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Viewing 271 to 300 of 16427
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0256
Roman Liessner, Ansgar Dietermann, Bernard Bäker, Klaus Lüpkes
Abstract The reduction of fuel consumption as well as the rising demands of customers regarding a vehicle’s driving dynamic and the legislator’s continually rising demands are a current issue in vehicle development. Hybrid vehicles offer a possibility to rise to this challenge. Realistic driving cycles are of utmost importance for the calibration of a hybrid vehicle’s operational strategy. Deriving replacement speed cycles from extensive customer data sets seems to be an approach for solving these problems. The contribution at hand describes the derivation of replacement cycles by using stochastic models, probabilistic (weighted) drawings and a combinatorial optimisation. The novelty value is that the characteristic influences of all drivers are being considered in the generation due to the stochastic modelling.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0109
Suresh Babu Muttana, Rakesh Kumar Dey, Arghya Sardar
Abstract Battery Electric vehicles produce zero local emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. They open up possibility of efficient use of renewable energy in transport sector. India is endowed with high solar irradiance in most of the regions and seasons. Hence, tapping the solar energy for electrification of vehicles would be a sustainable solution in long run. Since significant amount of fossil fuels are consumed for public transportation, electrification of public transportation is a necessary step towards sustainability. However, range limitation is a serious constraint for electric buses. The technologies such as lightweight design of bus body and integration of solar panels on roof top of the bus can help in reducing the total energy consumption requirement.
2016-11-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9046
Johann Peer, Fabian Backes, Henning Sauerland, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract In the present work the benefit of a 50 MPa gasoline direct injection system (GDI) in terms of particle number (PN) emissions as well as fuel consumption is shown on a 0.5 l single cylinder research engine in different engine operating conditions. The investigations show a strong effect of injection timing on combustion duration. As fast combustion can be helpful to reduce fuel consumption, this effect should be investigated more in detail. Subsequent analysis with the method of particle image velocimetry (PIV) at the optical configuration of this engine and three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations reveal the influence of injection timing on large scale charge motion (tumble) and the level of turbulent kinetic energy. Especially with delayed injection timing, high combustion velocities can be achieved. At current series injection pressures, the particle number emissions increase at late injection timing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0012
Zhimin Lin, Kotaro Takeda, Yuki Yoshida, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0014
Amnon Eyal, Leonid Tartakovsky
Abstract A computer model was built and a theoretical analysis was performed to predict the behavior of a system containing Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine and a methanol reformer. The reformer utilizes the waste heat of the exhaust gases to sustain the two subsequent processes: dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) and water, and methanol steam reforming (SRM) where methanol and water react to mainly hydrogen, CO and CO2. Eventually, a gaseous mixture of DME, H2, CO, CO2, water (reused) and some other species is created in these processes. This mixture is used for the engine feeding. By adding water to the methanol and fixing the vaporized fuel's temperature, it is possible to manage the kinetics of chemical processes, and thus to control the products’ composition. This allows controlling the HCCI combustion.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0015
Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Michael Zisser, Paul Rieger, Christian Zinner, Stephan Schmidt
Abstract The hybrid-electric drivetrain permits a multitude of new control strategies like brake energy recuperation, engine start-stop operation, shifting of engine working point, as well as in some situations pure electric driving. Overall this typically allows a reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of carbon dioxide emissions. During the development process of the vehicle various drivetrain configurations have to be considered and compared. This includes decisions regarding the topology - like the position of the electrical machine in the drivetrain (e.g. at the gearbox input or output shaft), as well as the selection of the needed components based on their parameters (nominal power, energy content of the battery, efficiency etc.). To compare the chosen variants, typically the calculated fuel consumption for a given driving cycle is used.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0016
Maryam Sadeghi Reineh, Faryar Jabbari
Abstract This papers aims at using anti-windup augmentation to an existing high performance controller to increase the range of net-power that can be obtained from a solid oxide fuel cell. The power drawn by the fan/blower is kept limited by a software/controller enforced bound that acts similar to a saturation bound. Anti-windup augmentation is then used to ensure stability and recovery of performance. The be-havior of the controller, particularly the effects of the anti-windup loops on the second actuator (cathode inlet temperature), is then investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0002
Yuki Yoshida, Kotaro Takeda, Zhimin Lin, Masanori Yamada, Akira Iijima, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Hideo Shoji
Abstract Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0006
Ran Amiel, Leonid Tartakovsky
Abstract This paper provides an analysis of the effect of a flight altitude on knock occurrence in reciprocating SI turbocharged engines. It presents results of the computational study aimed at investigating reasons leading to knock occurrence and methods of alleviating the knock tendency of small aircraft engines. Turbochargers are frequently used to improve the performance of aviation platforms at high altitudes. Although a turbocharger provides the benefits of increased power, improved BSFC and a downsized engine, it can result in engine knock because of increasing the intake air temperature, due to a rise in the compression ratios as the air density drops. Aerial platforms experience environmental conditions that can change drastically in a matter of a few minutes. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the combined effects of altitude, initial ground temperature, humidity, flight velocity and fuel octane numbers on the emergence of knock following takeoff.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0005
Kotaro Takeda, Shimada Takashi, Yuki Yoshida, ZhiMin Lin, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Abstract In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0056
Qi-Jun Huang, Chia-Hong Chung, Yong-Fu Syu, Yuh-Yih Wu, Chao-Kai Li
Abstract Butanol is deemed as a potential alternative fuel for vehicle, but there are few studies about applying butanol in engine combustion. This paper focuses on application of butanol-gasoline blend fuel on scooter engine. In this research, different volume percentage of butanol-gasoline blend fuel, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are applied on 125cc scooter engine to conduct engine experiment, and higher than B60 blend fuel is declared as high butanol concentration blend fuel. The test conditions are set at 4000 and 6000rpm under partial load and full load. After executing engine experiment, engine performance, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), emissions and combustion analysis are discussed. Furthermore, viscosity and fuel spray are tested with high butanol concentration blend fuel. The engine experimental result shows that B100 fuels can increase engine performance under engine 4000 and 6000rpm.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0055
Carlos Alberto Romero, Luz Adriana Mejia, Yamid Carranza
Abstract A Design of experiments methodology was carried out to investigate the effects of compression ratio, cylinder head material, and fuel composition on the engine speed, fuel consumption, warm-up time, and emissions of a carbureted single cylinder air-cooled spark ignited engine. The work presented here is aimed at finding out the sensitivity of engine responses, as well as the optimal combination among the aforementioned parameters. To accomplish this task two cylinder heads, one made of aluminum and the second one of cast iron, were manufactured; an antechamber-type adapter for the spark plug to modify the combustion chamber volume was used. Ethanol/gasoline blends containing 10 and 20 volume percent ethanol were prepared. Engine performance was evaluated based on the changes in engine speed at idle conditions. The concentrations of CO2, CO, and HC in the exhaust were recorded.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0048
Garrett Parker, Stuart Bartley, Michael Nicholls
Abstract Two-stroke engine keep-clean data is presented to demonstrate the deposit removal capabilities of a premium fuel additive. In this testing, the fuel additive was added as a top-treatment to a 50:1 blended fuel-oil mixture. Engine testing was conducted on an EchoTM SRM-265 (25.4 cc) string trimmer run under a standardized test cycle. Test measurements included piston deposits, ring deposits, and exhaust port blockage. In addition, a more complete data set was analyzed and several variables were investigated including: different base gasoline fuels, ethanol level (E0 and E10), additive dose (none, low, and high), and fuel stabilizer dose (none and high). Post-test inspection of engine parts using fuel additives showed a high level of clean surfaces, which maintained the engine at its original performance.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0045
Joseph K. Ausserer, Marc D. Polanka, Jacob Baranski, Paul Litke
Abstract Small remotely piloted aircraft (10-25 kg) powered by internal combustion engines typically operate on motor gasoline, which has an anti-knock index (AKI) of >80. To comply with the single-battlefield-fuel initiative in DoD Directive 4140.25, interest has been increasing in converting the 1-10 kW power plants in the aforementioned size class to run on lower AKI fuels such as diesel and JP-8, which have AKIs of ∼20. It has been speculated that the higher losses (short circuiting, incomplete combustion, heat transfer) that cause these engines to have lower efficiencies than their conventional-scale counterparts may also relax the fuel-AKI requirements of the engines. To investigate that idea, the fuel-AKI requirement of a 3W-55i engine was mapped and compared to that of the engine on the manufacturer-recommended 98 (octane number) ON fuel.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0076
Rahul Sharma, Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam
Abstract The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on vehicle emissions was investigated in a spark ignited single cylinder carbureted vehicle meeting Bharat Stage III (BS III) emission norms. The effect of fuel blended with 10(E10) & 20(E20) percentage by volume of ethanol; was studied on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) as well as on Indian drive cycle (IDC) without any modifications on the vehicle. These cycles are simulation of real world driving conditions. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and increases leaning effect. It has been observed on IDC that addition of ethanol reduces CO up to 41%, THC emissions decreases by 9% and NOx reduces up to 12%. In WMTC Cycle, the CO reduces up to 32%, THC emission increases by 30%. NOx emissions on WMTC cycle decrease with the use of E10 by 6% while increase with the use of E20 by 7%.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0075
Srikanth Setlur, Satish Vemuri, Chithambaram Subramoniam, Rahul Sharma
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on Vehicular mass emissions was investigated on a spark ignited single cylinder closed loop fuel injected vehicle complying Euro III emission norms. Fuels blended with 10(E10) & 20(E10) percentage by volume of ethanol were taken up to study their effect on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) without any modification to the vehicle. The cycle is a simulation of real world driving conditions. In WMTC Cycle, maximum CO emissions were obtained with E10 fuel which showed an increase of 13%. THC emissions decreased by 10% and NOx emissions remained the same when the ethanol blend increases. Fuel economy decreases by 5% with use of E20 on the cycle.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0011
Keito Agui, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yuki Takamura, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Issues that must be addressed to make Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines a practical reality include the difficulty of controlling the ignition timing and suppression of rapid combustion under high load conditions. Overcoming these issues to make HCCI engines viable for practical application is indispensable to the further advancement of internal combustion engines. Previous studies have reported that the operating region of HCCI combustion can be expanded by using DME and Methane blended fuels.(1), (2), (3), (4), (5) The reason is that the reaction characteristics of these two low-carbon fuels, which have different ignition properties, have the effect of inducing heat release in two stages during main combustion, thus avoiding excessively rapid combustion. However, further moderation of rapid combustion in high-load region is needed to expand the operation region. This study focused on supercharging and use of blended fuels.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0092
Tomokazu Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Kosei, Sadaaki Ito, Satoshi Iijima
Abstract A variable cooling system has been developed for scooters equipped with an air cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder gasoline engine. This system opens or closes louver located at the cooling air inlet using an oil-temperature sensitive actuator. When the engine is cold or the engine load is low, the louver shut off the cooling air for a quick warm-up and for maintaining the engine oil temperature high to reduce the friction losses that occur with low oil temperature while eliminating the loss from driving the cooling fan as well. The quick warm-up also decreases supplementary fuel injections necessary when the engine is cold. Consequently, fuel economy improvement by 3.3% was realized in running condition of the Urban Driving Cycle.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0034
Stephan Jandl, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt, Ute Dawin, Armin Kölmel, Stefan Leiber
Abstract Worldwide increasing energy consumption, decreasing energy resources and continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to contribute to environmentally friendly propulsion systems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like ethanol, methanol and butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications yet, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of nonautomotive applications raise the need for specific research. A zero dimensional vaporization model has been set up to calculate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0036
Takamori Shirasuna, Ryoh Hatakeyama, Yukio Sakai
Abstract A simulation tool has been developed that can be used to estimate a fuel economy while driving in a mode test of a motorcycle equipped with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) at an early stage of development. For a precise estimation of a mode fuel economy, it is necessary to accurately estimate the CVT ratio, the engine speed, and the crankshaft torque during driving in a mode. To achieve this, this study has generalized the transmission efficiency of a CVT system. This study has also derived developed balance equations that can take into account the transmission efficiency of CVT and the slippage that occurs when the centrifugal clutch is about to be engaged. In the proposed method, the pulley ratio of CVT, the engine speed, and the torque at the crankshaft were obtained first by solving the developed balance equations at discrete times during driving in a mode.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0007
Kento Shimizu, Shuhei Takahata, Kenta Miura, Hideo Shoji, Akira Iijima, Toshimasa Utaka, Kazushi Tamura
Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
Abstract One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-10-28
Technical Paper
Fuels and Energy Sources
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0240
Guilherme Bastos Machado, José Eduardo Mautone Barros, Sérgio Leal Braga, Carlos Valois Maciel Braga
Abstract Gasoline is a complex mixture, composed of hundreds of different hydrocarbons. Surrogate fuels decrease the complexity of gasoline and are being used to improve the understanding of internal combustion engines (ICEs) fundamental processes. Computational tools are largely used in ICE development and performance optimization using simple fuels, because it is still not possible to completely model a commercial gasoline. The kinetics and interactions among all the chemical constituents are not yet fully understood, and the computational cost is also prohibitive. There is a need to find suitable surrogate fuels, which can reproduce commercial fuels performance and emissions behavior, in order to develop improved models for fuel combustion in practical devices, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and spark ignition (SI) engines. Representative surrogate fuels can also be used in fuel development processes.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0455
Walter Arens, Carlos Mendes, Rubens Mariano Junior
Abstract Anyone who already had the opportunity to ride a bike has experienced the benefits of a system operating at coasting: As soon as a certain velocity is reached, the biker stops pedaling and just coasts down, administering the kinetic energy to minimize his own energy consumption. The idea, inspired by biking, that it is possible to improve fuel economy just by adopting clever coasting strategies suggests also a very promising perspective in the automotive world and, as a matter of fact, is not a really “new” thing: It has already been explored in the past on several different vehicle models. Unfortunately it has not been able to establish itself “de facto” in the market, probably due to the difficulty in conciliating the available technical solutions of the time to the extensive list of requirements imposed by automotive industry.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0437
Gustavo de Carvalho Bertoli, Geraldo José Adabo, Gefeson Mendes Pacheco
Abstract A method for conceptual design of Solar Powered Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is presented. This method is based on traditional design methodology - wing loading estimation for preliminary sizing - modified for Solar Powered UAS case. Based on past works on Solar Powered UAS design, proposes a method that considers payload power consumption and therefore its impact on battery sizing. This battery sizing composes vehicle conceptual sizing equation. This method is useful for an assessment of Solar Powered UAS use in specific missions and serving as a start point for a more detailed design. A user interface was developed to automate the design process based on this method proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0515
Ana Carolina Rodrigues Teixeira, José Ricardo Sodré, Lilian Lefol Nani Guarieiro, Erika Durão Vieira, Fabiano Ferreira de Medeiros, Carine Tondo Alves
Abstract In a scenario with growing population, increasing demand for energy and volatile prices of fossil fuel, there is a high incentive for the use of biofuels, especially those produced from waste material. In this context, second and third generation bioethanol (2G/3G) are interesting alternatives, as they can be produced from different raw material such as corn and rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, waste from pulp industry and microalgae. This paper presents an overview of the available technologies for both 2G and 3G bioethanol production, including lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, biocatalysts and cogeneration processes.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0546
Charles C Conconi, Paula Manoel Crnkovic
Abstract Due to the need to replace fossil diesel in automotive engines, there is a growing demand for renewable fuels. However, to propose new fuels to be used efficiently and also, without causing damage to the environment, many studies are done. In this sense, the present study aims to evaluate two renewable fuels - farnesane and soybeam biodiesel - using the analytical technique DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) for determining the oxidative thermal degradation energy of these biofuels compared to fossil diesel (reference fuel for diesel engines). The importance of studying this parameter is due to the principle that the lower the energy of oxidative thermal degradation, the best feature of burning fuel. In addition, these fuels were also tested in diesel engine OM 926 LA Euro 5 using the ESC test - European Stationary Cycle in order to monitor their performance and emissions.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0110
João Rodolfo Januário, Thales Fillipe Policarpo de Oliveira, Felipe Debian Andrade, André Marcelino, Alex de Oliveira, José Ricardo Sodré
Abstract This paper presents the physical adjustments and the incorporation of a control system to injection, ignition and throttle valve parameters for operation of a diesel engine with 100% hydrous ethanol. The control system of the aforementioned parameters integrates three dependent subsystems. The control systems of the throttle valve opening, fuel injection and ignition timings have the purpose to reduce cylinder pressure, control engine speed and the combustion process. The signals generated depend on engine speed and knock sensors, which are operated by microcontrollers programmed in Assembly and C language. The measured parameters during engine operation are relative humidity, temperature in different engine locations, fuel consumption and intake air mass flow rate. The data collected are monitored by a software developed in LabVIEW platform. The software also controls the load applied at each engine operating condition.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0160
Alex de Oliveira, Osmano Souza Valente, José Ricardo Sodré
Abstract This study presents the effects of fuel blends containing 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of anhydrous ethanol in diesel oil with 20% of biodiesel (B20) on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine. The engine was tested with its original configuration and in the lower brake specific consumption region, at 1800 RPM. The results showed that in-cylinder peak pressure and heat release rate increased with the use of ethanol. The use of ethanol increased ignition delay and decreased exhaust gas temperature. Brake specific fuel consumption increased with ethanol addition, and fuel conversion efficiency was not affected. Increasing ethanol content in the fuel caused decreased carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 16427