be exploited. Since ECS and galleys are among the largest consumers of electrical power or bleed air, there is a large potential on improving energy efficiency or reducing system mass to reduce fuel consumption of aircraft. This paper investigates different exploitation strategies of cabin and galley dynamics using modelling and simulation.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2035
Eric C. Bauer, Nima Niassati, John Brothers, John Troth, Jeff Hensal, Jin Wang, Daniel Schweickart, Dennis Grosjean
As applications in aerospace, transportation and data centers are faced with increased electric power consumption, their dc operating voltages have increased to reduce cable weight and to improve efficiency. Electric arcs in these systems still cause dangerous fault conditions and have garnered more attention in recent years. Arcs can be classified as either low impedance or high impedance arcs and both can cause insulation damage and fires. Low impedance arcs release lots of energy when high voltage becomes nearly shorted to ground. High impedance arcs can occur when two current-carrying electrodes are separated, either by vibration of a loose connection or by cables snapping. The high impedance arc decreases load current due to a higher equivalent load impedance seen by the source. This complicates the differentiation of a high impedance arc fault from normal operation.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2034
Bailey Hall, Benjamin Palmer, Tyler Milburn, Luis Herrera, Bang Tsao, Joseph Weimer
Future aircrafts will demand a significant amount of flight critical electrical power to drive the primary flight control surfaces. These electrical architectures will need to meet the load requirements and provide power to the flight critical buses at all times. For this to happen, a fast, resilient, and autonomous control scheme is needed. In this presentation, formal methods and linear temporal logic are used to develop a contactor control scheme to meet the given specifications of an electrical power system. The resulting control strategy is able to manage multiple contactors during different types of generator failures, while ensuring that flight critical buses maintain power. To verify the feasibility of the proposed control scheme, a real-time simulation platform is developed. Capability to test the control strategy, along with any future versions, was implemented with a microprocessor and analog/digital I/O’s (Hardware in the Loop).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2135
Alex Thirkell, Rui Chen, Ian Harrington
Electrification of aircraft is on track to be a future key design principal due to the increasing pressure on the aviation industry to significantly reduce harmful emissions by 2050 and the increased use of electrical equipment. This has led to an increased focus on the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft, including fuel cells. These alternative power sources could either be used to provide propulsive power or as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Previous studies have considered isolated design cases where a fuel cell system was tailored for their specific application. To accommodate for the large variation between aircraft, this study covers the design of an empirical model, which will be used to size a fuel cell system for any given aircraft based on basic design parameters. The model was constructed utilising aircraft categorisation, fuel cell sizing and balance of plant sub-models.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2136
Almuddin Rustum Sayyad, Pratik Salunke, Sangram Jadhav
The objective of this work is to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection single cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTHE), Hydro carbons (HC) and Carbon dioxide (CO2). For this investigation, we used Simarouba Biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel which possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be combined with the diesel fuel in the form of blends. For this investigation four levels and four parameters were selected viz. Injection Pressure (IP), Fuel Fraction (FF), Compression Ratio (CR) and Injection Timing (Before TDC). Taguchi Method is used for minimizing the number of experiments and Multiple Regression Analysis is used to find the optimum condition. Three outputs variables such as; Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTHE), content of HC particles and CO2 in the emission are measured and considered its influence on CI Engine performance.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2137
Dnyaneshwar V. Kadam, Sangram D. Jadhav
Vibration is the most considerable factor in dynamics of machinery. Vibration causes unfavorable effects on engine components and may reduce the life of engine. The conventional fossil fuel sources are limited in the world. The dependency on diesel should be reduced by using biodiesel as an alternative fuel in next few years. The input parameters are affected on engine performance and emission. The present study mainly focuses on an optimization of vibrations, performance and emission using Taguchi and multiple regression analysis for biodiesel as a fuel. The test was performed on single cylinder, four-stroke, diesel engine with VCR. Taguchi method is used to prepare the design of experiment of L16 array for minimizing number of experiments and multiple regression analysis for finding the best relationship between the input and output parameters. The selected input parameters are: fuel fraction, compression ratio, injection pressure and injection timing.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2033
Minh-khoa. Lam, Christopher Buterhaugh, Luis Herrera, Bang Tsao
In order to study the effects on the drive shaft connecting the generator and gearbox, a detailed model of the shaft with multiple degrees of freedom was developed. An accessory gearbox model was also included in order to simulate a more realistic load on the engine. The engine is modeled using NASA’s T-MATS (Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems) software. The dynamic Dual Spool High Bypass engine, model JT9D, was used for this study. A synchronous generator is connected to the high-pressure and low-pressure spool (one generator per spool). The overall system model is composed by the engine, the shaft, the gearbox, the generator, and the electric loads. The shaft is modeled through a direct connection between the generator and the engine. Lastly, the gearbox contains multiple different loads extracting power from the engine as well as the power losses associated with gears through friction and other means.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2026
Narayanan Komerath, Shravan Hariharan, Dhwanil Shukla, Sahaj Patel, Vishnu Rajendran, Emily Hale
Our concept studies have indicated that a set of reflectors floated at high altitudes and supported by aerodynamic lift, can reduce radiant forcing into the atmosphere. The cost of reducing the radiant forcing sufficiently to reverse the current rate of global warming, is well within the financial abilities of the world. This paper describes one of the concepts for such reflectors. The basic element of a reflector array is a rigidized reflector sheet towed behind and above a solar-powered, distributed electric-propelled fixed flying wing aircraft. The altitude rises above 30,480 meters (100,000 feet) in the daytime and does not sink below 28,288 meters (60,000 feet or Flight Level FL60) at night. While the reflector sheet easily supports its own weight with very small lift coefficient, the skin friction and induced drag components are large.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2036
William Schley
Of all aircraft power and thermal loads, flight controls can be the most challenging to quantify because they are highly variable. Unlike constant or impulsive loads, actuator power demands vary randomly. Some inherent nonlinearities complicate this even further. Actuation power consumption and waste heat generation are both sensitive to input history. But control activity varies considerably with mission segment, turbulence and vehicle state. Flight control is a major power consumer at times, so quantifying power demand and waste heat is important for sizing power and thermal management system components. However, many designers sidestep the stochastic aspects of the problem initially, leading to overly conservative system sizing. The overdesign becomes apparent only after detailed flight simulations become available. These considerations are particularly relevant in trade studies comparing electric versus hydraulic actuation.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2480
Roberto Dante PhD, ANDREA SLIEPCEVICH PhD, MARCO ANDREONI PhD, MARIO COTILLI lng
Tin sulfides (SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2, represent a safer and greener alternative to other metal sulfides such as copper sulfides, etc. Their behavior is usually associated to that of solid lubricants such as graphite. A mixture of tin sulfides, with Sn having different oxidation states, has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In order to investigate the effect of tin sulfides upon two crucial friction material ingredients, two mixtures were prepared: the former was made by mixing tin sulfides with graphite and the latter was made mixing tin sulfides with a straight novolak. They were analyzed by TGA and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in nitrogen air. Almost no interference was detected between tin sulfides and graphite in air since the thermal oxidation of the tin sulfides and that of graphite were separated by more than 200°C.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0116
Ekarong Sukjit, Pansa Liplap, Somkiat Maithomklang, Weerachai Arjharn
In this study, two oxygenated fuels consisting of butanol and diethyl ether (DEE), both possess same number of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atom but difference functional group, were blended with the waste plastic pyrolysis oil to use in a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification. In addition, the effect of castor oil addition to such fuel blends was also investigated. Four tested fuels with same oxygen content were prepared for engine test, comprising DEE16 (84% waste plastic oil blended with 16% DEE), BU16 (84% waste plastic oil blended with 16% butanol), DEE11.5BIO5 (83.5% waste plastic oil blended with 11.5% DEE and 5% castor oil) and BU11.5BIO5 (83.5% waste plastic oil blended with 11.5% butanol and 5% castor oil). The results found that the DEE addition to waste plastic oil increased more emissions than the butanol addition at low engine operating condition.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0099
Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows knock tendency reduction in spark-ignition engines mainly due to the cooling effect of the in-cylinder fuel evaporation. However, the charge formation and thus the injection timing and strategies deeply affect the flame propagation and consequently the knock occurrence probability and intensity. Present work investigates the tendency to knock of a GDI engine at 1500 rpm full load under different injection strategies, single and double injections, obtained delivering the same amount of gasoline in two equal parts, the first during intake, the second during compression stroke. In these conditions, conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine endowed of optical accesses to the combustion chamber.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0081
Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone
In recent years the use of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines has had a strong push coming from both technical and economic-environmental aspects. Among these, gaseous fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas have occupied a segment no longer negligible in the automotive industry, thanks to their adaptability, anti-knock capacity, lower toxicity of pollutants, reduced CO2 emissions and cost effectiveness. On the other hand, diesel engines still represent the reference category among the internal combustion engines in terms of consumptions. The possibility offered by the dual fuel (DF) systems, to combine the efficiency and performance of a diesel engine with the advantages offered by the gaseous fuels, has been long investigated. However the simple replacement of diesel fuel with natural gas does not allow to optimize the performance of the engine due to the high THC emissions particularly at lower loads.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0078
R. Vallinayagam, S. Vedharaj, Yanzhao An, Alaaeldin Dawood, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Junseok Chang, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Light naphtha is the light distillate from crude oil and can be used in compression ignition (CI) engines; its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5) enable adequate premixing. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha (LN) and its multicomponent surrogate under various start of injection (SOI) conditions. LN and a five-component surrogate for LN, comprised of 43% n-pentane, 12% n-heptane, 10% 2-methylhexane, 25% iso-pentane and 10% cyclo-pentane, has been tested in a single cylinder optical diesel engine. The transition in combustion homogeneity from CI combustion to homogenized charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was then compared between LN and its surrogate. The engine experimental results showed good agreement in combustion phasing, ignition delay, start of combustion, in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release between LN and its surrogate.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0082
Muhammad Umer Waqas, Nour Atef, Eshan Singh, Jean-Baptiste MASURIER, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The blending of ethanol with PRF (Primary reference fuel) 84 was investigated and compared with FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A gasoline surrogate which has a RON of 83.9. Previously, experiments were performed at four HCCI conditions but the chemical effect responsible for the non-linear blending behavior of ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A was not understood. Hence, in this study the experimental measurements were simulated using zero-dimensional HCCI engine model with detailed chemistry in CHEMKIN PRO. Ethanol was used as an octane booster for the above two base fuels in volume concentration of 0%, 2%, 5% and 10%. The geometrical data and the intake valve closure conditions were used to match the simulated combustion phasing with the experiments. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) was detected by performing heat release analysis.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0080
Ross Ryskamp, Gregory Thompson, Daniel Carder, John Nuszkowski
Abstract Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a form of dual-fuel combustion that exploits the reactivity difference between two fuels to control combustion phasing. This combustion approach limits the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and soot while retaining high thermal efficiency. The research presented herein was performed to determine the influences that high reactivity (diesel) fuel properties have on RCCI combustion characteristics, exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, and the operable load range. A 4-cylinder, 1.9 liter, light-duty compression-ignition (CI) engine was converted to run on diesel fuel (high reactivity fuel) and compressed natural gas (CNG) (low reactivity fuel). The engine was operated at 2100 revolutions per minute (RPM), and at two different loads, 3.6 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 6 bar BMEP.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0083
Hassan Khatamnejad, Shahram Khalilarya, Samad Jafarmadar, Mostafa Mirsalim, Mufaddel Dahodwala
Abstract RCCI strategy gained popularity in automotive applications due to lower fuel consumption, less emissions formation and higher engine performance in compared with other diesel combustion strategies. This study presents results of an experimental and numerical investigation on RCCI combustion using natural gas as a low reactivity premixed fuel with advanced injection of diesel fuel as a high reactivity fuel in a CI engine. An advanced three dimensional CFD simulation coupled with chemical kinetic developed to examine the effects of diesel injection timing, diesel/natural gas ratio and diesel fuel included spray angle on combustion and emissions formation in various engine loads and speeds, in a heavy duty diesel engine.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0085
Jesus Benajes, Antonio Garcia, Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Vicente Boronat
Abstract This work investigates the particulates size distribution of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, a dual-fuel concept which combines the port fuel injection of low-reactive/gasoline-like fuels with direct injection of highly reactive/diesel-like fuels. The particulates size distributions from 5-250 nm were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer at six engine speeds, from 950 to 2200 rpm, and 25% engine load. The same procedure was followed for conventional diesel combustion. The study was performed in a single-cylinder engine derived from a stock medium-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine of 15.3:1 compression ratio. The combustion strategy proposed during the tests campaign was limited to accomplish both mechanical and emissions constraints. The results confirms that reactivity controlled compression ignition promotes ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxides and smoke emissions in the points tested.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 16538